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Vouchers : As a non-union actor you must receive 3 Taft-Hartleys as a background performer to become eligible to join SAG. Basically, 1 principal role Taft-Hartley = 3 background role Taft-Hartleys It seems to take people between 3 months and 5 years (I know) to blues hughes, obtain 3 vouchers The younger, hotter, and Essay more female you are, the better chance you have of weary blues hughes getting a voucher On a set, it is usually the 1st or 2nd AD (Assistant Director) who has the Kathy Buckley ability to what purpose ceiling?, give out Kathy Buckley Biography Essay vouchers (if they have any) I have heard of a large number of people who paid someone roughly $100 per weary blues langston hughes voucher. I personally hate the system that engenders this, but more on Kathy that later Affiliated Unions : If you are a member of what of a ceiling? one of SAGs sister unions (AEA, AFTRA, ACTRA, AGMA or AGVA) you are eligible to Buckley, join SAG one year after working a principal part through the sister union. This is a very brief, not super thorough overview. Weary Langston? Read the Brains of Minerva post for more in-depth coverage of this. Once you are eligible, you are free to join SAG at Kathy Biography Essay any time. Simply pony up $2,335 at tablets the time of this writing (thats including the minimum $58 in your first years annual fees) and youre a full-fledged SAG member. And yes, you can pay with Visa or Mastercard. Ok, so Ive been tracking down this answer for Biography, a long time and finally came to my senses and just called SAG for is the price ceiling?, clarification. Here goes

Once you receive a Taft-Hartley as a principle performer OR receive 3 Taft-Hartleys (vouchers) as a SAG background performer, you are eligible to join SAG and Biography can pay at what of a price ceiling? any time. If you choose not to join off the Kathy Essay bat, it works as follows: SAG Eligible Status : From the date you first become eligible, you then have 30 days to do as much SAG work as possible without having to Concept of Virtue in the, join the Kathy Essay union. OK 30 Status : After that 30 days, if you book another SAG job and they call to clear you in company analysis, time, you can be cleared for an additional 30 days to again do as much SAG work as possible without having to Essay, join. Company Analysis? At this point you are considered to have OK 30 status. Must Pay Status : After that 30 days, if and when you book another (ostensibly your third) SAG job, you then become a must pay. From the first work date of this (third) SAG job you have 5 business days to join.

Payment Plan : If you are an Buckley Biography, OK 30 or a must pay status, you are eligible for SAGs payment plan. The payment plan is 40% down on was abigail the total ($2,335) , and then 3 equal monthly installments of the balance. Note, if you are in Kathy Biography Essay, the midst of company your payment plan and book another SAG job, you must pay off the balance you owe in full before you can be cleared for another job. Station 12 Promise to Pay . If you are must pay status and you book another job but dont have the money, it is Buckley Biography Essay, possible if you are represented by a SAG-franchised agent to have them call in with a promise to pay for you, which clears you forand I didnt receive exact clarification on thislike one more week to what is the purpose ceiling?, pay. However, that agent can only have ONE person in a promise to pay status at any given time. Taft, who? Wasnt he that fat President? Wow, you really know your history. But I bet you didnt know that President Taft had a specialty bathtub installed in the White House for him. So what does this have to do with SAG? Absolutely nothing.

Taft-Hartley refers to the Taft-Hartley Act which is a law passed by Kathy Biography, Congress in analysis, 1947 relating to labor unions. Kathy? Without further boring you, what it means for company analysis, an actor is Kathy Buckley Essay, that if you get a Taft-Hartley you are then eligible to join SAG as mentioned above. Getting Taft-Hartleyed is rather difficult to accomplish, as a TV show or movie has to do a (minimal) paperwork and pay a (minimallike a few hundred dollars) fine to Taft-Hartley you. Fortunately for you, you can get Taft-Hartleyed by doing your own web video or webseries, and pay no fine. How to form a SAG signatory company for a web-based video project (and Taft-Hartley someone such as yourself) First of what purpose of a ceiling? all, know that SAG states you cannot use the following process simply to Taft-Hartley yourself or anyone else. Kathy Buckley Biography Essay? You must actually do a legitimate web project. (There are no listed requirements for tablets, what that entails, nor is there any stated way of Kathy Buckley Biography Essay them checking on this, but thats what they say.) What I explain below is how to create a SAG Signatory Company, which then produces your web video (or series). There is company, no cost to forming a Signatory Company through the Kathy Biography Essay New Media Agreement. When doing a project through SAG you are agreeing to abide by statistics, their rules, and to hire union (SAG) actors for your project, unless for some reason you are unable to find a SAG actor for a specific role (see the actual Taft-Hartley info below).

Brains of Kathy Essay Minerva has another incredible article on what this all means when doing a web project. You might also look over the FAQs for New Media Projects provided by of the in the Ethics Essay, SAG. Step 1: Preliminary info sheet. You must first fill out the Preliminary Info Sheet found on SAGs website. Along with that sheet, you must also turn in the following: Copy of the drivers license of the person submitting the Kathy form (whomever is going to be the Signatory company/primary contact) A line-item budget for the project A script for the project Be sure to designate how much you plan on is the price paying the actors There are no actual requirements for this, and you can indeed defer pay to Buckley Essay, actors.

However, you should know that SAG most assuredly would like to see that you plan to pay your actors somethingeven if its deferred payment If you decide to pay, say, $100/day deferred thats fine, you just need to stipulate when you would actually pay the actors Ex: You say we would pay the analysis actors 14 days after receiving any distribution money if you theoretically made money on the project at some point You need to indicate whether we want an Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, OPO (One Production Only) or Term Agreement OPO means you are only was abigail born doing one video, whereas a Term Agreement means you plan on doing more. OPO only obligates to do this single project through SAG, whereas a Term Agreement means you agree to do all future productions through SAG until the Buckley Biography Essay next round of statistics SAG contract negotiations (which generally happen every three years. Biography? While there is no official requirement, SAG definitely wants to see that you plan on An Ilustration Concept Nicomachean hiring at least some SAG actors for your project. Again, there is no actual requirement, but the more SAG actors you plan on using, the happier SAG will be. It generally takes 3 weeks or so to process this form. After it is processed, SAG will send you a a packet with the Buckley Biography Essay various forms youll need to complete your Signatory status and Concept Nicomachean Ethics carry out Kathy Buckley Essay your production. Step 2: The signatory packet. After you submit the preliminary info they will send you a large packet of information (that will also have the Taft-Hartley form) that you then fill out to officially form the SAG Signatory Company. Weary Hughes? Once that gets processed, youre good to go to Essay, begin filming your project. This packet is fairly self-explanatory.

A couple notes: It is not required that you form an LLC or separate entity to become a SAG Signatory Company. Were Adams Born? That is, an individual can effectively act as a SAG Signatory Company If you do not have a separate bank account for your production company you can skip the credit check section (though you do need to fill out the rest of that page) If this is a new project, you dont need to fill out the New Media Transfer of Kathy Buckley Biography Rights page. Once you submit this packet you will receive an email from SAG within a couple weeks with your SAG Signatory number as well as the SAG production number for your project. Pretty self-explanatory. The best advice I can give you: find an amazing DP (Director of Photography) and pay your sound guy. Poor sound makes a project seem incredibly unprofessional. There is weary blues hughes, some paperwork included with your signatory packet that you are required to fill out during your shoot. Be as thorough as possible. The Actual Taft-Hartley.

If you are planning to hire a non-union actor (such as yourself), then you submit the Kathy Buckley Biography Essay Taft-Hartley within 15 days of the non-union performer working on the project. Important Note : For the SAG New Media process outlined here, SAG does not have any fines for a Taft-Hartley, nor do they state anything that would keep one from having their Taft-Hartley go through. Ever wondered what the company actual Taft-Hartley looks like? Are you assuming its some monstrous 27-page packet? Well, look no further.

Here is the actual Taft-Hartley form. You might notice the Buckley Essay myriad ways one might qualify to be Taft-Hartleyed, including first employment of a person who has training/experience as a professional performer and intends to pursue a career as a motion picture performer. When filling out the contract type section on the Taft-Hartley, you might just write in ___ New Media. The performer who was Taft-Hartleyed will receive a letter in the mail from company analysis SAG in a few weeks indicating their eligibility to join SAG. Please know that if and when you produce your own project, there are a number of legal ramifications that you need to Essay, be aware of. What Purpose Of A Price Ceiling?? First of all, if you personally are listed as the SAG-Signatory producer when you fill out the Biography paperwork explained above, then you personally are legally responsible for everything that happens on your set. Someone breaks a leg, dies, scratches a Ferrariits all on weary blues you. Buckley Biography? As such, it might be wise to of a price, form an LLC or other legal entity that produces your project. In addition, there are myriad state and federal legal requirements when you produce something. Kathy Biography? For example, you can only work children for a certain number of hours, you need a permit to film anywhere (even on private property), you have to pay any workers the federal minimum wage (or the CA minimum wage of $8/hour if you film in California), and it is California state law that you need to have workmans comp insurance if you do a project. Entertainment Partners will actually provide you with workmans comp insurance for blues langston hughes, everyone on Kathy set if you go through them as your payroll company. Contact them for An Ilustration in the Nicomachean, pricing, but my understanding is that often it will only cost a couple hundred dollars, and then youre protected if something horrible happens.

Sure beats getting sued because Joe Actor decided to trip on the banana peel (hes sooo cliche) and hit his head on the dalmatian statue. Many people confuse these laws with annoying SAG requirements so they shoot non-union. The hoops and Kathy Buckley Biography Essay such that you must jump through with a SAG project are there to help you ensure that you are following all of the laws . Ive heard from a couple people that the is the purpose of a price ceiling? process described here is a loophole that SAG is planning to close (theyve also been saying theyre going to get rid of the voucher system for about a decade now). Biography Essay? I dont see how producing a new media project through SAG is a loophole, nor does it make sense to analysis, me that SAG would make it any more difficult to go through them for new media projects. Kathy Biography Essay? Moving picture entertainment is moving more and more online, and I can only think that SAG wants to was abigail adams born, be as much a part of Kathy Essay that as possible. If you have any further questions on what is presented here, I suggest you call the appropriate SAG department (full list here). New Media: (323) 549-6724. Membership: (323) 549-6757. I hope this has been helpful. If youre a rock star who is what is the price ceiling?, out there producing their own work, then you might as well take the next step and make it a legitimate SAG production.

When youre ready to upgrade from new media to actual film, Bonnie Gillespie has a great column on Buckley Biography becoming a SAG signatory for is the price, non-New Media projects. Happy filming! Ben Whitehair is the Los Angeles contingent of this blog. Find out more information and view his materials on his website, or read the rest of his blog posts. Thank you, this was very informative.

Great post, very informative. You Rock, my Friend! Real good information, I just filled out Buckley Biography Essay a form for my first Taft-Hartley. Great article but have a simple question. On T/H form under the where contract type, you say write in ____New Media What do we put on that blank line?

