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Bill Parcells, Charlie Weis rave about new Patriots QB Jacoby Brissett. Recitatif Toni. As references go, it’s hard to think of having two better names on the resume than Bill Parcells and Charlie Weis, especially if the man doing the hiring is victim to villain Patriots coach Bill Belichick. North Carolina State quarterback Jacoby Brissett certainly has a Hall of Fame list of backers. Recitatif Summary. He could name-drop to get any football job he wanted. But according to both Parcells and Weis, the Patriots third-round pick really didn’t have to bring out the heavy artillery to convince Belichick to take him with the 91st overall pick. The word from Parcells and Weis: Once you meet Brissett, and watch him play and why religion, interact with others, it’s hard not to be sold on him. That’s how it was for both Parcells, who saw him playing high school football near his home in Jupiter, Fla., and Weis, who recruited him to play at the University of Florida. But let’s hear them tell it. Because talking with them, it’s easier to see why the summary, Patriots used such a high pick on him. Parcells, who has been a mentor to Brissett, threw out victim, some lofty names when talking about the young man and what he brings to the table. “He’s a Curtis Martin, Willie McGinest, Troy Brown type player.
That’s the kind of guy he is. That’s what New England is toni getting,” Parcells said when reached yesterday. Example. “Those kinds, those Tedy Bruschi types, those players who’ve been successful he’s very similar in his personal life to those kinds of recitatif guys.” The Tuna didn’t hold back on the compliments, that’s how much he thinks of the 6-foot-4, 235-pounder. But it was very much the same way with Weis, who coached the quarterback for a year at Florida while he was the victim to villain, Gators offensive coordinator. “I only got to recitatif toni, coach him for one season, but I absolutely loved the kid as a player and a person,” said Weis, who left to string define, coach Kansas, while Brissett later transferred to recitatif morrison summary, North Carolina State. “I couldn’t be any happier that he ended up in why religion is wrong, New England.” While some were caught off guard by the Pats taking another quarterback so high up in the draft, neither Parcells nor Weis were surprised by the move for recitatif toni summary, Brissett, who enters the fold as the No. 3 quarterback, but may land even higher on victim to villain the depth chart in the coming years depending on morrison summary what happens with backup Jimmy Garoppolo and how deep into his 40s Tom Brady ultimately plays. On the surface, Brissett is a big, tough, athletic, strong-armed quarterback who had some notable performances in poems attitude, the Wolfpack’s most important games. More than a few draft evaluators believe he has the physical tools to become an NFL starter. In 2014, Brissett was just one of recitatif three quarterbacks in psychology, the Power-5 conferences to throw for 2,000 yards, rush for toni morrison, 300, throw 20 touchdown passes and throw five or fewer interceptions. The other two were eventual Titans No. 2 overall pick Marcus Mariota of Oregon and current Packers backup QB Brett Hundley of UCLA. He put up similarly big numbers in 2015. Typically, Parcells wasn’t going to get the why religion, bust ready for Canton, but he does believe Brissett is in the right place to give himself a chance to start in the pros. “You never really know for sure until you see a player under the gun, so to speak, at the top level,” he said. “But, that being said.
I have a very high regard for this young man. He’s an awesome kid. He’s very bright. Toni Summary. He has zero personal issues. Persuasive. He’s a very dedicated, committed guy and recitatif, I think he’s going to the absolute perfect place for why religion is wrong, him. Recitatif Summary. They’ve got a great coach, a great organization, and they’ve got a great role model playing that he’ll be able to observe and learn from. It just doesn’t get any better than that.
Because of persuasive text what I think he has, his career is going to develop well.” Weis won’t argue with that assessment, but he will throw in a couple of other components he feels are vital to making it as a quarterback in the pros, intangible qualities Brissett also exudes. “The one key thing with him in New England, if the quarterback can’t be a leader, he doesn’t have a chance,” said Weis. “Obviously, they’ve had a string of guys who were great leaders. Tommy, is, obviously, the king of the summary, hill. Before him, Drew (Bledsoe). We’ve had people who’ve been really good leaders. “But let me tell you, this kid, from the time he was in high school, is like the Pied Piper,” Weis said of Brissett. “Going to his high school, they had several kids who were going to play Division 1 football, but he was the man. He played on an all-state basketball team, and while some went on to play Division 1 basketball, on that basketball team, he was still, the man.
He was definitely the leader of the pack. In the quarterback position, I think that’s a critical factor. And that’s what he was.” Another essential trait in the Weis book? Competitiveness. We’ve seen it in string define, Brady in toni morrison, spades. We’ve also seen glimpses in Garoppolo. Weis relayed a story. At the time he was trying to woo Brissett to is wrong, Florida, the school had already locked up a stud quarterback in Jeff Driskel, who was the highest ranked quarterback in the country. “I remember sitting down with the recitatif toni morrison, kid in school, and saying, “What are you, afraid? Are you afraid of Driskel?
Or you just don’t trust me? Because the only two reasons you wouldn’t come to Florida is to villain you’re afraid to compete with Driskel or you’re afraid I’m going to morrison, shaft you for the other guy,’’’ Weis said. “Most kids in the situation he was in wouldn’t have come. But he committed 24 hours later. You could see he was a competitor; he wanted to go toe-to-toe with Driskel. Relationship. “I felt bad about recitatif toni morrison summary, leaving him,” Weis went on. “But at the same time, it’s turned out just fine for him. Why Religion. It’s a great situation for recitatif, him. He’s got Tommy and Jimmy, great coaching, and a system that’s been the same forever. What more can you ask for?” Weis indicated he was not consulted by the Patriots or asked for a reference.
They did all the homework. “I’d like to say I had something to amygdala function psychology, do with it, but absolutely not,” he said. Toni Morrison Summary. “I’m just really happy for the kid. He’s in a place that’s a really good fit for him. Amygdala Psychology. He’s a dropback quarterback. A lot of times people get stereotyped. He’s not a roll-out, gimmick quarterback. This kid is a big, physical kid that’s a true dropback quarterback, and I think he fits their system great.” Well, part of that fit comes from the fact Brissett is familiar with concepts and verbiage of the Patriots offense having spent that year with Weis. Some things have changed since Weis was the offensive coordinator in Foxboro, but not a lot. After the Patriots picked Brissett Friday night, Weis texted some people in toni, the organization to text, give them a little primer on his former protege. “I texted (Brady) and just told him a little bit about my relationship with the kid,” Weis said. “I told him he’d fit in great with the Pats.” Both former Patriots coaches believe Brissett has the right stuff to toni, be a good NFL quarterback one day. That belief may allow the Pats to string define, move Garoppolo before his contract expires, a move that would set Brissett up as the next in line when Brady retires. “I don’t see Tommy going any time soon.
But you also have to look at it . Recitatif Toni Morrison. you have Jimmy’s contract coming up, and Tommy’s close to 40,” said Weis. Persuasive. “The combination of those things, you always know the Patriots have to recitatif morrison summary, have a plan. Obviously, this was the string define, plan.” And to that end, Parcells planned on meeting with Brissett yesterday to prepare him for life with Belichick. “We’re going to morrison summary, have a little visit,” said the Tuna. “Now that we know where we’re going, what we’re doing, we’ve got to give him the rules of poems attitude engagement, so to speak.” Steve Belichick relishes role as dad#039;s assistant with Patriots. Patriots notebook: Coach Ivan Fears confident in Patriots running backs. Guregian: Dante Scarnecchia loves to coach Patriots. Guregian: Patriots defense takes baby step, but still long road to go. Harris: Jake DeBrusk and recitatif, dad have emotional night at Bruins opener.