Sorry for being so dense. I think thats where you just put an x or a check mark. Question: I was just a principal performer in an Ultra Low Budget film with deferred pay. Kathy Buckley? Does that count as eligibility? Or do I still have a ways to go? It depends whether they submitted a Taft-Hartley for you or not. If its an analysis, Ultra Low Budget film through SAG, then they likely should haveI would call SAG and check if youre eligible. Hi and thanks for a great post. My question is, can I form a SAG Signatory Company if I am not an American?

I am a European citizen. Im not actually sureI would call SAG directly and double check with them about the Kathy Biography Essay rules on that. I just worked on a very big studio production, they Taft Hartleyed me, is company analysis, it possible that the production will pay for my dues? The idea is that with a big job that qualifies you for SAG that you would then have enough money to pay the union dues. I highly doubt they would pay for your dues, but I suppose your representation could askits pretty doubtful though. Does anyone know if this is still valid under the Kathy Buckley Biography new merger?

Has the merger had any effect on what of a price this at all? I havent looked into Kathy Buckley Biography Essay this post-merger. Has anyone else? Definitely something worth investigating. Hi! I got Taft-Hartleyed on weary blues a web project, but still havent received my letter from SAG regarding eligibility. I looked online at their site to see if Im eligible and Biography it says Im not. Invented? Can I keep booking SAG projects til I get my elibility letter, since the Kathy Buckley Biography 30 days starts the adams first day Im eligible to join? Or does it start when the papers are filed with SAG? If you havent received your letter thats probably not a good sign. The online eligibility checker, though, is Buckley Biography, not necessarily always up to were was abigail born, date, or in Kathy Buckley, my case my name was spelled wrong in were, their system so I didnt show up.

I would call SAG and check on your status. If they dont have you in their system, I would check with the Biography production that Taft-Hartleyed you and weary blues make sure the paperwork got submitted. Im not entirely sure, but I think the 30 days starts from the day you were on Kathy Essay set (thats the where invented day theyll have), but I would definitely double check with the SAG office to be sure. I recently produced and starred in my own web series. We just finished filming and the production is Buckley, currently in post-production. I Taft-Hartleyed myself, It seems that it still works under the new SAG-Aftra. At least my SAG rep told me I could T-H myself. Im wondering though. The contracts, paperwork, meal break schedule, and my T-H paperwork were Submitted about a week ago. How do I know when its official and Im SAGe? Do they send a letter?

How long does that usually take? Technically youre eligible from the day you do the what is the purpose job, though SAG might not process it for a little bit. If you needed to work another SAG job, they should be able to pull it up in their system. And they will send you a letter confirming your eligibility once everything is Kathy Essay, processed, though my recollection from when I did it is that it took at LEAST a few weeks before I got that letter. If you need to confirm for a job or something call them up, but you can certainly starting putting SAG-AFTRA-eligible on your resume. I just got booked for as a Principal performer for an SAG commercial. What do I do now to get Taft-Harleyed? Do I ask to speak with the assistant director at tablets statistics the shoot? Have my agency speak with them?

Thanks in advance. They should have the appropriate paperwork on Kathy Buckley set when you get there to fill out. Is The Price? However, I would have your agent double check to make sure theyre aware of your union status, and Buckley all set to T-H you. And if youre on set and things seem weird with union stuff, paperwork, etc. What Is The Purpose Price Ceiling?? call you agent ASAP. This is beautifully explained. Thank you so much! Thanks so much for Biography Essay, the article! Quick question.

Is it possible to be completely denied being Taft-Hartleyd? For example, say a movie company hires me and submits a Taft-Hartley form explaining why they chose me instead of a SAG-AFTRA member, but is company, denied because its not a good enough reason. Kathy Essay? Can they then pay the fine anyway to was abigail adams born, guarantee I can be Taft-Hartleyd and used? Just wondering if as long as you have the money, you can be Taft Hartleyd. Im sure its possible, but Ive never heard of it happening. What about financial core?

That means joining the Kathy Essay union then essentially backing out. Thats a whole other can of purpose ceiling? worms. My personal belief is that the unions are here to protect actors, and going fi-core harms that very purpose. To become eligible for Kathy Essay, SAG do the 3 T/H for background rolls for need to be from a SAG production, or not? Yes they need to be from langston hughes a SAG production. Thats the whole point. Any information as how this can work for an animated webseries? Only difference is drawing everything instead of filming it (and having voice actors instead of onscreen ones). Im not sure, I would check with SAG. My guess is it would be the samevoice acting is still covered under SAG guidelines. Hello, I was Taft-Hartley in a SAG commercial a few days later I recieved a letter and recieved a phone call came in Kathy Buckley, from SAG that if recieved my letter and then was asked to join I was suprised, Im in Houston where here in what is the purpose price, Texas its half of what you would pay if in Cali.

I was SAGe for a few years and now I just decided to join my agent wasnt to Buckley, happy, oh well Im happy ! Mike. Adams? Why wasnt your agent happy, because he couldnt submit you for non-union anymore? Thank you so much for Kathy Essay, this info. Was Photography Invented? SAGAFTRA has nothing about the Buckley OK30 status on their site and I almost turned down a gig thinking I was a must join. I called the LA office and where was photography sure enough I can still do it under the OK30 status. Thank you again!! I have a question regarding SAG Eligibility. If you put SAG Eligible on Kathy Biography Essay your resume, does that indicate to where was photography, the casting directors that you are SAG and you can do SAG jobs? Do they have to pay extra or fill out forms for you to work since technically you are still non-union? Or is Kathy Essay, it just like you are SAG and adams they treat it as such when considering you for jobs? SAGe is really the best place to be in many regards.

It indicates that you can work SAG jobs if hired (and they dont need to do any extra paperwork), and also that you can do non-union work. To be clear, though, you need to actually become SAG-eligible before putting it on your resume. So, its ok to put SAGe on your resume if your principal Taft-Hartley was turned into SAG but you havent received the letter yet? I would say yes. If you booked a union job, SAG would approve it if your taft-hartley has been submitted. Just learning about all this so excuse my ignorance my younger brother (21) has only Buckley done indie films to date, but now has been booked to company, work as a stand-in for the leading man in a pilot being filmed for one of the major pay-per-view networks. The job should last apprx 3 weeks. Will he be eligible to join SAG-AFTRA? If so, is Kathy Buckley Essay, there anything he needs to do once on tablets set? Would being SAG improve his chances of becoming a full time stand in if the Kathy Biography pilot is of the Essay, picked up?

It totally depends on whether or not the project is Kathy Buckley Essay, a union project. Being a stand-in for 3 weeks doesnt necessarily mean that it is. He would need to find out if the job is union, and weary blues langston hughes if so if hes going to get taft-hartleyed for it. I dont think him begin SAG would change his chances of becoming a full-time stand-in. Biography? Best thing to An Ilustration of Virtue, do there is be super easy to work with and Kathy Biography really nice to everyone on weary blues hughes set. Arent there many sag members who play in independent films or no? Im not sure what youre asking.

Yes, there are mostly certainly union actors who are in independent films. Most independent films though are done through the Buckley Essay union. The term independent just means they werent funded by analysis, a major studio. Thanks for the info Arent there sag actors that do independent films? Yes, there are indeed. Most independent films are still done through a SAG contract. Often the SAG low-budget, modified low-budget, or ultra low budget contracts. Hi!

I wrote and produced my own webseries under Sag New Media earlier this year and I submitted my Taft-Hartley as well as the other 2 non-union actors; however, my Taft-Hartley was denied due to my listing as not only the Biography Essay Principal Actor but as Casting Director. Invented? This is what the Biography supervisor, Kam Talbott, told me. The other non-union actors are now SAGe. Have you heard of this? What should I do? So bummed! Im sorry to hear about your situation. Blues Langston Hughes? I would call them back and Kathy Buckley Essay see if you can enroll them in were was abigail born, allowing your taft-hartley to go through. Wish I had a better idea. you said earlier you did the process with you and two other non-union actors. so you didnt have to hire any SAG actors for the new media project? I will be producing soon and finding SAG actors and explaining to them is a little.well can I just hire non-union actors?

Yeah, this is the kinda stuff that worries me. Kathy Buckley? I am currently trying to make a new media project. I expect to were, be blocked based on some whim of the SAG person. Ive never dealt with SAG before, but I dont expect cooperation. I hope I am wrong. Nothing is ever as easy as it is claimed. Its easy to get taft hartleyd they said. Use SAG new media they said.

I want union actors. I may hafta taft hartley only one other if I cant locate a decent actor, and Buckley Essay that other will be a principal. So he wont get taft hartleyd? Can someone who is SAG-e joining the union using a payment plan WITHOUT getting the loan? Im not sure, you would need to was photography invented, call SAG-AFTRA. My child was on set doing a tv show (principal) when the Essay manager called me and said he must join SAG immediately. Luckily I had enough money on a payment plan for SAG membership. My child had just received a letter saying to join SAG but his manager said dont pay, he hasnt done enough yet and tablets vs textbooks he wasnt must join.

Well he was. It took more than 5 days for this paperwork to Kathy Biography Essay, process through SAG after my son first day of work on this TV show. It was a mess. My childs manager kept calling me to find out from where was photography SAG what was taking so long. they kept telling me the production company was upset. Biography Essay? Found out was abigail born someone dropped the ball at SAG and paperwork wasnt processed in Kathy Buckley, time. Shouldnt my childs manager have knowned to advise me better or helped.

Shouldnt they have knowned he was must join? They get 15% they just sent a new contract for another two years. Does this jeopardize my childs reputation in the business? How does my child look in where invented, his agencys eye? Help! It sounds like the Kathy Buckley Essay storm has passed, and theres nothing to panic over anymore.

Definitely understand your stress, though. Yes, the manager certainly could have done a better job of knowing you status with the union, but its also always good to know that type of in the Nicomachean Essay information yourself. Most agents and Biography Essay managers are most focused on tablets vs textbooks statistics getting the client the next job, not always on the other pieces of Buckley Biography it. I dont know that your child has anything to worry about company reputation wisealways good to take responsibility though and make sure issues dont happen again in Kathy Essay, the future. And congrats on blues langston the job booking! Thanks for this its very useful! Im currently filling out my signatory packet, and Kathy Essay am stumbling over company the Producers Pension and Health Programs Made for Buckley Biography, New Media Report of Contributions formFrom what I can understand I need to what ceiling?, send SAG a check that will go towards the Kathy Buckley performers pension, however I have no idea how much Im supposed to in the Nicomachean, send them! I hadnt realised that I would have to Kathy Buckley Essay, pay anything in the application process have I misunderstood this completely. I dont know the answer to your question specifically. I would call the analysis new media department at (323) 549-6446.

Hope that helps! Thank you so much for Kathy Buckley Biography, all the info! You wrote the more younger, hotter and female you are, but does it really matter how old you are if you look young? If youre 30 for example and langston you look 20-25. Or is the business so obsessed with a number? River, I say what really matters is Kathy Buckley Essay, your grit, determination, and passion. Some people care about the number, but dont let that stop you. My main point is that there is a separate market for young and beautiful people, but its a small thing.

Thank you! My problem is Concept of Virtue in the Nicomachean, that I want an Biography Essay, education before moving to the US, so I will be around my thirties, and I obviously dont know if Ill look young which stresses me out. But thank you so much! Thank you, this helped a ton. Weary Langston Hughes? I went on the official SAG website and I had a hard time understanding exactly what they wanted in order for Biography, me to join.

I was wondering, though, about my lack of experience. Where Invented? I only Kathy Biography Essay ever took one acting class and played a small part in a school play when I was in high school. Im 19 now, and have always wanted to get into acting, but I feel like because I waited so long to really get into it that it could jeopardize my chances in purpose price ceiling?, becoming an actress, let alone a SAG actress. Buckley Biography? Any thoughts regarding this question would help a lot. 19?! Youre SO young.

Worry not about age. If you think acting is what you want to pursue, then go for were was abigail, it. Dive in Kathy Essay, and learn if its the life path youre interested in. Take classes, talk to people, do research, etc. But 19 is by vs textbooks statistics, far a late start. For reference, I moved out to Essay, LA when I was 23. Thank you so much. Adams? This honestly made me feel tons better, hehe. I was doing some IMDb research on some of my favorite actresses and actors to see when they started getting major rolls. Some were as young as eleven (Christina Ricci.) Not to mention the fact that many of Buckley my family and friends were telling me that because of my lack of experience Id never make it. I definitely want to try.

Ive been planning to was photography, move out to LA either next year or the year after depending on when I save up enough money. But yeah, thank you again. Buckley Biography Essay? I feel a lot better. Thanks! Such a refreshing positive blog. Victoria! Im 46 and started tv/film a year and a half ago. I am busy every week with Acting Classes, Auditions (from Agent and ones I find myself) and An Ilustration Concept in the Ethics Essay shoots! Get out there girl and Kathy Buckley Biography hustle, its never too late! #128521;

Great info! Ive been in a huge back and were born forth with SAG for the last few months. We shot a low budget film with two sag actors and hundreds of Biography volunteers in South Central Alaska. What Is The Of A? The original head of SAG Seattle was an AK sympathizer. She gave her word that even under the only contract with sag we could sign, all of the actors that were eligible, could join. Kathy Biography? The Ultra Low Budget agreement states that the An Ilustration of the Concept of Virtue Nicomachean Ethics actors wont be eligible. Only if you sign a Low budget agreement or higher. So I went on her word. She left sag soon after, and this is where the problem lies.

Trying to Biography, leverage her word with the rest of sag. New York recently sent a letter reiterating what the contract states. So im basically pleading with them. Were? But they wont listen. I wonder if theres a way to use the footage already captured, mixed with interviews between our SAG and Kathy Buckley Biography non-SAG actors, to do a sort of promo for was photography, the film already made?

Mike, Im not sure the specifics of the contract, but I cant imagine a way of getting around the actual contract regardless of what anyone told you. On the flip side, if someone actually is eligible to Kathy Buckley, be Taft-Hartleyed then you shouldnt have any issues. In regards to Taft-Hartley. Weary? I saw a casting notice for principal role in a pilot that which states under the Union Status that its SAG-AFTRA/Non Union. Kathy Essay? Can you get Taft-Hartelyd into that or does it need to analysis, state Union? If theyre doing it through the union (SAG-AFTRA), then yes they could Taft-Hartley you. Was just reading the Kathy Biography Essay comments on is the of a this. People are hyper anxious about age WAAAAAAAY too much. I feel incredibly sorry for the age anxiety.

I think what people need to focus on is the type of actor they want to be, what kinds of Kathy Buckley directors they would like to work with, how marketable they are and to what people. And really it is just how old you *look* or *act*. When you audition, you dont have to analysis, give your real age. It is Buckley Biography Essay, what you can pull off. Whats the lowest level SAG-AFTRA contract that you can get cast for that allow for tablets, Taft-Hartleying; Modified Low Budget? Or are there exceptions for ULB or short films signatory (other than student films)? ANY SAG-AFTRA contract allows you to taft-hartley. Including student films, short films, new media, etc. As far as I know there are no exceptions. Probably worth a call to the union to double check.

Update: I just followed up with SAG-AFTRA and Kathy they noted that the lowest level contract to were was abigail adams born, get Taft-Hartleyd into the union was Modified Low Budget. Thanks for following up. You might talk to someone else over there. I know for a fact you can get Taft-Hartleyed on a short film or via the New Media contract (thats how I joined). Question. I just got Taft hartleyed as a background actor on Buckley Essay a web series. Does that count as a voucher (aka I need two more) or am I all set to join SAG?

It depends whether you got taft-hartleyed as a principle or a background. It sounds like the latter, so you probably need two more vouchers. You can call SAG-AFTRA and double check. I was recently cast to play the of the Ethics Essay DATE of the main actress in Buckley Biography Essay, a SAG Web Series..i filled out the company analysis paperwork and everything.but i got a lil nervous because i heard the Kathy Buckley Essay director say that there was no sound at some point..not sure if that meant during the whole date or not(we both said things) and were adams born she sat on my lap and we were playing with each other etc.I got nervous because what if there isnt any sound and the date is just shown with our face expressions and body movements.would that still make me a principal performer in Buckley Biography Essay, this production? The producer said yescuz its def more than a background actorbut i got paranoid.what do you think? As long as the Taft-Hartley gets filled out youll be fine.

Just to be clear, so if I am a Non-Union extra on were adams a Union(SAG) set I can be Taft Hartleyed? Also do you just get approached by the AD or do you (myself) ask directly about it if he/she doesnt? Thanks! As an extra you can get a voucher. You need three vouchers to become eligible. I havent actually worked as an extra so not sure entirely how it works. I would work on developing a genuine relationship with the Kathy Buckley Biography Essay AD and where invented ask them how it works. I recently produced a new mediaproject under sag. Buckley Biography? It was an approved sag project.

I had all the requirements. My one sag actor and two non union actors are principles. since im the producer and im a principle in the film is what price ceiling?, there a chance they could deny my TH? How closely do they go over the paperwork? As far as I know, thats not a reason to deny you. So even if they do scrutinize the paperworkwhich they probably willI still dont think they can deny it as long as youre following all of the union guidelines. HEy, Ben! I have one question. I have been looking for this answer since forever. Do I need to be a SAG member before moving to LA? People say you have to be SAG-AFTRA before moving, because you cant get work as a NON-union in LA. I think it is a excuse to not take the next step, its out of fear that people stay in Buckley Biography, their hometowns.

Charlotte just killed their film incentives. I cannot stay here anymore because of that. What do you recommend I do? Save up and move to were born, LA as a Non-Union, and Kathy try to where invented, get work there? Or stay in Charlotte and try to Kathy Buckley, do as much as possible- in Atlanta/New York/Louisiana. Great question. No, you absolutely do NOT need your SAG-AFTRA card before moving to Los Angeles. There is a TON of non-union work in Los Angeles, and if you think youll ultimately end up here anyway I say move as soon as possible.

If you think you can absolutely book one or two co-stars on a legitimate television show in the next year before moving to LA, then that would be something to what of a ceiling?, consider. Kathy Buckley Essay? Theres definitely a lot of work in was abigail, Atlanta, NY, and Essay Louisiana. Moving to LA with a couple legit television credits would indeed be supportive. Company? That said, my thought is you might as well be in LA making relationships and building a resume if youre going to end up here anyway. My three cents (adjusted for inflation). your article is beautifully explained, thanks so much I have a couple of questions: most people say it is not advisable to Buckley Essay, join SAG-AFTRA if you do not have a lot of weary blues hughes experience but most jobs around me require it. so should I still join? also should I just post a notice online looking for SAG actors for Essay, my project? do I have to explain the whole process/purpose to them? I was recently a featured extra on vs textbooks a tv show. The writer of the show really liked me and Kathy Buckley he wants me back on the show. I heard him call the casting director about of the Concept Ethics putting me back on for the Buckley Biography best episode. Since I feel like Im in his good graces, would it be out of of a ceiling? line for Biography, me to ask him about Taft-hartleying me so I can join the union?

Can I ask him to where was photography invented, help me get sag vouchers? I had no speaking lines, Ill be in Kathy Buckley, more episodes as a featured extra, but I really want to know what I can do to statistics, ask for vouchers. You can only get Taft-Hartleyed as a principle performer, not as an extra. As far as asking about vouchers, you can always ask the person what he or she thinks is the best way to go about Kathy it, and if they feel comfortable then they will likely offer to support you. The information about the weary langston hughes Taft-Hartley vs vouchers is incorrect. There is no such thing as a Taft-Harley Waiver. You either get a waiver or you get a Taft-Hartley. A Taft-Hartley is for working on a single production for three or more days under SAG terms and Biography conditions. One Taft-Hartley equals three waivers. Once the Taft-Hartley is submitted by production it can take four to company analysis, six weeks for Buckley Essay, the letter to arrive.

A waiver is just a waiver. Were Born? You need three of them to join SAG but they dont have to be consecutive. Your waivers will be registered with SAG, and when you have three they will send you a letter. Likewise, four to six weeks is the waiting period from the date of work which gave you your last waiver until you get a letter that you are SAG Eligible. BUT, if you dont want to wait, you can also simply send or bring in person three pay stubs resulting from SAG vouchers. My pay stubs actually said SAG on them, whereas the others said non-union. I took them to the SAG office, Membership Services in New York City, and in less than thirty minutes I was SAG Eligible with whats called an OK30giving me 30 days to do SAG work to Kathy Biography, save up for the down payment on financing my initiation fee. You do not get 30 days on the Taft-Hartley, then another 30 days under an OK30 to weary langston, my knowledge. You just get the Kathy Biography Essay one 30 day period, after which your status is Must Join.

John, thanks for the information. I still stand behind whats posted here. Where Was Photography Invented? Almost all of it matches what you have said here. Kathy? The only discrepancy I believe is that you do get an additional time to join under OK30, which is what I had happen to me. Well i confirmed all this with saga while ago. when you get your letter from that date it says you are elgible to were was abigail born, do both union and non union. Many dont know but producers can call and get you a 30day extension ok 30. Essay? If you do the ok 30 you forfeit your option to do a payment plan and after that your a must pay and can only do sag once you pay it all. Great article! Thank question might seem kinda elementary, however, i just dont know. I just wrote and started shooting my own web series.each episode is about 3-4min in length and I have 8 episodes already filmed.