Rookies produce for Bruins in season-opening win against Predators [+video] Patriots notebook: Teammates have Stephon Gilmore#039;s back. Mother. Boston's J. Geils, The Cars tapped for Rock Roll Hall of Fame. An unknowing Bostonian could be heir to $700G. Harvest Moon 2017: How to get the morrison, best view of the rare October moon. Yogurt maker drops Cam Newton over remarks to female reporter.
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Juniors: In the toni, Quiet of poems attitude, Summer, Start Your Essays. In preparation for the senior year, most students try to plan their summers around some kind of summary, resume-building job, internship, coursework or community service, with the psychology, necessary stops along the way for toni morrison summary, beach and barbecue. Summer is also an to villain ideal time to get the recitatif toni morrison summary, jump on your college admissions essay. These less hurried months before the onslaught of to villain, a highly pressured fall offer the recitatif toni summary, chance for students to think, reflect and connect with a writing topic that can then be developed into 500 words of poems attitude, polished prose. So how can you use the summer before senior year to your best advantage? Here are half a dozen suggestions to keep in mind: Clear your head . Distractions like TV, texting, video games and Internet surfing can seriously inhibit inspiration. Once your school term is over, schedule some time away from those electronic diversions and recitatif toni morrison find a park bench, rooftop, library carrel or some other quiet place where you can hear your thoughts bubbling up from string define deep down in your consciousness.
Ask yourself exploratory questions. In looking for an essay topic, an excellent way to morrison summary, begin is by asking questions that can turn up some juicy conflict. Some examples: What has been the hardest thing I have ever had to face? If I had to quickly replay my life, which two or three moments would jump out ahead of all others? Which experiences have really pulled me out of my comfort zone? When have I ever felt pure rage? Write down your answers to these questions (trying to devise questions of your own as well) and, as time passes, note the answers you keep coming back to.
There may be some fertile ground for an essay in those responses. Write it down. Persuasive Text? While we’re on the subject of writing things down, let’s make this the summer that you carry around a pad and pencil or some kind of wireless device to record your thoughts. Take it from this writer: if you don’t write it down, you’re bound to lose it. Familiarize yourself with the narrative form. Everyone loves a good story — particularly the overburdened college admissions counselor who has to read hundreds of student essays, too many of which view this assignment as an opening for recitatif morrison, self-promotion. It is far better to think of the college admissions essay as your chance to persuasive text, tell a good story.
Stories are narratives, and narratives have formal elements, like a specific time frame, a point of view and a certain degree of conflict. Read some good stories this summer — not just sample essays — and be conscious of their narrative techniques. Where do they start? How do they end? What is the central conflict? How is morrison, it resolved? Enjoy yourself. These warm, feel-good months make it easier to relax, and approaching the college admissions essay with less anxiety is daughter relationship, a good thing. In fact, it would be extremely beneficial to view this assignment not as an onerous task but as a creative act. In that vein, you’ll want to commit yourself to toni, the work, accept the idea that your essay will evolve through a series of drafts and allow yourself to take some pleasure in text, the process. Who knows?
You may even discover the joy of rewriting. Own your essay. Make an ironclad commitment that this is going to be your essay. No one should be permitted to write it for you — not a parent, not a sibling, not a hired gun. Summary? This essay needs to reflect your authentic voice, and perhaps making such a commitment is poems attitude, one of those things you’ll actually want to affirm, in recitatif toni morrison, writing, this summer. It’s no mean feat to produce a powerful essay on mother relationship, a highly personal subject, but the good news is that we all have stories within us that deserve to be told. In the recitatif summary, quieter, less pressured time of summer, those stories stand a better chance of daughter relationship, coming into their own. Do you have some advice of your own to add, regarding college admissions essays — and how prospective applicants might start priming the pump over the summer? Please use the box below to let us know. Comments are no longer being accepted. I agree that it is wise to begin the college application process the summer before senior year.
Applying to college is a lot of work and it is best to complete the toni, bulk of it before the demand of fall classes and extracurriculars. When I applied to colleges in summer/fall 1990, the work was equivalent to the workload of an string define AP class. We encourage our oldest daughter to work on her essays as a junior two years ago. Toni Morrison? One of the added benefits of to villain, this approach, is that it removes some of the pressure. A lot of my daughter’s peers were stressed out trying to complete their essays in October and December. we are planning to morrison summary, use the string define, same approach with our youngest daughter who is a rising senior. When I became bored with high school in the 10th grade I planned my escape. Since my parents never made it as far as high school, I was on recitatif toni morrison, my own.
I simply read and followed the poems attitude, instructions on the admission forms to the one university to which I applied. I was admitted and began prior to high school graduation. I did sit and pass the GED test to make my mother happy. If junior can’t read and follow the recitatif morrison, instructions, junior needs to sling hamburgers until such a time that s/he is psychology, able to read and toni morrison summary follow instructions for is wrong, admission. The admission process is the first test of adulthood. I definitely agree..It took me about recitatif morrison summary, 3 months preparation to poems attitude, make a final draft of recitatif toni morrison summary, my application essay. I am not good at taking standardized tests so I focused more on my essay. And the outcome is I am going to Bates College.. So I suggest all the college applicants to relationship, be very clear and toni well prepared with the essay while applying.
You don’t need to prove out any rocket science equation, just be yourself and let it flow in the paper…as that single piece is what talks on your behalf despite the numberss… You’ve given Mr. Victim To Villain? Gelb an opportunity to make college applicants even more insecure under the guise of providing helpful advice. You underscore this insecurity by printing a photo of Mr. Recitatif Toni Summary? Gelb’s book on the college essay (“I need to read the book to to villain, stay competitive!) and providing a helpful link to Mr. Gelb’s pitch for his personal consulting services (“I need to hire a consultant to stay competitive!”). And you’ve helpfully timed it right at the very beginning of the college application season, maximizing, heck, even extending, Mr. Gelb’s sales season.
Impressive work indeed. The entire Choice marketing team is to recitatif morrison summary, be commended. I agree with comment #5. Victim To Villain? You are advertising Gelb’s book and his services. This is shameful. It’s one thing to print expert opinion, it’s another to show the cover of the expert’s book and a link to purchase it.
What has been the hardest thing I have ever had to face? Which experiences have really pulled me out of my comfort zone? Hilarious questions to ask high schoolers coddled by their parents and starting their admissions essays a year early. It is so bizarre to recitatif toni morrison, me that college admissions officers even take into account these elaborately crafted pieces of mother daughter relationship, BS. Kate – #7 – Starting your application the summer before your Senior year – which Gelb is advising is not “a year early.” Most applications are due Jan.1 of your senior year. Early decision applications are due Nov. Toni Summary? 1 of your Senior year. Common applications go online August 1 – why NOT spend a few days during August drafting responses to these essay questions, when you re less likely to be inundated with Senior year course work, tests and college visits? And all those so superior adults who trudged 5 miles thru snow in bare feet to get into college and it was so easy for daughter relationship, them – take a look at the present day process, read the common application and FAFSA forms and learn to recitatif toni summary, stop judging kids today by your experience yesterday. The world, the system and the pressure has changed – your experience is not like what a lot of kids go through now.
If you are going to ask someone to look over your essay, whether to advise on whether your ideas come across clearly or to check your grammar and spelling, think hard about who that person should be. Does this person “get you?” Do you trust him or her? And, is this someone from whom you will readily accept feedback constructively? Often parents, who surely feel they get their kids, find it hard to offer even the sagest of advice without its being taken as criticism. Victim To Villain? Don’t ask for advice from someone you don’t want to listen to. And, note the advice of choosing someONE.
You do NOT want a chorus of advisers. Resist the temptation to recitatif morrison, shop your essay around to all willing readers. While too many chefs may not always spoil the soup, they will surely alter the final product so that it is no longer your voice on daughter, the page. I am nauseated by what is merely an advertisement. If you go to toni summary, Mr. Gelb’s website, you can pay $1200 for coaching on poems attitude, your college essay. Recitatif Toni Summary? ($1000 if you book by Labor Day, what a steal!) The sample essay on mother daughter, his website isn’t even that spectacular. I’m truly dissapointed in the Choice for publishing this in its current form. Free PR for recitatif toni, Gelb! Not only is Mr.
Gelb selling his book through this advertorial masquerading as an article, but he is selling his services as an essay coach ($1200 for all the to villain, sessions necessary–click through the link). I myself do this work too but I never thought to write this comment until I saw that the Times seems to be fine with this degree of self-promotion in this column. Ironically, he tells students to “own” their own essays and not to use “a hired gun.” Perhaps his next column could be about where to toni summary, draw the line between helping students find their own voices and doing the work for them – a fine line indeed. Quite a few fine lines – and example some not so fine – are on display on this page. Well getting external help isnt a bad thing. I mean I had hired a firm specializing in admissions for my son. Many parents though commend their high school guidance counselors, also feel they would like a more personalized approach. Ivy League Advisor (www.ivyleagueadvisor.com) was who I went with and they did a great job of recitatif morrison summary, providing first-rate service. The advantages of having someone walk your son/daughter through the process is that they often need a little helping hand for some of the subtleties that go into the college application or essays. This is especially true in an ever increasingly competitive world of string define, college admissions and particularly for the more selective schools. This is just wonderful advice!
Thank you! As parents of a junior, we are already looking for ways to lessen the drama of the whole process. Getting the essay done this summer is morrison summary, a smart option. Plus the feeling of accomplishment is a great way to go into senior year! It’s very easy to become cynical about the seemingly arbitrary and daughter sometimes corrupt admissions process, however the sooner you submit and embrace the mess of testing, essays, interviews and tours, the recitatif morrison summary, sooner you will be rid of all this madness. Start your essays over the summer. Whether Mr.
Gelb is selling a book or not, it’s the best advice you’ll get. Tackle the Common App first, then look at last year’s prompts from the mother relationship, schools in which you are interested. Many of them don’t change from year to year. An hour a day and before you know it, the recitatif summary, essays will be done and your fall will be so much more fun. Mr. Harry Bauld, former Brown admission officer, is the biggest lifesaver when it comes to mother relationship, the college essay. His advice is priceless. Juniors: read his book (which, more than two decades later, is recitatif toni summary, still the ultimate authority on the subject). If you live close enough to NYC, take his summer minicourse at Horace Mann School. @7. First of all the “coddled kids” who are starting their applications a year early are those who are vying for highly selective schools which means that most are at school for 9-12 hours a day (2 a day practices in victim, swimming and toni morrison other sports require being at school before 6 a.m. and string define not leaving til close to 6 p.m.).
They then face 4 hours of recitatif morrison summary, homework on a average night and its not uncommon to string define, spend 6 hours some nights. Moreover, while you don’t seem to be able to fathom that privelege does not protect them from the harshnes of life, many kids have indeed faced very difficult situations. Recitatif Toni? Of the 10 kids who will attend my daughter’s sweet sixteen, one recently lost a parent, another has a very ill sibling and amygdala psychology one herself is a cancer survivor. I recommend that all of my students brainstorm topics for college essays during the summer before their senior year. They should consider which topics allow them to create an recitatif essay that will show what makes them different from other college applicants. Some topics work better than others. Students should also realize this is not a one time process.
You start with a rough draft and spend most of your time refining that into string define, a memorable essay. Toni? I believe that college essays play a larger part in college admissions than we like to admit. As a college test prep and essay coach, I find Mr. Gelb’s advice very much on target. I urge my students, too, to get a jump start on their college essays during the summer before senior year, and why religion many do. However, a lot changes suddenly in those short, busy months of fall semester senior year, and that essay they felt satisfied with in July? It often just doesn’t fit anymore come December. Toni Morrison Summary? I find that students do a lot of rapid growing up in those months, as they bite the bullet, take those final test scores – the victim, ones they are going to have to live with – and make serious choices.
They start to see that their futures really are here, just ahead of them, and it often contributes to a constructive sense of urgency and clarity in their writing. So, yes, do that exploratory thinking and writing in the summer. But be willing and able to consider it just a long first draft and recitatif morrison summary then get to the real point you want to make in November or December. – Karen Berlin Ishii, New York City. This article is filled with helpful advice. Summer is a great time to start thinking about your college essay. As the owner of a company that assists students in why religion is wrong, writing college essays, it is always a pleasure to work with students over the summer when there is so much less pressure to do so. Without the distractions of morrison, their classes and their studies, some of the best essays I have edited come from is wrong lazy summer days.
The best and only advice I ever give a parent is that their child should just write honestly. The topic matters less than the way the story is told. Be yourself. Recitatif Toni? Have fun with the story you are telling. Poems Attitude? And take what you say seriously. This is how you write a great college essay. As an recitatif summary individual who supports students in the admission process, I find that students who use summer to address essay and other administrative tasks are more confident and less stressed about college admissions. These students also enjoy their senior year more than other students because the most grueling part of the string define, application is completed. Oftentimes, students and parents still think rising seniors have time to get through the process. Not true.
The summer before senior year is the most important summer for rising seniors, both for activities and beginning the morrison summary, application process. Daughter Relationship? Don’t waste it. Use your summer wisely. 10: It is perfectly possible to get into recitatif toni morrison summary, Ivy League and other top schools without paying some advisor thousands of dollars to craft a plan for your senior year. If you have the money to throw away, then go for it, but it’s just that: a waste of money. Why Religion? I found all the summary, advice I needed on the internet (this is a good start) for $0. Maybe it would’ve been nice to to villain, have someone hold my hand and tell me that my essay was fine and that I’d get into aforementioned schools, but I got into them anyway. As a high school senior who generally disagrees with much of the unnecessary stress that surrounds the recitatif summary, college application process, I would like to add that this was the poems attitude, single best piece of advice I was given. Toni Morrison Summary? As busy and as stressful junior year maybe, the that stress does not disappear– in fact you may find that it will increase as you enter your last year of high school. In addition to the college applications, there are also scholarship application which may also require essays.
Some state schools (such as California) have the same essays prompts each year, so there is nothing holding you back. I ended up using one of the drafts I wrote during the text, summer for all of my schools, and was accepted to all but one of the schools to which I applied (including an ivy league institution and the top two public schools in the nation). My only regret is that I did not write more of my essays early on. In response to the comment that summer is far to early, keep in mind that deadlines can start as early as November, and Scholarships have deadlines year round (and require similar essays). Also, students should consider having a trusted adult read over recitatif morrison summary their essay. This is an opportunity to poems attitude, catch errors, and toni summary also to make sure that the persuasive, essay is a good reflection of the student. This process takes time, and summary many English teachers become swamped with college essays to read as deadlines near. Why Religion? Asking a teacher to recitatif morrison summary, read an early draft in August or September gives them time to look over it and provide valuable feed back. As the string define, author of a moderately successful book on writing admissions essays, I feel I should comment. Morrison Summary? Yes, this does smack of a commercial announcement, especially with a link to Alan’s book. Why Religion? But I recently got a chance to read his book and think it has some excellent high-level advice and I would recommend it.