Pretty high quality, 2 cameras are used. I am interviewing different people in my Hot tubits actually pretty question isCan I be T/Hd in? Do I need to call New Media or SAG? Thanks so much for your help. Jason, it depends on whether or not the what is the purpose project was done through a union contract. If it was, then being Taft-Hartleyed is a possibility. If not, then no. Thanks for the info Ben!! My questiondoes the Kathy Buckley Biography Essay project have to be completed before the non union actors can get their eligibility?

I dont mean that as in it would never be completed, but if shooting was scheduled over a number of weekends for example, and the actors worked on the project in the first days, can they then become union eligibleor is it not until the project is where was photography invented, wrapped and Kathy Buckley Biography Essay post produced and all paperwork sent in?? As far as I understand, once the actor has their first day on set, the Taft-Hartley can get submitted along with the sign in company analysis, sheet. I was working on Kathy Essay set as an extra and I got my first union voucher and was super ecstatic. One of the langston other extras (who is union) told me that since Its my first Sag voucher, that I have 30 days and I can work as much SAG jobs as possible. And Im like, is this true? Or is he talking about TH? Hes talking about the Buckley Essay Taft-Hartley. I found this so helpfulthank you! I know you said already that you can get Taft-Hartleyed on An Ilustration Concept Nicomachean Essay a short, but this page ( makes it sound like you cant.

Is it best just to ask SAG-AFTRA? You can definitely call SAG-AFTRA to confirm, but Im certain you can get Taft-Hartleyed through a short that is done through the Kathy union. Hi, and thanks for all the incredible and helpful information youve given! Quick question for you I just started acting this month and my first project was a background extra on the season finale of The Originals on where the CW which I worked 3 days on.. Then the next week I was booked to work as a background extra in Buckley Biography Essay, the Dreamworks movie, Office Chrismas Party.. I worked 3 days so far on the OCP film and have to was abigail adams born, work a few days each week until the end of May. They have featured me in many scenes in OCP but I havent received a Taft-Hartley, just my payroll vouchers. Am I able to become SAG eligible now and who should I talk to about getting a Taft-Hartley form sent in?? I feel weird just walking up to ask Josh Gordan or Will Speck about the form Does it need to Kathy, be an A/D or can I ask the production payroll company to send my info over to SAG?

Also, is being a background extra or featured background extra good enough or do I need a speaking role to be eligible? Thank you so much. -Tiffany McCoach #128522; Hi. My son did a SAG feature and were born the pay was deferred. I assumed that they would TH him in since the Kathy Essay project was SAG. Blues? I called SAG and they stated that for him to be eligible, he has to get paid. It cannot be deferred. Now he booked another film and his resume is listed at SAG-e. Do I need to tell them that he is just non-union to see if they T-H him? Does a SAG-Aftra member earn any money to make a pilot? I have been cast in a supporting role for Kathy Essay, a potential one hour show that will be presented to producers, after rehearsal and staging.

Is this all on spec? This is a union and non-union project. Im a non union actress recently I made a commercial as a principal role that is a SAG project. My question is, do I have to fill anything besides the An Ilustration of the of Virtue Nicomachean SAG contract to get Taft Hartly? or just by Kathy, signing the contract I get it? how much of this information has changed since the Sag Aftra merger? I recently had a speaking role on Hawaii Five-0 labeled as a co-star, happen mid Sept. Was Abigail Adams Born? How long does it take for you to Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, become SAG-Eligible?

I dont remember signing a Taft-Hartley, but a bunch of other contracts tax forms. I keep checking to see if Im eligible, but it keeps saying Im not. Im agent has my check right now, so with that all filled out done with I thought I would be. Great post. What Purpose Price Ceiling?? Quick question, can I produce my own YouTube video and Kathy get in to SAG or does somebody else have to hire me so I can apply for SAG admittance? Getting Taft-Hartleyed is rather difficult to accomplish Not sure why a lot of people seem to say that, but to price ceiling?, me it seems quite simple. The easiest way is through SAG background roles. There are literally hundreds, thousands advertised across casting sites like Backstage or Actors Access. The vast majority of background roles have very low barriers to entry, SAG or not.

Often one project will shoot across multiple days and before you know it, youll have three waivers. I got my 3 in a month after I began professional acting. Just working on a union productions gets you a waiver each day. That doesnt mean its a SAG waiver. in order to get that you either have to take a sag spot who didnt show up, get bumped by getting lines, which is hard depending on the region you live in. Producers want to use as minimum union they can use legally then the rest is non union.

Remember they have to explain whenever they use a nonunion for a union role and have a chance of Biography Essay getting fined, so you probably just have regular waivers or just extremely lucky.

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The Punishment of Female Rebellion in the Bacchae and Buckley Essay, Macbeth To be a woman is to be submissive. Such is the case in regards to vs textbooks statistics, gender roles in both Euripidess The Bacchae and in William Shakespeares Macbeth. In both tragedies, women are expected to be weak and delicate, keeping to Kathy Essay, all but house chores and blues langston, childrearing. Buckley Biography. Also in both tragedies are female characters who break the confines of their gender roles, giving opportunity for the play to present terrifying implications and consequences of this rebellion from femininity. Agave, from An Ilustration of the in the Nicomachean The Bacchae, and Lady Macbeth, from Macbeth, are examples of these women who disrupt the established role of women in their respective plays to only end up creating chaos, which in turn, could only be solved with the weakening and Buckley Biography Essay, removal of these unconventional women. The two both exhibit themes of female rebellion and tablets vs textbooks statistics, the play responds to the theme in almost identical ways.

In both plays, the theme of female rebellion is presented with women who are ultimately punished for Essay, straying from conventionally established idea of being a woman, leading one to where was photography invented, realize the plays favor for traditional gender roles. Need essay sample on The Punishment of Female Rebellion in the Bacchae and Macbeth ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for Buckley Biography Essay, only $12.90/page. This favoring of the established traditional gender roles is evident in company the plays transitions in imagery used to define the characters, the characters deteriorating relationships, and Kathy Essay, their eventual downfall due to madness with Agave and weary blues langston, Lady Macbeth being the examples of the punishing of female rebellion. Progressive imagery in the plays indicate a correlation with women who break traditional roles and ultimate succumbing to madness, as both Agave and Lady Macbeth both become associated with progressively more objectionable imagery. In the case of Kathy Essay, Agave in was photography The Bacchae, she was initially presented regally as a queen of a kingdom. However, after she left to frolic and become one of the Bacchae, exiting her traditional role as a housewife, she is depicted in Kathy Buckley Biography Essay a much different manner.

What is price ceiling? regal eventually becomes sickening. For example, she is Biography described as being part of blues hughes, a group that is ripping a fat, young, lowing calf apart and Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, dripping blood and gore (909). Once she leaves her traditional female role, the play paints her in a negative light. From being one of the members of the An Ilustration of Virtue in the Nicomachean Ethics Essay, royal family, she transitions to a frenzied animalistic state. Here, ripping a calf apart creates savage, grotesque, and ultimately unappealing image that results in the play painting her in a bad light. Biography Essay. The dripping blood and were was abigail born, gore only does more to reinforce the unattractive and distasteful images and Biography Essay, qualities that the play associates with those who break gender norms. It is as if the play is tablets statistics punishing Agaves character for her being unorthodox, as the Buckley Biography Essay, change in associated imagery correlates with her changing of gender roles. Such is even more apparent as the animalistic imagery continues. Agave is later described as foaming at the mouth, eyes rolling in their sockets, possessed, in a Bacchic frenzy (1391). The animalistic nature of the previous quote has now evolved into weary blues, a state of bestial madness.

Agave foaming at the mouth creates a violent, diseased image while her demonic eyes in Kathy a Bacchic frenzy generates the idea that she is in a unnatural state of possessed rage. Such ultimately paints Agave in a bad light, as, connotatively, being ascribed qualities of a possessed feral beast is negative. It can be concluded from the were was abigail adams, examples of Agave being depicted as a feral animal that it is implied that the losing of ones traditionally feminine side translates to ones losing of rational thought and control over Kathy, their bodies, and where invented, thus inferring the plays rejection of female rebellion. Similarly, Lady Macbeth displays the same patterns in Macbeth. Kathy Buckley Biography Essay. Like Agave, Lady Macbeth transitions from good to relatively bad light with a progression of associated imagery.

With Lady Macbeth inherently breaking the role of the was photography invented, traditional female at her first appearance, she, instead of going through a transition, is immediately branded and portrayed as a negative figure through associated imagery. Essay. She, instead of being submissive to her husband, is manipulative by nature and demanding. For her lust of power and position, the is the purpose of a price, play, in turn, paints her in a bad light. For instance, Lady Macbeth instructs her husband, Look like th innocent flower but be the serpent under it, alluding to the biblical satanic serpent (Iv, 57). In this metaphor, her husband represents the flower with Lady Macbeth taking on the role of the Buckley, serpent in this metaphor and with it, the serpents satanic and manipulative characteristics. Not only is the of a ceiling?, is the simple image of Kathy Buckley Essay, a snake unsettling to most, it creates notions of danger and evil, aspects commonly associated with the reptile, to be inferred in association with Lady Macbeth. Of The Of Virtue In The Nicomachean Ethics. To reinforce the negative attributes given to her, Lady Macbeths presents grotesque images that ultimately result in her being a repugnant character. For example, when describing a smiling baby, she notes that she would have pluckd [her] nipple from his boneless gums, and dashd the brains out (Ivii, 58). Boneless gums and [dashing] brains out only Essay, disconcert readers with its horrific connotation.

The literal image of one bashing the brains out of an is the purpose of a price ceiling?, innocent infant heavily reinforces the idea that the character of Lady Macbeth is being punished by the play for her breaking of gender roles. Through pathos and the image of killing an infant, Lady Macbeth conveys an offensive idea to the readers, further shoving her into a perceived bad light. While she is demonstrating qualities not befitting of a woman (attempting to Biography Essay, be tough), the statistics, play draws parallels between that with upsetting images in her dialogue, making her character ultimately unlikable. The change in Kathy Buckley associated imagery affect perceptions of Lady Macbeth correlate with the breaking of gender roles. Were Was Abigail Born. As evident, like Agave in The Bacchae, the Kathy Biography, play punishes women who stray from gender norms by presenting them in company analysis an ultimately bad light, making them distasteful to reader. Along with the progressive imagery associated with Agave and Lady Macbeth is the progressive state of relationships they have with other characters, as they deteriorate in response to both characters unconventional gender roles. In the case of Agave, she and her son Pentheus make a good example. With Agave, her son is at first proud of his regal mother. When introducing himself, he declares, I am Pentheus, son of Agave and Echion following a statement claiming power (633-635).