It seems like every book has yet another puzzle piece for getting the essays completed. Let me suggest one technique for toni morrison summary, starting a personal essay. Remember that for a story to be powerful and poems attitude memorable for the reader, it must be powerful and memorable for morrison summary, the writer. So sit back and go down memory lane and make of list of those memories which stand out for you. They could be good or horrible. List the top 5 or 6 or 7 of these. Now look over to villain each. Is there one that stands out as something which changed you? Or strengthened you? Or tested you? If so, that is recitatif morrison, your topic, and a description of that moment/incident/scene will become the first paragraph of your personal statement.
The essay itself will then be your transition to a stronger you, a changed you, a you who has overcome some issue, nemesis, flaw, or challenge. Robert Cronk, author of Concise Advice: Jump-Starting Your College Admissions Essays (Second Edition) I’d like to add to mother daughter relationship, my previous comment: don’t ask your parents to read your essay, unless they are already in the habit of proofreading all your other writing and are familiar with your voice as a writer. Your ideas will not accord with theirs. Probably they will think you are not doing yourself justice, or that you should write about something else.
If you succumb to the pressure of their advice, the contradictory voices at morrison, work will turn your essay into string define, mush. Recitatif Toni Summary? Showing your parents is just a bad idea and will make you feel insecure.
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5 Well-Paying Corporate Writing Gigs for toni morrison, Freelancers. Amygdala Function! As a freelancer there are a lot of ups and recitatif summary, downs. You move from project to project and are always on the lookout for why religion, your next client. Corporate writing gigs offer freelancers a way to minimize these ups and downs with a more predictable and reliable income. In a world driven by recitatif content marketing, your skills as a writer are very much in demand by all kinds of organizations. String Define! One effective strategy for corporate work is to identify specific industries where you can develop subject matter expertise : are you a writing expert on semi-conductors or HR issues? Whatever your niche, you can build a reputation not only as a great writer but as someone who truly understands the trends, issues and challenges of that market. Finding and landing corporate writing gigs.
LinkedIn can help you connect with prospective corporate clients. Make it as easy as possible for corporate clients to find and connect with you. Be sure to optimize your profile to showcase your writing expertise by including samples and current or past writing assignments. Recitatif Morrison Summary! Additionally, you may want to join relevant industry or professional groups. In pricing your time for corporate jobs, you have many options including by the word, a hourly rate or a set price per job. Function! Be sure to toni carefully estimate your time including building in review cycles and victim to villain, edits as multiple individuals are likely to review your piece. Get an understanding of the approvals required for a project, how many individuals are involved and if you will be needed to handle the approvals.
These factors can significantly impact your scope of work. Remember, these are corporate clients who have a budget for marketing and need your services. Do not undervalue your skills and recitatif toni summary, experience as a freelancer. Here are five specific types of content that corporate clients often need freelance writers to support: 1. White papers and research pieces. These are staples of lead generation in text example the corporate world and your ability to produce well-researched and compelling content can quickly set you apart. Toni Morrison Summary! White papers are typically a more intense writing assignment so ensure you spec out the why religion is wrong entire project before you proceed, including creating an outline of content and finding out what resources will be provided for you. The sheer amount of content that needs to be generated as part of the editorial process for a corporate blog means contract or freelance writers are often brought in. For this type of morrison assignment you may play the role of blog editor or coordinator setting the is wrong blog’s editorial direction and editing and recitatif morrison summary, managing content, or you may be hired to simply write one-off posts as required. Writing for corporate blogs is is wrong, a particularly desirable type of work as new posts are always required, which means ongoing writing support will be required. Most companies rely on customer proof for sales and marketing.
Working with clients to set up a solid customer testimonial process including interviewing, gathering background and recitatif, then writing and persuasive text, editing case studies can be particularly profitable. Case studies are in high demand and toni summary, the sales team usually wants them done yesterday. Why Religion! Before any company provides you with access to their customers, they want to recitatif be 100% comfortable with you and your skill set. Consequently, when seeking this type of contract, you want to play up your background working directly with customers in string define similar programs and/or conducting interviews. Press releases offer a structured way to recitatif deliver news or updates about the company and string define, continue to be a staple in recitatif toni morrison summary the majority of organizations. String Define! When you work with your client to assess news, structure the information correctly and package it for the media, you deliver immense value. Organizations will be on the lookout for a track record of writing press releases that comply with standard conventions and provide clear messages. Recitatif Morrison Summary! A PR background is particularly helpful for positioning yourself as a press release specialist. If you’ve ever read an annual report, you’ll understand the significant amount of text work that goes into producing one. Many writers specialize in writing annual reports where they write the summaries for different sections as well as messages from executives.
Because of the importance and recitatif toni morrison summary, prominence of annual reports, companies are generally willing to pay a premium for expertise. (Click to tweet this idea). These are just a few of the corporate writing gigs that are up for grabs as a freelancer. Other possibilities include newsletters, employee communications, copywriting, speeches, presentations and more. If you can get your foot in the door, you’ll quickly find most organizations have writing needs you can assist with, helping create a more stable income for you as a freelancer. Mother Daughter! What corporate writing gigs have you taken on as a freelancer? About the morrison Author: Maggie Patterson. Maggie Patterson is PR specialist and freelancer with years of experience working corporate gigs. She’s on a mission to teach entrepreneurs how to string define DIY their PR and how to use writing gigs such as guest posts to build their street cred. The Freelance Blogger#8217;s Client Hunting Masterclass. In this online course, Sophie Lizard will teach you EXACTLY how to find and win high-paying clients, with real-life examples from her freelance blogging business. You have provided a lot of toni morrison summary great information that is right on target.
Thanks! As a corporate writer, primarily for ad agencies working for their clients, I#8217;ve done everything from writing web site copy to string define scripts for promotional videos to internal and external publications. One way I have used LinkedIn is to research potential clients. Recitatif Summary! I look at their profiles, check out why religion their websites and then contact them directly by phone. Cold-calling isn#8217;t so bad once you get used to it, and it gives me a chance to find out what they need and tell them what I can do for them.
Thanks for sharing your experience, Nancy! I think you#8217;ve hit the nail on the head #8212; cold-calling isn#8217;t bad once you get used to it, but that process is challenging! Did you use any particular tactics, or did you just keep at toni, it until it wasn#8217;t so stressful for string define, you? When I started out, it was horribly stressful. I felt like a door-to-door salesman! But what helped me were two things: 1) the more clients I worked for, the more confident I felt, and 2) I told myself before each call that I wasn#8217;t begging for work but offering something of value to the company I was contacting. Recitatif Toni Morrison! It doesn#8217;t sound like a big deal but when you realize that what you are offering has a value, then you feel more confident and therefore sound more confident. And that goes a long way to making the conversation productive!
I think you#8217;re right #8212; sometimes it takes a while to convince yourself that your work is valuable. It#8217;s a stressful process, but once you feel more confident, you create more momentum for yourself. This is really useful content! I also like how you offer some concrete and string define, actionable examples of potentially lucrative corporate writing gigs. This will help me in my own search to achieve my dreams as a freelance writer.
Thank you for contributing this helpful article, Maggie! I#8217;m glad you enjoyed the post, Jim! Best of recitatif toni morrison luck in your freelance writing career! Phoning for assignments is easy if you have the right mindset. As writers, we offer valued assistance to the people most likely to want our assistance.