The context of the quote suggests that Pentheus uses his mothers name as a way of solidifying his perceived power, therefore making her a rhetorical anchor for ethos. In other words, Pentheus, after claiming to have power, uses his mothers ethos to solidify it. Kathy Buckley Biography. This puts Agave into analysis, an initial position of good light and respect, in addition to implying her strong ethos and relatively good relationship she has with Pentheus. This changes after Agaves dismissal of her traditional role as a woman. Soon after her leaving for the Bacchic rituals, Pentheus deems her and the women involved collectively as a great insult to all the Greeks and even goes as far as noting that they deserve a slaughter (951, 973). Kathy Essay. Pentheus consciously knows his mother is a part of this group and yet, he not only analysis, deems them an insult to society but calls for their deaths because of their actions.

The transition of her relationship with Pentheus from good to bad is apparent here, as the diction of the words used is in stark contrast to the context of the previous quote. Agave goes from Buckley being held high and being used as an anchor for where was photography, ethos to being a complete embarrassment to her son and nation. Her being an insult infers her being undesirable and her son wanting her slaughter only strengthens that idea exponentially. Consequently, Agaves relationship with other characters took a nosedive once she left for the Bacchae. Agaves relationship with her son ultimately ends horrifically with her in a Bacchic frenzy, ripping off chunks of Pentheuss flesh, tragically killing her child (1394-1400). It is also noted that she does so with Dionysus [putting] power into Biography, those hands of weary blues, hers (1397). Since Dionysus is the representation of the Kathy Essay, breaking of the traditional, it can be inferred that it was that that causes the tragic end to Agaves relationship with her son. It can be argued that, the were was abigail born, power being put into her hands is not the frenzied state, but the breaking of traditional femininity.

Similar to how Agaves portrayal through associated imagery plunges from a regal queen to a frenzied animal, her relationship with her son also takes a critical blow, as she, at the end of the day, kills him with her own bare hands. It can be inferred from her now shattered relationship that the play punishes characters through their relationships. Presenting consequence to being untraditionally feminine perpetuates the idea that the play, itself, is set against Essay female rebellion. As with Agaves tragic relationship with Pentheus, Lady Macbeths relationship with her husband deteriorates in the course of the play, due to her exhibiting untraditional gender roles. Where Invented. Like how Agave was respected by Pentheus at the start of Biography Essay, The Bacchae, Lady Macbeth is respected by her husband at is the purpose of a, this point. At first, Lady Macbeth has a good relationship with Macbeth, where she has a say in Biography Essay decisions. Tablets Vs Textbooks Statistics. However, she eventually exhibits manipulative and controlling qualities while playing the dominant role in her marriage with Macbeth.

She goes as far as to taunt him by saying When you durst do it, then you were a man (Ivii, 49). The context and chastising tone of the Kathy Biography, quote suggests that Lady Macbeth is scolding her husband through emasculation, suggesting that she instead plays the role of manipulator and claims the governing position in their relationship by not just telling him. what to do but also degrading him in the process. It is this unfeminine behavior that hurts Lady Macbeth. Her dominant role is reversed later in the play, as a result of the power. When making the next decision, Lady Macbeth had no idea or control over it.

Lady Macbeth is not even aware of the decision, as Macbeth tells her to be innocent of the knowledge, dearest chuck, till thou applaud the deed (IIIii, 47). With Macbeth essentially telling his wife that it is better for her not to know of his business, he strips all power from his wife. Macbeth does not even bother telling her of his business, in stark contrast to Concept of Virtue Nicomachean, Lady Macbeth having a role in the decision making. Essay. Lady Macbeth, coming from a position of significance, is now reduced to company, irrelevance, thus making the transition from a relatively good relationship to a relatively bad one. Kathy Buckley. Fundamentally, Macbeth is taking away power from were born his wife by making her insignificant and irrelevant in Essay their relationship. Is The Purpose Of A. It can be argued that the play is condemning Lady Macbeth for her exhibiting of non-feminine roles , as her deteriorating relationship with Macbeth correlates with her initial breaking of gender roles.

Just as in the case with Agave and Pentheus, Lady Macbeth demonstrates a deteriorating relationship with Macbeth after the exhibiting of non-feminine qualities, reinforcing the idea that both plays punish women for doing so. In due course, being not traditionally feminine leads to both of the characters downfalls and removal from the plot, the Kathy Buckley, plays ultimate punishment. For Agave, her downfall as a result of breaking gender norms is apparent through her banishment from Greece. Here, she directly blames the straying from traditional femininity for her downfall. Once she breaks free of the Bacchic frenzy and realizes her treacherous acts, she gives blame to Dionysus and regrets her decision to break gender norms. By noting that Dionysus destroyed [her], Agave makes clear the point that even she believes that following Dionysuss female rebellion was a wrong choice and that it was because of his ideology that she is reduced to her current pathetic state (1602). An Ilustration Concept Ethics. The context of the quote perpetuates the plays stance on Buckley Biography traditional gender roles by making a woman, herself, deny female rebellion. Also, the use of the word destroyed not only vs textbooks, implies Agaves defeated state, but it also demonstrates the plays antagonism of Dionysus and Buckley, his ideology by making Agave the victim and emphasizing the tablets, harm and destruction that comes with breaking the conventional roles. In the end, she is removed from the plot with her banishment with Dionysus noting, that polluted creature, must go into perpetual banishment (1697). Not only does the play, again, rejects the idea of female rebellion but it also provides a tragic endgame for Agave. To clarify, polluted in this context references Agaves mindset, having broken traditional roles.

It can be inferred that the Buckley Biography Essay, off-putting and distasteful connotation emphasizes the company, plays negative position on Kathy Biography women rebelling. Also, Agaves banishment is the end result of her dealing with female rebellion; because she steps out of what is considered normal for a woman, she spirals down into this sociopathic route that eventually leads her to madness and company analysis, ultimate banishment from society. In conjunction with her regal persona being annihilated for one of Kathy Buckley Essay, a crazed beast through imagery and the tragic killing of her son, it is safe to say that female rebellion resulted in Agaves downfall. Statistics. Eventually, Lady Macbeth, too, faces a downfall; much like how Agave succumbed to madness, Lady Macbeth does the Biography, same but for guilt. Weary Langston Hughes. While washing her hands, Lady Macbeth exclaims, Out, damned spot! Out, I say! (Vi, 25). Mad with guilt, she hallucinates, obsessing over the fact that she could not wash nonexistent blood off her hands. The tone of the quote suggests anger, as the Kathy, entirety is in exclamation, emphasizing her madness by company, adding a sense of alarm.

This is a direct consequence of her breaking gender roles. It was she who instigated the murder of Duncan and it was his death that caused her guilt, which caused her madness. Transitively, one can also say that it was because of her unconventional behavior that gave her these results, attributing the breaking gender norms as the reason. Kathy Buckley. This irrational behavior, combined with sleepwalking, leads to a doctor proclaiming that [her] disease is beyond [his] practice and that only the divine can help her (Vi, 12). The gravity of her madness is realized with this quote, as even the kings doctor could not treat Lady Macbeth, making her downfall more apparent. Vs Textbooks Statistics. Ultimately, Lady Macbeth is so consumed by guilt that she falls from a unnaturally masculine female into an enfeebled woman and reestablish traditional gender roles by the plays end. The play eventually puts Lady Macbeth into her place in irrelevance while Macbeth, makes all of the decisions. By plays end, she is Buckley Biography Essay forgotten, as when she is removed from the plot through death, her husband notes that he has no time to think of her, She should have died hereafter; there would have been a time for such a word (Vv, 3). Lady Macbeths fall from grace is the end result of her dealing with female rebellion.

Because she and Agave step out of what is considered normal for a woman, they spiral down a sociopathic route that eventually leads them to madness and being forgotten. With both of their madness being a direct result of her untraditional behavior, it is safe to say that female rebellion resulted in the downfall of Lady Macbeth and Agave. As evident, in both plays, female rebellion is dealt almost identically with Agave and Lady Macbeth ultimately falling from grace. Tablets Vs Textbooks Statistics. Both women start as regal figures, but fall into madness as a result of them exhibiting unfeminine characteristics, such as Agave joining the Bacchic rituals and Lady Macbeth manipulating her husband. The enabling of the two to leave their conventional role as a woman ultimately leads to their association with negative and distasteful images, deteriorating relationships, and downfall, resulting in nothing but horrifying destructiveness.

Falling for sociopathic behaviors, women have disgraced and Buckley Biography Essay, humiliated themselves as a result of An Ilustration Concept of Virtue in the Nicomachean Essay, breaking gender norms. Kathy Biography. As such, it can be concluded that both The Bacchae and Macbeth exhibit a favor for traditional gender roles with both condemning those who break it.

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This is as a result of the seriousness that is being attached to the trade. These days, more than ever before in the history of man, there are more people who are taking to the trade. In the United States for An Ilustration of Virtue Nicomachean instance, those who own hair salons are considered as those who run essential services, since both men and Biography, woman are known to want to care for their hair. Blues Langston! In the Kathy, United States for instance; there are loads of migrants who have found a new lease of life. These migrants try to eke out a living for themselves, as such might not readily be able to afford the luxury of hair making. This is tablets vs textbooks statistics because of the Buckley, hair styles that might be involved. The hair styles that appeal to Africans are some of the very expensive arts that one may want to shy away from. The white folks may so be exonerated from An Ilustration of the Concept in the Nicomachean this, since they are naturally endowed with very long and silky hair. The Africans on Kathy Buckley the other hand may want to wear weaves, add hair extensions, weave the statistics, hair, and what have you.

Many Africans for instance who reside in several states in the United States of America have taken to the hair making trade. As such they set up hair salon businesses, so as to have a fair share of the profits that this industry promises. It is without a shadow of doubt that the business is oversaturated; as a matter of Kathy Buckley Biography, fact there are plenty of competitors because nearly all Africans who reside in what price America get to make their hair every now and then. Kathy Buckley Biography! Sample Hair Salon Business Plan Template Executive Summary. HairDo is a hair salon that allows the both male and female folks to have their hair needs satisfied in one convenient visit. Without disputing, there are quite a number of quick fix salons like HairDo and analysis, we are set to make a difference. We shall be offering private services where our hair stylists and Kathy, barbers can go to the homes of clients to have their hair problems solved. We know that home service in a place like New York will generate a whole lot of profit that is company analysis why we want to key into the trend. At HairDo beauty Salon, it is a different ball game altogether, as maximum flexibility and sturdy customer attention is to Buckley Biography, a large extent guaranteed. HairDo without mincing has plans in place to tablets statistics, become the Kathy Buckley Essay, one stop hair salon when satisfying her clients comes to mind.

As such, we will sure gain significant market share and create serious long-term relationships with our clients. HairDo is a hair business corporation, which is owned fully by Ms. Juanita Ebube. It is located in 450 Madison Avenue, 2 nd floor, New York City. An Ilustration Concept Of Virtue In The Ethics Essay! Ms. Juanita Ebube is a seasoned beautician who has sixteen year experience in hair styling, and have serves in countless of salons all around the united states of America. She will be responsible for the day to day operations at the salon. Buckley! Activities such as hiring and weary blues langston, training, purchasing, and retail sales are what she will look into. She will also be responsible for hiring all the employees like the Kathy Biography, receptionist, who will be responsible for receiving guests as they come in, the hair stylists, the accountant/ cashier and what have you. There will also be other workers- precisely six of them.

She will also use the incentive methods to reward hair stylists who are able to bring in customers, as well as attend promptly and satisfactorily to the needs of the clients. An Ilustration Of The Concept Of Virtue Ethics Essay! It is pertinent to state that at Buckley HairDo salon, we do not want to weary hughes, leave any stone unturned, which is the reason why we shall meet all the hair needs of our clients both male and female. We will be in the trade of fixing weaves, braiding, locking the hair, barbing the hair, as well as engaging in other things that makes the hair beautiful. As a way to keep attracting ample clients, we shall do well to always train our stylists; this is Essay so that they can continue to be abreast with all the styles that abound. It is also vital to note that we shall open our doors to all races (black, white, Caucasian, and all what not) We are passionate about putting smiles on what price ceiling? the faces of our clients, which is why we shall procure all equipment that will help us achieve just that. We plan to launch out thoroughly, which is Buckley Biography Essay why we have also invested plenty of money in making the tablets vs textbooks, environment where we plan to Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, operate from very conducive. We believe the aphorism that says first impressions say a lot about a thing and that is why our interior and exterior is well furnished to attract all and sundry. HairDo is owned by a seasoned hair stylist- Ms.

Juanita Ebube and she has all the right plans and projections for the business. From the very first year she stepped her foot on the United States of America soil, she began to garner skills about the hair salon trade. Weary Blues Langston Hughes! These trainings have gone a long way to broaden her horizon, as well as train her to be one the best hair stylists in Kathy Essay the whole of New York. At HairDo, the look is what matters to us, and we know that one couldnt possibly achieve the type of vs textbooks, look they wanted, except they wore a nice hair Do. This is why we have done our homework well and have come up with the type of services that we will be offering the public. The services we shall render include; Our aim in Biography business is to be your one stop shop, where the hair and appearance of our customers is uttermost. Our mission is to build a very creative hair salon brand, where all and sundry can turn to were was abigail adams born, so that their appearance can be enhanced.

Hair Do as stated earlier upon commencement is supposed to be a small scale business, however, there are plans to upgrade as the Buckley Biography, business booms and births other branches in and around New York. We intend to operate with the best of structures in place, so that we can give our clients optimal satisfaction. As a matter of importance, we plan to have a structure with the were, best combination ever. This is because we are really particular about the Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, quality of service that gets offered. We know that the success of the Nicomachean, business to a very large extent would also be hinged on Buckley the type of people that are being hired to carry out services. It is for that reason that we hire people to occupy the following positions. Chief Executive Officer Owner Manager Hair Stylist Receptionist Accountant/ Cashier Barber Hair stylist 1 Hair Stylist 2 Cleaner Greeter/ Security Man. Roles and what is the of a, Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer (Owner): Responsible for providing direction for the business.

Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and Buckley Essay, implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for hughes fixing prices. Responsible for Kathy Buckley Essay recruitment Responsible for payment of salaries Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the vs textbooks, success of the organization Prepares budget and reports for the organization Responsible for Training and Essay, Development in tablets vs textbooks statistics the organization Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out Biography Essay, staff induction for new team members. Carries out the vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and adams, implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for managing the Kathy Biography Essay, daily activities in the salon. Ensures that the facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Interfaces with vendors Handles procurement Supervises all activities in the salon Makes sure that customers are satisfied before leaving the salon.

Makes sure that all clients waiting to make their hair are comfortable and well attended to. Welcomes potential and old clients into the salon. Carries all other duties as directed by the manager. Collects payment for the services rendered. Prepares financial report at the end of An Ilustration Concept in the Ethics Essay, every working week Handles all financial transaction on behalf of the Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, company Interfaces with our bankers Responsible for payment of tax, levies and utility bills Handles any other duty as assigned by the manager. Sees to it that all clients are promptly attended to.

Makes nice hair styles for clients Carries out what is the purpose of a price ceiling?, all other duties as assigned by the manager. Manages the barbing arm of the saloon Handles any other duty as assigned by the manager Carries out all other duties as directed by the manager or CEO. Sees to it that the salon environment is Kathy Buckley spic and span Opens up the office for business every day. Is always on ground to clean and maintain the interior and exterior of An Ilustration of Virtue Nicomachean Ethics Essay, business. Buckley Essay! Welcomes people as they make way into the salon. Opens up the door for those coming in. Sample Hair Salon Business Plan Template SWOT ANALYSIS. At HairDo, we understand the need to be at the top of ones game, which is why we have gone ahead to identify our areas of strength and weaknesses. To a very large extent, being conversant with this means that we have the opportunity to up the ante when our services are involved.

We therefore thought that it was going to be a very nice idea if we employed the best of consultants to help us carry this poll out, so as to be conversant with our strengths , weaknesses , as well as the opportunities that we are faced with. As such we got hold of Mr. Alex Zen who is a renowned business consultant to help us carry out these activities. It is pertinent to note that he did a very thorough job. Here is a preview of the result we got from the what is the of a price, SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of HairDo Hair salon, New York. Buckley Essay! HairDo Hair salon is centrally located in statistics Madison, New York city; our location is in fact one of our major strengths because we have invested quite a lot in seeing that we have the best hair stylists, as well as a top notch facility that can attract new clients ( celebrities and non-celebrities) to Kathy Biography, us on a continual basis. Were Was Abigail! We believe that with our strength, we will be able to attract a good number of Buckley Biography, people. The type of equipment that is adams procured is such that makes our work pretty easy. It is no longer news that the competition rate in the hair salon business is Kathy Biography Essay one of the highest all over the world. It is for this reason that our weakness was realized.

As such; our weakness is solely hinged on the fact that there are loads of other business owners who have delved into tablets statistics the hair making business in New York. Kathy Buckley Essay! This means that we have to brace yup for ample competition. Nonetheless, we shall continue to do our best to see that we bridge a gap between our strength and weakness. Where Was Photography Invented! Without mincing words, New York is one business district that boasts of an avalanche of clients. This is why we are located in Kathy Essay such an area to start with. We know without reservation that we shall attract all and sundry when we kick start operation. Weary Hughes! Already the number of salons that are located in the vicinity where we plan to operate doesnt meet the full needs of the Kathy Buckley, people. As a result, we know that with us being there, and with the type of services we want to offer, and how we want to offer them, we shall break even pretty soon. Where Was Photography! Some of the Buckley, threats that are likely going to confront Hair Do Salon might be losing our clients to other competitors. If we win them over and are not able to give them the best of services, then there might be likelihood that we lose them again.

This is one of the aims of wanting to even surpass the needs of the people so that we can gladly continue to be at the top always. Sample Hair Salon Business Plan Template Market Analysis. It is true that lots of people want to look good, this is one of the major essences the hair salon business came into existence. From the past times till now the number of people who start this type of An Ilustration of the Concept of Virtue Essay, business daily, have continued to be on the rise. This is because of the rewarding nature of the job and Kathy Buckley Essay, also the point that people want to were adams born, look good nearly all year round. As such, it can be said that this is Buckley Essay one business that when well located, can experience massive patronage all year round.

The Hair Salon market is a market that is is the purpose of a price ceiling? solely dependent on one vital factor; and that factor is that at least people- especially the female folk visit the Kathy Buckley Essay, salon nearly all weekend. Blues! This is because of the need to wear different looks. These days salons also incorporate other services like the Kathy Buckley, manicure and were adams born, pedicure services. In other words, they kill more than a bird with just a stone. When a hair salon is well positioned and have sent out the Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, right words, plus have well trained workers, then there will always be success achieved.

Before choosing a location for HairDo Hair salon, we conducted our feasibility studies and where, market survey and we were able to identify those who will benefit greatly from Biography Essay our service offerings. Every detail is written in our hair salon marketing plan. Langston! Basically, those who will benefit from our service offering are adults- both male and female, as well as children. This type of folks cut across various sectors of the Kathy Biography, economy. Our target customers can be classified into where invented different groups. We are set to market our services in our neighborhood, talk to different people, corporate executives, business owners, celebrities, amongst many others. These are the category of people that we intend marketing our hotel to; Corporate Executives Business People Parents and Guardian Celebrities Teenagers Students. Starting a hair salon business might not be a herculean task after all. As a matter of fact, it is an easy to set up business that does not require formal training to achieve. This means that you might even decide to get into this trade without training, provided you will hire expert stylists.

Anybody can set this business up, if they have the Kathy Biography Essay, required startup capital. It means that the of the Concept in the Nicomachean Ethics, possibility of Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, having countless hair salons is high, since getting the skill of hair making can be maneuvered. We aware of this which is why we are leaving no stone unturned in analysis making our shop a one stop arena. It is for that reason that we have decided to come up with a business concept that will position us to become the Kathy Buckley Biography, leader in New York. Our competitive edge is that we are a standard hair salon that has loads of what purpose of a, expert stylists that are on Kathy standby to was abigail adams born, meet the needs of the clients. Our business offerings also will easily assist us in attracting the Biography, various clients that will look to attract. We can confidently say that the location of HairDo will definitely count as a positive for Concept of Virtue Nicomachean Ethics Essay us, because we have decided to Kathy Buckley, come to New York, where we intend to attract the creme de la creme in the society, as well as all and sundry. Our services will be customized to meet the needs of An Ilustration of the Concept of Virtue, all our customers because we are aware that there is Kathy Biography Essay loads of competition.

That is blues hughes why we shall keep training our team so that they can continue to give our clients the best at all times all year round. Sample Hair Salon Business Plan Template SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. The marketing strategy for HairDo salon is going to be driven basically by Kathy Buckley Biography, excellent customers service and An Ilustration of the of Virtue Nicomachean Essay, quality service delivery. We will ensure that we build a loyal customer base. We want to offer the best services to our customers, so that they can readily help refer folks who might be in need of our services. Buckley! We are not undermining the fact that first impressions lasts a great deal which is company why we have put everything in place to Buckley, see that we give each client a wow moment so that they can unreservedly ell others.

We are a salon that is strategically located in New York and we are going to maximize the opportunities that are available, which is why we spend more to locate the business in a location that will be visible and accessible to plenty of people. We will adopt the following means to attract the kind of people that we look forward to be our clients. Were Was Abigail Adams! Part of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt is; Open our HairDo Salon with a big shindig. Biography Essay! Advertise our salon business on magazines for men and women, in business directories and local radio station Promote our business online via our official website and all available social media platforms Continuously Improve the performance of our services Hire the services of analysis, experts to make our HairDo salon brand known in New York. Deliver consistent customer experiences to all our guest; making our first impression count positively Make use of attractive hand bills to Biography Essay, create awareness and also to give direction to our salon Adopt direct mailing coupon marketing approach Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on company road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our salon business.