Why should they be unhappy to hear from us? Furthermore, if we make the calls ourselves during office hours, we are being respectful of the prospects’ time. As we get accustomed to making the calls, it becomes easier to persuasive text example chat on the phone than to implement the assignments. Thanks for morrison summary, sharing, Diana. Amygdala Psychology! Great point that having the right mindset can make all the recitatif summary difference when it comes to cold-calling.
This is function, perfect! I#8217;ve been trying to define the types of writing I want to do and your article gives me a great start. My education and toni, life experiences have provided me with a broad spectrum of daughter information that I can share and I love writing for a range of audiences. I#8217;m glad the post is recitatif toni morrison summary, helpful for you, Lisa! Best of luck, and welcome to psychology the TWL community!
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Recitatif by Toni Morrison: Summary & Analysis | Study com
Nov 10, 2017 Recitatif toni morrison summary, buy essay uk -
Communication impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: challenges and recitatif, solutions. Authors Holtgraves T, Cadle C. Accepted for publication 20 March 2016. Checked for plagiarism Yes. Thomas Holtgraves, Chelsea Cadle.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is currently the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, showing a prevalence rate of 0#37;–3#37; of the entire population in industrialized countries and #126;1#37; in people older than 60 years. 1 Although PD has traditionally been classified as a paradigmatic movement disorder characterized by muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, resting tremor, and postural instability, recent research has revealed a broad spectrum of nonmotor symptoms, including cognitive deficits (short-term memory, executive functions [EFs]), and language impairment. 2 Although each individual may experience PD symptoms in varying degrees, it is now well established that language and why religion is wrong, communication deficits appear early on in the disease progression. As effective communication is critical to developing and maintaining relationships, it is important for recitatif morrison, people with PD and their caretakers/physicians to be aware of changes in communication abilities that might occur. Increased understanding of the communication impairments and associated cognitive and neural mechanisms stands to benefit both individuals with PD and their physicians/caretakers. Enhanced awareness concerning both production and comprehension deficits associated with PD progression may serve to reduce interpersonal issues and misunderstandings during conversation.
Furthermore, implementing the recommendations suggested in this review may reduce communication deficiencies and help improve overall quality of life. In this paper, we review researches on poems attitude a range of summary communication deficits and amygdala function psychology, associated cognitive and neural mechanisms. We first review what is known about recitatif toni summary comprehension deficits in PD, followed by a consideration of production deficits. At the end of each section, we provide a set of recommendations based on the empirical findings. A summary of our recommendations is provided in Table 1. Table 1 Summary of recommendations based on documented communication deficits in Parkinson’s disease. There has been a considerable amount of daughter relationship research examining the extent to which PD is recitatif associated with various comprehension deficiencies and associated cognitive and neural processes that may contribute to string define those deficits. In general, this research can be organized around syntactic comprehension, emotion recognition, and pragmatic comprehension (ie, recognition of recitatif speaker meaning). Syntactic comprehension deficits. The role of syntactic comprehension is crucial in normal language understanding. Successful processing of syntactic information allows people to extract meaning from utterances by string define combining words in summary, a particular order and rejecting unlikely word arrangements.
Increasing evidence suggests that people with PD display impaired syntactic comprehension abilities, which negatively affects overall understanding of utterances received during conversation. Friederici et al 3 studied nondemented PD patients, all of whom were taking medication and victim to villain, were not suffering from depression. Toni Morrison Summary? Patients’ syntactic processing skills were investigated using event-related brain potentials. The results suggested that, while early semantic processing appears to remain normal, late-stage syntactic integration is impaired. 3 Such findings support the text, earlier work performed by Grossman et al, 4,5 which suggested that medicated PD patients without dementia consistently suffer from comprehension difficulties when presented with syntactically complex sentences.
Findings further indicated that these difficulties are dependent upon deficient attention systems. Morrison Summary? 4 In attempting to delineate what characterizes a “complex” sentence that PD patients may struggle to string define comprehend, Grossman et al 6 monitored cerebral blood-oxygen-level dependent activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging, while PD patients were presented with sentences differing in their grammatical structure. Findings suggested that individuals with PD show significantly reduced recruitment of the striatum in sentence comprehension. 6 In the frontal–striatal–thalamic loop, the striatum is understood to function as a cognitive resource for working memory (WM) and information-processing speed. Taken together, studies by Grossman et al 4–6 suggest that people with PD struggle to comprehend sentences that are grammatically structured with an recitatif summary, objective-relevant clause and have difficulty with utterances that impose increased short-term memory demands resulting from long antecedent-gap linkages.
Findings from the studies of why religion is wrong Grossman et al 4–6 implicate impaired executive processes as possible sources for language comprehension deficits that result from PD. Recitatif Summary? Indeed, several studies suggest that various comprehension deficits may be attributable to certain cognitive deficits, such as the role of WM in syntactic processing. Another relevant cognitive deficit is set shifting or the ability to alter behavior according to the relevance of the stimuli. A review of this area by Dirnberger and Jahanshahi 7 contained several interesting conclusions about poems attitude EFs in PD and set shifting in particular. According to these authors, attention deficits in PD occur primarily for tasks involving internally generated cues, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; when an toni summary, external cue is text example available, attention deficits for PD relative to control participants are minimized. 8,9 As a result, individuals with PD will have difficulty with nonroutine tasks requiring effortful processing, a deficit that can manifest in unusual forms of language (eg, nonliteral language described later). Moreover, this internal cue processing deficit likely underlies the morrison, difficulty PD individuals have with planning (ie, internal cues are required) as evidenced by their inferior performance on persuasive the Tower of morrison London and related tasks, 10 a deficit that can impact language production as described later. Impaired emotion recognition in PD.
The ability to infer the emotional states of others is made possible through accurate recognition of facial expressions 11 and to villain, correct interpretation of implied meaning through tone of voice. Assessing these nonverbal cues often reveals what a speaker is truly attempting to toni morrison summary accomplish by allowing the listener to qualify the explicit meaning of a sentence. Though the literature is persuasive text example inconsistent, several findings of studies suggest that emotion recognition abilities, utilizing facial expression or speech prosody are impaired in people with PD. Morrison Summary? Dewick et al 12 investigated a variety of daughter face processing skills in a group of idiopathic, nondemented PD patients, all of recitatif toni summary whom were taking anti-Parkinsonian medication at the time the study was conducted. Face processing skills assessed during the investigation included: 1) the ability to match unfamiliar faces by their identity; 2) discriminate faces by sex or emotional expression; and 3) discriminate faces according to which speech sound was being produced. The results from this early study indicated that PD patients were significantly impaired on all facial processing skills compared to healthy control participants. 12 This study led to an early conclusion that PD causes a basic deficit in encoding facial expression, which was then suggested to cause impaired processing for example, all later interpretation stages. However, additional research investigating similar nonverbal communication deficits suggests that not all individuals with PD exhibit such global impairment in morrison summary, facial expression encoding. Amygdala Function? Sprengelmeyer et al 13 found that idiopathic PD patients can accurately process and discriminate the identity of faces but then fail to correctly process the recitatif toni, emotional expression in later stages of the task. String Define? The researchers further noted that PD participants exhibited greater deficits when attempting to identify specific emotions.
Specifically, individuals with PD misidentified “disgust” more frequently than age-matched controls, while both PD and control participants made frequent errors when assessing “fear”. Importantly, facial recognition impairments may be mitigated when patients are receiving dopamine-replacement therapy, as indicated by reduced error rate for medicated PD participants compared to medication-free PD participants when identifying disgust. Recitatif? 13 Somewhat consistent with the to villain, findings of Sprengelmeyer et al, 13 Suzuki et al 14 found an emotion recognition deficit for participants in the early stages of idiopathic PD, all of whom were receiving dopamine replacement therapy, that was specific to recitatif morrison disgust. Evidence from early studies investigating emotion identification impairment in PD emphasized the need for poems attitude, clarification when nuances, such as medication status, were considered. In response to this call for integration and clarification, Gray and Tickle-Degnen 15 reviewed a multitude of studies on emotion recognition in PD. Specifically, their review addressed possible impairments for emotion recognition based on task type, stimulus modality, specific emotion interpretation, medication status, depression status, and correspondence to the level of executive functioning impairment.
The results indicated that the toni summary, effect of PD on emotion recognition as a function of stimulus modality was more severe when interpreting prosodic expression compared to facial expressions. Why Religion? 15 The moderating role of task type was investigated by comparing performance on three tasks: emotion identification, emotion discrimination, and a rating task. Findings indicated that individuals with PD show the greatest error rate when assessed via an morrison, identification or discrimination task for both facial and prosodic expression measures. 15 Both of these emotion recognition tasks require participants to categorize the intended meaning of either a facial or a prosodic expression; however, an why religion is wrong, identification task requires the additional demand of producing a semantic label. Interestingly, all reported emotion recognition deficits did not appear to be related to level of motor disability nor depression level. These findings suggest that comprehension deficits in all forms (ie, cognitive, pragmatic, emotion) are strongly influenced by WM impairment. 15. Several theories have been suggested to explain why facial recognition abilities are compromised by toni summary PD. The simulation theory suggests that the constructive and unconscious tendency for a perceiver to mimic the emotional expression of the interlocutor is what allows us to amygdala function psychology figuratively place ourselves in another person’s situation. Recitatif Summary? 16 Through a process known as facial feedback, the spontaneous mimicry of a partner’s emotional state in one’s own facial expression allows the listener to gain insight into the proper classification of the speaker’s true emotional state by simulating the affective component of the speaker’s perspective. As PD commonly results in a decline in the ability to express emotions via the face, the theory proposes that it is the inability of individuals with PD to properly mimic the speaker’s displayed emotion that results in impaired emotion awareness.
17 Though this theory accounts for an affective component seemingly essential to accurate emotion recognition, it has not been clearly established that to recognize an emotional state, one must also be able to express that state, thus the theory lacks an victim to villain, equally essential cognitive component. Several neural regions and interconnecting “loops” have been proposed as the underlying mechanism controlling emotion recognition. Alexander et al 18 proposed that the neurophysiology of the basal ganglia consists of three separable loops, which serve to connect the putamen, the toni morrison summary, caudate nucleus, and the nucleus accumbens with several cortical and subcortical regions. The circuit contains the critical nigrostriatal and poems attitude, mesolimbic dopaminergic systems, which conjointly function in modulating information processing within the summary, striatum. As each of the three loops differentially connects and affects distinct brain areas, Alexander et al 18 hypothesized that a specific pattern of poems attitude motor, cognitive, and emotional impairment can be anticipated.
Indeed, research suggests that the dorsal putamen, which is directly affected by the “motor loop”, shows severely reduced metabolism in early stages of the disease. Reduced functionality in morrison, the motor loop can result in reduced control over text movement preparation, movement direction, and the velocity and amplitude of movement. 13 Evidence further suggests that as PD progresses, the morrison summary, dorsal caudate nucleus, which receives projections from the “complex loop”, and the posterior parts of the ventral putamen, associated with the “limbic loop”, also show significant metabolism reduction. Importantly, loss of dopamine within the limbic loop has been considered the primary cause for deficient recognition of disgust in people with PD. As previously discussed, Sprengelmeyer et al 13 provided strong evidence of right ventral putamen activation in parallel to viewing facial expressions of disgust. Pragmatic meaning comprehension deficits in PD. Pragmatic meaning comprehension refers to is wrong the ability to understand what a speaker intends to convey with an utterance and is normally focused on nonliteral language such as metaphor, irony, and recitatif morrison, sarcasm. Successful comprehension requires the integration of multiple sources of is wrong information, including the social context, the speaker’s emotional state, and so on.
Several studies within the past decade suggest that nondemented and recitatif, medicated PD patients exhibit deficits in several nonliteral language domains. 19–21 As some degree of function shared understanding of a recipients’ utterance is essential for successful language use, early deficits in this domain should be examined when determining early diagnosis and strongly considered when approaching conversations. Monetta and Pell 20 studied metaphor comprehension in a group of medicated PD patients and found that individuals with PD committed more metaphor interpretation errors and toni morrison summary, were slower to respond compared to control participants. Interestingly, metaphor comprehension was only impaired in PD participants who also demonstrated extreme deficits in WM. 20 In a later work by Monetta et al, 19 irony comprehension and lie detection were examined in string define, a similar nondemented group of PD patients.
Results revealed that PD patients exhibit impaired irony identification, while lie detection remained unimpaired. Recitatif? Consistent with the function, authors’ previous findings, 20 two assessments measuring verbal WM and fluency were strongly related to deficits in the lie detection story task. Recitatif Morrison Summary? 19. In addition to nonliteral language, pragmatic meaning comprehension can also refer to illocutionary force or what a speaker intends to achieve with an utterance. 22 Holtgraves and McNamara 21 investigated PD patients’ speech act comprehension by is wrong having nondemented PD patients and age-matched controls perform a timed lexical decision task following an toni summary, utterance that performed a specific speech act (ie, beg) or a matched utterance that did not perform that speech act. Participants in the control group exhibited the expected priming for the action verb after the speech act utterance. However, the PD participants did not exhibit this priming effect, suggesting that speech act activation is slowed or is no longer an automatic component of comprehension.
21 Additional analyses indicated that this speech act processing deficit was significantly correlated with both symptom severity and EF (Stroop test) performance. String Define? 21 In a follow-up study, the same participants read scenarios and utterances and were asked to provide a single word that they believed best described the recitatif, action the speaker was performing. PD participants correctly identified significantly fewer speech acts than did the control participants, demonstrating a deficit in speech act recognition in example, PD that is independent of temporal constraints. Lloyd 23 also studied illocutionary force in terms of receptive prosodic loss or the ability to comprehend behavioral and verbal nuances during conversation. Results indicated that nondemented PD patients who were not suffering from depression showed impaired ability to accurately identify utterance prosody and displayed deficits for utterance prosody comprehension. Such findings suggest that verbal and emotional nuances, such as a subtle change in tone of voice or facial expression, may go undetected by PD patients. Toni Morrison? 23. Finally, Berg et al 24 examined nonliteral language comprehension in PD patients without cognitive deficits. Poems Attitude? Though language comprehension was studied using a variety of subtasks, only recitatif summary inference accuracy and poems attitude, sentence analysis were significantly impaired in PD participants compared to controls. 24 Understanding the toni morrison, degree to which pragmatic comprehension deficits impact overall understanding of everyday conversation is essential if language use is to be successful. We offer the following empirically based suggestions that may facilitate communication with PD patients.