HairDo Salon business will generate income from the following service offerings; Perming Weaving Braiding Washing and dressing of hair Fixing of artificial nails Hair cuts Manicure pedicure. It is important to state that our sales forecast is based on Buckley Biography the data gathered during our feasibility studies and also some of the assumptions readily available on the field. We render hair services to about 50 people a day, and about 350 people every week. Then about 1, 500 people in a month and then about 20,000 people in the first year. Apart from the hair services for male and female, our additional manicure and pedicure services will also help generate more income. Below is the sales projection for HairDo Salon, it is based on the location of our business and the services and products that we will be offering; N.B: This projection is done based on what is obtainable in An Ilustration of the Concept in the Ethics the industry and with the assumption that there wont be any salon offering same additional services within 4.5 miles radius from Biography our salon. We know the importance of gaining entrance into the market by lowering our pricing so as to attract all and sundry that is why we have consulted with experts and is the purpose of a price ceiling?, they have given us the best of insights on how to do this and effectively gain more clients soon. Our pricing system is going to be based on what is obtainable in the industry, we dont intend to charge more (except for premium and customized services) and we dont intend to charge less than our competitors are offering in Buckley Biography New York. Tablets Statistics! Be that as it may, we have put plans in Essay place to offer discount services once in a while and also to reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to us. The prices of our products will be same as what is obtainable in other places.

On the average, our hair services will cost between $10.00 to $50.00 per service rendered. Do bear in mind that this depends on the service rendered. Our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our pub; Payment by were born, cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any difficulty.

Sample Hair Salon Business Plan Template Publicity and Advertising Strategy. We know the importance of having our business in the faces and on the lips of every one: that is why we shall continue to work at ways to have the Kathy Buckley, best marketing plans that can sure help us beak even within a short period of time. Already, there are tons of hair salons in New York that have become a household name. This is why we have got to look at ways to matchup the strategies of these competitors. HairDo Salon is were was abigail adams born set to create a standard for hair salon business in New York and through the United States, which is why we will go all the Buckley Biography, way to adopt best practices to An Ilustration Essay, promote our business. Good enough there is not hard and Buckley Essay, fast rule on how to born, advertise or promote our brand. One of the difficulties being encountered might be that hair salons might not have the required money to pump into Kathy Buckley Essay publicity and advertising.

We will ensure that we leverage on all conventional and non conventional publicity and advertising technique to promote our car was business. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise HairDo Salon in what is the ceiling? New York; Encourage our loyal customers to help us use Word of Mouth mode of advertisement (referrals) Advertise our hair salon business in Buckley Essay automobile magazines, local newspaper, local TV stations and local radio station Promote our business online via our official website List our business on local directories (yellow pages) Sponsor community pageants and langston, fashion shows Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on what purpose price ceiling? strategic locations Direct coupon mailing approach Engage in road show from time to time Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas. Start Up Expenditure (Budget) This is the key areas where we will spend our start up capital on; The Total Fee for Registering the Business Manhattan, New york: $750. Biography Essay! Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits: $1,500. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of blues, $3,580. Cost for hiring Consultant $2,000. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and Biography Essay, property casualty) coverage at a total premium $30,800. Cost of accounting software, CRM software and were adams born, Payroll Software $3,000 Cost for leasing facility for the salon: $70,000.

Cost for Kathy Buckley Essay facility remodeling $50,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery $1000) Phone and utility deposits ($3,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $40,000 The cost for Start-up inventory $15,000 Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) $2,720 Cost for serving area equipment ( glasses, flatware) $5,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Office equipment (vacuum cleaner et al)- $3,600 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, hair dryers, steamers, clippers, and chairs et al): $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website: $600 The cost for analysis our grand opening party: $1,500 Miscellaneous: $2,000. We would need an estimate of $1.2 million to successfully launch our all-round car wash business in New York. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Hairdo salon. This salon is a family business and it will be financed by Kathy Biography Essay, the owner who is also a hair stylist. These are the areas where we intend sourcing for fund for our business. They include; Generate part of the start up capital from personal savings and is the purpose, sale of his stocks Generate part of the start up capital from family members and Buckley Essay, friends (soft loans) Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the weary hughes, bank.

Sample Hair Salon Business Plan Template Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Part of the plans we have in place to sustain HairDo business is to ensure that we continue to deliver quality services, improvise on how to do things faster and cheaper. We are not going to Essay, relent in providing conducive environment for our workers and also the required trainings that will help them deliver excellent services at all times. From our findings, another factor that kills new businesses is financial leakages. Weary Blues! In order to plug financial leakages, the Essay, management of tablets vs textbooks, HairDo salon will adopt the use of payment machine and accounting software to run the business. We are quite aware that our customers are a key component to the growth and survival of our business; hence we are going to continuously engage them to Kathy Biography, give us ideas on how to serve them better. Tablets Vs Textbooks! We will not waste time in diversifying our services; expand our product and service offerings once the need arises. Kathy Buckley Biography Essay! We shall make sure we get it really right first with our first branch of HairDo in Madison New York, before we delve into replicating the same standard in other places.

It is company analysis so important to take that step so that we are able to see the success rate first. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Kathy Biography Essay, Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Acquiring facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the analysis, bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of Kathy Essay, The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed carwash equipment, electronic appliances, office appliances and bar accessories: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for vs textbooks statistics the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors suppliers of all our needed carwash accessories, drinks, and tobacco et al: In Progress.

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Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of theory related to listening comprehension in EFL environment. First, the importance of listening comprehension is discussed. Second, difficulties in Kathy Essay, listening comprehension for An Ilustration Concept in the Nicomachean Ethics Essay, EFL learners are illustrated.

Third, listening comprehension processing is Buckley, discussed. Fourth, evidences from previous related research that listening instruction could lead to improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, were discussed. Fifth, nature and characteristics of childrens learning are reviewed. Lastly, research questions of the present study are stated. 1. The Importance of Listening Comprehension. The increased importance of listening comprehension in language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). There has been a shift from non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to price, teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Before World War II, the Kathy Buckley Biography teaching of reading was given the most attention while that of listening comprehension was the most infertile and the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Under the predominant audio-lingual approach in company analysis, the 1960s and the early 1970s, the Kathy Buckley Essay teaching of listening comprehension was still minor. With the increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the importance of listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985).

Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in language teaching. On the one hand, technological advances and the growing awareness of the importance of listening in the world have made listening even more important in the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). In current globalized society, with universal and what is the of a price ceiling?, massive exposure to radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and internet, individuals are expected to be increasingly prepared to receive information through listening and speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in Biography, listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at vs textbooks statistics the beginning level should be allowed to keep silent until they feel safe and ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, speak and what is the price ceiling?, write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at a beginning level should focus on developing learners listening comprehension ability. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is Kathy Buckley, important because it provides input as the raw material for hughes, learners to Essay, process in company, language learning. Without correctly understanding the input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the Kathy Biography Essay target language is an of the of Virtue Nicomachean Ethics Essay impetus, not merely an obstacle, to language learning as well as to communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the importance of listening comprehension has resulted in an increased number of listening activities in students textbooks and Buckley, even in comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984).

Several studies have found that through the use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students understanding of the listening passages, which in tablets, turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in Listening Comprehension for Buckley Biography Essay, EFL Learners. The first difficulty in listening comprehension for EFL learners is that they are less likely to share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to where, something the individual already knows. Kathy Essay. This applies as much to second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in ones native language. The empirical research in the related field has come to be known as schema theory and has demonstrated the truth of Kants original observation and of the opening quote from Anderson et al (1977). Schema theory research has shown the importance of invented, background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977).

According to schema theory, a text provides directions for Kathy Buckley Essay, listeners or readers as to company, how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge. This previously acquired knowledge is called the listeners or readers background knowledge, and Kathy Buckley, the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to were adams born, the listening task plays a vital part in Buckley Essay, interpreting the material, and should be considered in the evaluation of learners listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Based on schema theory, the process of interpretation and comprehension is guided by the principle that every input is blues langston hughes, mapped against some existing schema and that all aspects of that schema must be compatible with the input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Efficient language comprehension requires the ability to relate the textual input to Kathy, ones own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and blues langston hughes, entire texts relies not merely on ones linguistic knowledge but also the knowledge of the world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). According to Richards (1983), much of our knowledge of the world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about particular situations, the goals, participants, and procedures commonly associated with them, and the information needed to understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is provided by the listeners from their repertoire of scripts. This means that the connections between events need not be specified when we talk about them, since they are already known and Essay, can be inferred. Were Born. Without the right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of cultural reference and discourse patterning in their own language and Kathy Buckley, culture; their individual scripts may differ in certain degree and where was photography, content from target language scripts, and that poses additional problems for Biography, some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to understand what they hear. (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989).

The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Accent is potentially an important variable in listening comprehension (Buck, 2001). Many foreign-language learners who are used to the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to listening to a variety of company, accents while EFL learners are less exposed to Kathy Buckley Essay, different accents (Buck, 2001). Besides, learners who have more experience in listening to and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to where invented, cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only heard one or two (Ur, 1984).

Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to adjust to Buckley, the voice if the accent is very different from any with which he is familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). The third difficulty is that EFL learners are less capable of was abigail adams born, perceiving prosodic features in English speech which have a direct impact on Kathy Buckley, how listeners process and interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). Analysis. The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is one of its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Unlike many languages in the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the Kathy Buckley length of company, time required to pronounce an Biography Essay utterance depends upon the number of syllables it contains, English is a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Of The Concept Nicomachean. What this means is that the time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in any utterance, and the remaining syllables in the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995). As a stressed-timed language, the following English sentences would take about the same amount of time to articulate, even though the number of syllables contained in each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995):

The CAT is Buckley Essay, INTerested in proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the stress-timed language is that the words between the stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Were Was Abigail Born. Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of stress is an important factor in Buckley Biography, rapid and langston, efficient listening comprehension. This adds another dimension to the listeners task, since listeners must learn the complex set of Kathy Buckley Essay, rules that determine the pronunciation of connected speech and be able to identify words according to the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Any lack of where, such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in their modified form in Buckley Biography, an utterance whereas the presence of blues langston hughes, phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for second-language listeners. In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in native speakers and non-native speakers ability to perceive stress by addressing that native speakers were in Buckley, general agreement as to sentence stress location, while only a small number of non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and the ability to perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of English ability in learners (p.

38). Still, Bond and weary langston, Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is also subject to what they call heuristic strategies such as paying attention to stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to know how the sound system works in English speech, in order to be able to process natural listening task in real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and pausing could cause perceptual problems and Kathy Biography, thus comprehension errors for non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). Was Abigail Born. In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to listen to a passage of spontaneous speech, about 210 words long.

Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to hesitation phenomena. Kathy Essay. These errors were due to listeners either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of words, or to misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979). In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). However, Voss is the only one among these researchers who used real and spontaneous speech. All of the other studies used a written text read aloud. Where. Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and process such phenomena while focusing on meaning, and Kathy Buckley Essay, non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in favour of top-down processing. There are indications that in some cases hesitation and pausing can help listening comprehension, and in others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). In the researches of Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. When one-second pauses were introduced into a text at what the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into the text resulted in lower levels of comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Consequently, the ability to Kathy Essay, understand spoken English must include the langston ability to deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of speech (Richards, 1983).

The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the Kathy Biography Essay amount of blues hughes, pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983). Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and hence words with which they were already familiar (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the speakers talk faster, and the weight of the Buckley Biography Essay evidence suggests that the decline in comprehension is what is the of a price, rather slow until a threshold level is Biography Essay, reached, at which time an increased speech rate leads to blues, a much more rapid decline in Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, comprehension (Buck, 2001). Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per minute (w.p.m.) is analysis, difficult for lower-intermediate learners to understand. Buckley. He found that this level of students perform best at weary blues langston 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the effects of Kathy, three different speech rates (127, 188, and company, 250 w.p.m.) on listening comprehension of second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at Kathy Buckley the slowest speech rate and worse at the higher rates. On the invented other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from Buckley Biography Essay 145 to 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and advanced-level L2 learners. As for the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m. Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m.

Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm. Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of 165 to 180 words per minute for native speakers of English. Based on were born, the researches abovementioned, speech rate is Biography, one of the weary blues langston variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of text used, and amount of background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is Buckley Biography Essay, that learners tend to think they have to completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984).

Most foreign-language learners run into a psychological problem: they have a kind of obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to is the purpose, understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984). Buckley. From the anecdotal evidence in the research of OMalley et al. (1989), it is found that effective listeners seemed to be aware when they stopped attending and langston hughes, made an effort to Biography, redirect their attention to what purpose, the task (p. 428) and Buckley, ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an unknown word or phrase in a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to be aware of tablets vs textbooks statistics, their inattention (p. 428). Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is Buckley Essay, overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to work much harder at decoding than native listeners and try to interpret every detail as it comes up instead of vs textbooks, relaxing and taking a broader view.

Compared with reading and writing, listening is more stressful for learners since it involves serious time constraints on processing, which cause learners anxiety (Ur, 1984). 3. Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of listening perception in language learning include what is usually referred to as top-down, bottom-up and interactive processing. 3.1. Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to Kathy Biography Essay, interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to create appropriate and An Ilustration of the Concept of Virtue in the, plausible expectation of what they are about to come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). Top-down processing occurs as the Buckley Biography perceptual system makes general predictions based on general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the input, either visual or auditory, for information to tablets vs textbooks, fit into, or verify these predictions, and Buckley Biography Essay, thus top-down processing is conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). In the study of Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the passage they were about to is the purpose, listen to, basing their predictions on Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, the questions they previewed prior to listening. In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and only afterwards, in a second listening, may have filled in where was photography invented, the information gaps by supplying the local cues.

Bacon (1989) and Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners comprehension for various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and making inferences after listening to a series of sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to Kathy Biography, facilitate learners top-down processing and help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2. Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the listener focuses on individual words and phrases by decoding the of the in the Nicomachean Essay linguistic input rapidly and accurately to Essay, refute implausible interpretation, and tablets statistics, achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to build up a whole view of the listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990).

Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of Essay, comprehension strategies identified by Van Dijk and Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners attention to was photography invented, relations and links between the Kathy Buckley Biography facts denoted by local clauses and sentences, and was abigail born, the other is global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on Kathy Buckley, the overall coherence, gist or topic of a text. What Ceiling?. Based on the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the global/ macro-strategies are related to top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the early stages of foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and only when they consider that they are making progress to the proficiency and skills in the foreign language, they bring into semantic and other knowledge related to top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to make listening comprehension easier. Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in Kathy Buckley Biography, Raphans (1996) and analysis, Rosts (2002) studies. Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and Kathy Biography Essay, a recorded account of the same events that can be implemented in blues langston, teaching listening. Another bottom-up activity for beginning listeners is to Essay, listen to a series of sentences and then circle one (out of company analysis, three) verb form contained in the sentences (Brown, 2001). 3.3.

Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is considered by Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, some researchers as an interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and as a continuous modification of a developing interpretation in response to incoming information and pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by blues hughes, bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). According to Kathy Buckley Biography Essay, Kelly (1991), if the adams sound signal is Biography Essay, weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of top-down processing; similarly, it is when the listeners expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to An Ilustration of Virtue Ethics Essay, rely more on the sensory level and to hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and such view of perception processing would probably fit in Kathy, with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Company. Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by constantly checking it against the incoming linguistic cues and to modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990). In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of listeners monitored the incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the listening text. Further, there were instances in Kathy Buckley Essay, his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the incoming information. In addition, OMalley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is only fragmentary for An Ilustration of the Concept of Virtue in the Nicomachean Ethics, efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in the form of schemata and use both top-down and bottom-up strategies to construct meaning. Hildyard and Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and Buckley Biography Essay, readers use the knowledge-based interactive mode of text processing, while low level students relate mostly to adams born, local details.

According to Kathy, Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and bottom-up processing should be occurring at all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the listeners will be sensitive to tablets, information that is Buckley, new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the text; top-down processing helps the listeners to resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the blues hughes incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up processing. There is Buckley Biography, continuous discussion about the role of top-down and where invented, bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is more important to a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on top-down processing.

In the researches of Kathy Essay, Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of langston, text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and Biography, readers both attend mostly to what ceiling?, local details as in the bottom-up processing. Similarly, Voss (1984) found that successful speech perception depends on Biography, an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to segments and other lower-order units on the basis of hypotheses about a larger stretch (p. 148). In Weissenreiders (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in top-down processing were found to be beneficial in listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of incorporating cognitive strategies. Tablets Vs Textbooks Statistics. Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in Essay, his study by comparing listening and was photography invented, reading of first-, second-, and third-semester university students of German. He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in listening tasks.

Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to eighteen-year-old German students of English and found that while students appeared to make a simultaneous use of bottom-up and top-down processing with an easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on Kathy Buckley, background knowledge and hardly use other cues in listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and blues, experience to help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Thus, providing background information and previewing are particularly important and effective for the less proficient language student to comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982). Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on bottom-up processing than on top-down strategies. Schemata in top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on listening comprehension (Long, 1990; OMalley et al., 1989). In Longs (1990) study, participants completed a survey of Kathy Buckley, their background knowledge of two topics used, namely, gold rush and rock groups, and he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto a set of company, data that were clearly incompatible.

It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to Biography, the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension. Results from previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by pre-tests and where was photography invented, post-tests, are inconsistent. On the one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and Long (2007), OMalley et al. (1985), and McGruddy (1995). Kathy Buckley Biography. Johnson and Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). There were no significant differences between the scores of were was abigail born, pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. OMalley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in Kathy Buckley Biography, the scores at the post-test of EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. In the vs textbooks statistics research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in pre-test and post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test.

On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in Kathy Buckley Essay, terms of listening instruction. Was Abigail Adams. In the Buckley Biography Essay study of Nichols, Brown and Keller (2006), the trained group of tablets vs textbooks, 31 freshman students made significant gains in Essay, scores during the period of is the price, listening instruction. In Kohlers (2002) study, 70 learners of Spanish at a university received listening instruction. Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the non-intervention group. However, there does not appear to have been a pre-test of learners listening comprehension, without which it is difficult to conclude Kohlers claim of significant improvement in listening comprehension of the Kathy Buckley Essay experimental group.

In addition, in the study of Graham and where, Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of Buckley, French as a foreign language in England were targeted, and a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Tablets Statistics. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Characteristics of Childrens Learning. Based on the theory of Kathy Buckley Biography, Piaget and Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of An Ilustration of the Concept of Virtue in the Nicomachean Essay, childrens cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and Buckley, formal operation period. The period of concrete operation generally represents the elementary school students, ranging from 7 to statistics, 12 years old. Children in the concrete operation period begin to think logically. Buckley Biography Essay. Operations are associated with personal experience and are in concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation. Childrens learning in this period relies heavily on operational activities, such as objects, pictures and physical experiments.

Another theory concerning childrens learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on the concept of zone of proximal development proposed by were, Vygotsky (1978). Zone of Biography Essay, proximal development refers to the differences between the level of actual development and the level of potential development; the level of what is the price, actual development means childrens actual independent problem-solving competence while the Kathy level of potential development means childrens problem-solving competence developed either through the leading or guidance from adults or instructors or through the weary blues hughes collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the Kathy Buckley difference, of proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of learning; rather, it refers to the possible, learnable scope created by the interaction between people and its changes with the development of tablets vs textbooks statistics, individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in teaching practices, generally refers to the development of learners gradual comprehension of knowledge through the interaction between the instructor and the learners. In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in childrens learning process, provide necessary assistance to foster learners cognition with the consideration of Essay, learners development level. The interaction which is the scaffolding in tablets vs textbooks, the teaching process generally follows the pattern of question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of asking further questions from the teacher, and Kathy, then replying from students. According to Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from adolescents, and adults in many ways. Children tend to respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words. They learn from everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught. Analysis. Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to touch and interact with.

In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the light of Buckley Essay, these characteristics, teachers at this level need to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourages students to was abigail adams born, get information from a variety of sources (Harmer, 2001). In addition, in the process of scaffolding in teaching, it is Kathy Buckley Essay, essential for teachers to be skilful in of the Essay, asking questions to activate students thinking and creativity, which are helpful in deepening and Biography Essay, broadening the language development of the students. Teachers are suggested to avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to encourage the interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in is the of a price ceiling?, groups to develop good relationships, and Kathy Biography Essay, need to plan a range of activities for a given time period, and to be flexible enough to move on to the next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. Research Questions of the Present Study. Listening comprehension is important for what, EFL learners. Beginning instruction in a second language should focus on developing learners listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to.

It is likely that listening instruction in elementary school puts more emphasis on Biography Essay, bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for elementary students to resort more to bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the effects of different advance organizers on listening comprehension of undergraduate and weary, junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the teaching of listening in elementary school, which is the Kathy Buckley Biography Essay beginning level of EFL learners. From the above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of was abigail adams born, listening instruction. The effect of listening instruction, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent in previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and high school students. Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to focus on bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the effect of listening instruction as well as the listening processing of elementary EFL learners.

The present study focused on Kathy Buckley Essay, three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the were born research questions, comparison of Kathy Biography, performance between two groups was conducted after the two groups of was photography invented, participants had respectively received a series of Kathy Buckley, listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and were was abigail adams born, bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on Kathy Buckley, top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in company, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to Kathy Biography Essay, us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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