However, we note that these strategies can be overdone with the speaker being perceived as condescending. Text Example? Hence, judicious care should be taken when following these recommendations so as to recitatif morrison lessen this risk. In addition, just as each individual’s experience with PD is string define unique, utilization of these recommendations are subject to an individual’s specific area(s) of morrison impairment. Thus, physicians, caretakers, and PD patients should discuss particular circumstances in which these recommendations may best serve to facilitate communication. Avoid complex syntax. Research suggests that PD patients display a processing deficit for sentences with a complex syntax.
3 Hence, speakers should make an why religion is wrong, effort to avoid complex constructions such as the use of center-embedded clauses. Avoid taxing WM. Research suggests that reducing the amount of information requiring maintenance in WM can diminish processing deficits in people with PD. 4–6 In addition to simpler syntax, speakers are advised to actively ground their conversational contributions, 25 that is, to morrison summary chunk the information they are conveying into smaller units and wait for daughter relationship, acknowledgment before proceeding. (Note that acknowledgment sometimes may need to recitatif be elicited from the individual.) Clearly delineate topics. Conversations should be structured so as to thoroughly discuss a single subject in a compartmentalized manner before shifting to a new and unrelated topic. Grouping conversation topics will reduce WM load and allow for greater topic understanding even if the patient exhibits impaired processing speed. Set shifting is another EF that has consistently been found to amygdala function psychology be impaired due to PD. 7 This suggests that people with PD may sometimes have difficulty following subtle topic shifts. Toni Morrison Summary? It is recommended, then, that speakers use topic markers (eg, “Returning to what we were talking about earlier…”) and make it clear when transitioning to a new topic.
In addition, it may be beneficial to victim to villain elicit a verbal acknowledgment of topic shifts when discussing related subject matters. Avoid reliance on toni summary emotional expressions. People are typically in the habit of relying on their emotional expressions (either facial expressions or emotional prosody) to allow others to disambiguate their meaning. However, individuals with PD show a deficit in recognizing others’ emotional expressions, especially in terms of emotional prosody. 15 People should be aware of this and not rely so much on emotional expressions to help disambiguate their utterances. Avoid nonliteral meaning. When conversing with people with PD, there should be an attempt to convey meaning directly, so that recipients are not required to engage in extensive inferential processing in order to correctly recognize one’s intended meaning. Furthermore, speakers should encourage patients to give feedback on the interpretation of the conveyed utterance to victim to villain ensure the intended meaning was accurately received. Use performative verbs. In addition to the recognition of nonliteral meaning, it appears that some individuals with PD may be impaired in terms of recognizing speech acts.
21 One way to toni deal with this is to use performative verbs, that is, verbs that name the speech act that is being performed. Hence, to remind someone of something, use a form of the verb “remind” rather than leaving it implicit. Minimize distractions. Conversations with PD patients will be enhanced if they are held in persuasive example, a quiet environment with minimal background distractions and the speaker is recitatif toni morrison summary oriented to face the listener. Also, when speaking to individuals with PD, the speaker should try to speak at an octave slightly above normal range and at a reduced rate, particularly when communicating complex information. To facilitate understanding, phrases should be kept short when possible, and additional pauses should be incorporated when long sentences are required. Relative to text example research on recitatif toni morrison comprehension deficits, there has been less research examining production deficits in PD.
This imbalanced emphasis on comprehension deficits reflects the function, innate difficulty in disentangling the two communication domains. That is, failure to respond appropriately to an utterance could reflect impaired ability to formulate an appropriate response utterance. However, it is just as possible that an inappropriate response results from a failed attempt to comprehend the toni morrison, entirety of an string define, utterance just provided by recitatif toni morrison summary a speaker. Nevertheless, in this section, we review literature on possible language production deficits that result from PD and conclude with our recommendations on factors, which we hope will serve to minimize communication impairments. Reduced language production and informational content in PD. Information has accumulated over the past several decades indicating a significant reduction in psychology, language production and informational content in utterances produced by morrison individuals with PD. In an early study, Cummings 26 examined language production in patients with PD (both with and without various types of dementia). Overall, the language of nondemented PD patients contained lower information context and simpler syntax (relative to expected, norm-based performance). Persuasive Text Example? In a related language production study, Illes et al 27 supported Cummings’ 26 findings of PD patients displaying lower syntactic complexity relative to control participants. However, significant deficits were reported only in those patients who were moderately (and not mildly) impaired. Recitatif Toni Morrison Summary? A possible explanation for mother, this caveat was provided by the additional finding that syntactic complexity was strongly correlated with dysarthria severity and PD severity.
27 Other research programs have found similar deficits when examining spontaneous language production rather than using standardized tests. For example, using a spontaneous task, Small et al 28 found significant differences in sentence length, number of recitatif toni summary propositions, and grammatical complexity between nonimpaired controls and PD participants with moderate dementia; no significant language differences were found between the controls and nondemented and mildly demented PD participants. Using a picture-describing task, Murray 29 reported that PD patients produced fewer grammatical sentences, as well as sentences with reduced informational content, relative to to villain controls. A related study conducted by Murray and toni, Lenz 30 examined language production in conversational discourse and reported no syntactical impairment in the PD group, although the victim to villain, degree of toni summary dementia was negatively related to is wrong syntactic complexity and sentence length. Speech fluency abnormalities, inappropriate pauses, and recitatif toni summary, impaired grammar in PD. In addition to a reduction in utterance informational content 26,29 and an overall drop in why religion is wrong, speech production, 28–30 PD has also been associated with abnormalities in speech fluency in the form of prolonged and inappropriate pauses and incorrect verb usage. Illes 31 examined spontaneous language production in patients with PD and found fluency disruption in the form of toni long-duration silent hesitations as well as open-class verbal paraphasia. However, in contrast to Cummings, 26 PD patients in this study did not significantly differ from controls in terms of syntax. 31 This finding was also demonstrated by Hammen and Yorkston 32 who report that PD patients also demonstrated a tendency to pause inappropriately (eg, within a phrase or a clause) relative to controls. Verbal fluency deficits in PD have been investigated frequently. Henry and poems attitude, Crawford 33 conducted a meta-analysis and concluded that people with PD display significant impairment on measures of both semantic and phonetic fluency.
In addition, the semantic fluency deficit appears to be significantly larger than the phonetic deficit and independent of cognitive speed and recitatif, effortful retrieval, suggesting that semantic memory is particularly impaired in mother relationship, PD. Toni? Furthermore, the relative prominence of semantic to phonetic deficits in string define, PD with dementia is a feature that serves to differentiate it from toni morrison summary, other types of dementia such as Alzheimer’s type. Interestingly, Zanini et al 34 examined sentence production in bilingual PD patients and found more grammatical errors for PD patients, relative to example controls, but only for their first and not their second language. The authors suggest that participants’ first language is more likely to reflect implicit, procedural processing and hence more likely to recitatif toni morrison engage basal ganglia structures, which are impaired with PD. In contrast, a participant’s second language is more likely to reflect explicit processing and hence more likely to engage neocortical structures. 34.
More recently, Troche and Altmann 35 examined the correlation between cognitive deficits and relationship, language production in PD using sentence repetition and generation tasks. Morrison Summary? PD participants produced more fluency irregularities and fewer acceptable sentences than healthy participants in the sentence repetition task. For the sentence generation task, PD participants were impaired, relative to healthy participants, on fluency, grammaticality, and completeness, although the impairment was largest for victim, fluency. However, when cognitive abilities were controlled, deficits seen in repetition tasks were no longer significant, whereas impairment on the sentence generation task remained. 36 Finally, Coleman et al 37 reported a more specific grammatical impairment in PD, a deficit in terms of producing a correct verb form, whereas noun production was not impaired. In sum, there is summary considerable evidence for string define, a cluster of specific language production deficits in PD, including lowered informational content, speech fluency abnormalities, long and toni summary, inappropriate pauses, and why religion is wrong, impaired grammar, all of toni morrison which can influence one’s ability to contribute appropriately to a conversation. These deficits are not necessarily independent.
For example, impaired semantic fluency likely contributes to reduced informational content. String Define? Also, some of these production deficits (eg, lowered informational content) may reflect a comprehension deficit (failure to understand a prior turn) rather than a production deficit per se. In general, these deficits are related to morrison summary overall cognitive ability and are usually related to disease duration and severity. Respiratory physiologic issues and production deficits in PD. Successful speech production relies not only on language planning and cognitive resources but also on string define the capacity to toni summary perform proper motor plans and movements of the why religion is wrong, respiratory, laryngeal, and toni, supralaryngeal systems. Persuasive Text Example? Research on PD-related physiological impairments has shown that people with PD show deficits in each of the mentioned systems during speech production. Morrison Summary? For example, Huber and victim to villain, Darling 38 found that PD patients produced shorter utterances compared to morrison summary control participants and that this reduction was directly related to decreased lung volume initiation and weaker inspiratory duration in the PD group.
Furthermore, Solomon and Hixon 39 found that individuals with PD showed reduced rib cage volume and larger abdominal-based respiration during speech initiation. In addition, these PD patients produced fewer words and decreased overall time producing speech than did control participants. 39 Although impaired respiratory-related physiological factors result in the diminished ability to string define adjust speech volume, studies have also shown that irregular neuronal activity in recitatif summary, the globus pallidus caused by increased rates of apoptosis may underlie the respiratory abnormalities associated with PD. 40,41. Such physiologic deficits need to be considered when engaging in prolonged conversations with individuals who demonstrate this specific impairment. Amygdala Psychology? Further emphasizing the recitatif morrison, need for increased attention to respiratory system deficiency in PD populations, Ho et al 42 investigated the irregularities in speech volume control (hypophonia) caused by amygdala function psychology PD and its significant impact on overall satisfaction gained through human interaction, and specifically conversation. The first two experiments examined the toni morrison summary, impact of amygdala psychology PD on morrison summary an individual’s ability to automatically regulate speech volume when background noise and instantaneous auditory feedback were manipulated. Results showed that compared to controls, PD participants were less able to increase their speech volume when background noise increased and similarly showed reduced tendencies to decrease volume as instantaneous auditory feedback increased. 42 These findings illustrate that individuals with PD tend to demonstrate overconstancy with speech volume and thus fail to accurately respond to contextually appropriate implicit cues. However, in the third experiment carried out by Ho et al, 43 individuals with PD were verbally instructed to increase/decrease their speech volume to determine if participants previously failing to respond to subtle context cues were capable of appropriately modulating their speech volumes.
Findings showed that when verbally instructed to amygdala function psychology do so, PD participants expressed normal fluctuations in volume and recitatif, thus maintained the capacity to vary vocal range. 43. Some researchers have examined how the speech of poems attitude individuals with PD influences the manner in which they are perceived. Pitcairn et al 44 had participants listen to semi-structured interviews with either PD or unimpaired speakers. The PD participants were rated more negatively than controls on several dimensions; they were perceived as more hostile, unhappy, tense, and anxious. Toni Summary? Acoustically, PD individuals displayed less pitch variation and more pauses than the persuasive example, controls. Recitatif Toni Morrison Summary? However, acoustic variability was not significantly related to any of the perceptual dimensions.
44. More recently, Jaywant and Pell 45 used a similar procedure and found, consistent with Pitcairn et al, 44 that PD speakers were perceived as less friendly, happy, involved, and interested than control speakers. Acoustically, PD speakers displayed lower mean intensity, high variability of mother relationship intensity, and shorter total discourse duration, relative to toni summary controls. 45 Unlike Pitcairn et al, 44 this acoustical variability was significantly related to several of the perceived personality dimensions. In terms of perceptions of the content of talk, there was an unexpected finding for the content of the PD speakers’ talk to be perceived more positively (eg, coherent, comprehensible, interesting) than that of the daughter relationship, control participants’ talk. The authors speculate that the briefer descriptions provided by the PD speakers were more to the point, hence resulting in greater perceived coherence.
In any event, the authors emphasize the negative consequences of summary PD speech in that they tend to be perceived as less friendly, happy, and victim, involved. 45. Pragmatic production deficits in PD. An early report examining pragmatic production deficits in recitatif toni morrison summary, PD was conducted by McNamara and Durso, 46 in which, participants (PD and control) engaged in brief conversations with a member of the research team. The conversations were coded using the function psychology, pragmatic checklist of recitatif toni morrison summary Prutting and Kirchner 47 , a scheme for classifying social language skills in terms of verbal features (eg, topic selection, topic maintenance, turn taking, lexical variation), paralinguistic features (prosody, vocal quality), and nonverbal features (eg, gaze, gestures). PD participants were impaired on 20.4#37; of the string define, items relative to the control participants. However, the PD and control participants did not vary significantly on toni morrison summary measures of victim to villain mental status or verbal fluency (although the scores of the former were lower than the latter on both), suggesting that the recitatif toni morrison, pragmatic impairment was not simply reducible to global cognitive deficits or poverty of why religion is wrong speech. 46 At the same time, there were significant PD–control differences on recitatif the performance of tasks related to frontal lobe deficits (Stroop test and design fluency), and for poems attitude, the PD participants, these measures were significantly correlated with their pragmatic performance. 46 In a separate study, PD participants were asked to rate themselves on dimensions derived from the toni morrison, protocol of Prutting and Kirchner, 47 and their spouse or significant other also rated them using the same items.
The PD participants consistently overestimated their pragmatic abilities, relative to poems attitude the ratings provided by their spouse or significant other, differences that were significant for speech acts, lexical selection, stylistics, and recitatif summary, conversational appropriateness. A similar study was conducted more recently by Hall et al 48 using the poems attitude, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago’s Rating Scale of Pragmatic Communication Skills, 49 a scale that evaluates ten categories of pragmatic function, four nonverbal dimensions (intonation, eye contact, facial expressions, gestures and proxemics) and six verbal dimensions (conversational initiation, turn-taking, topic maintenance, response length, presupposition, referencing skills). PD participants were significantly impaired overall, and the impairment was greater for nonverbal dimensions than for recitatif, verbal dimensions. In addition, there were substantial correlations between the degree of overall pragmatic impairment and mental status, motor severity, and disease duration. 48. A more specific pragmatic production deficit, the production of uninformative utterances, was examined by Holtgraves et al. 50 PD and string define, healthy control participants’ were interviewed regarding family, work history, daily activities, and so on. These interviews were taped and later coded by two raters (blind to group membership) in terms of degree of utterance informativeness. PD participants produced a significantly larger number of under-informative turns than did control participants.
Importantly, the degree of recitatif toni morrison informativeness was significantly correlated with automatic speech act recognition (as reported in Holtgraves and McNamara 21 ). That is, the less PD participants were able to victim recognize the intention behind another’s remark, the greater their degree of under-informativeness in the interview. Recitatif Morrison? 50. One promising approach to why religion pragmatic production deficits in recitatif toni morrison, PD is mother daughter politeness theory. 51 In this approach, language users are assumed to be attentive to situation-based interpersonal considerations and structure their utterances so as to be responsive, to varying degrees, to recitatif these considerations. Holtgraves and McNamara 21 used politeness theory to examine the possibility that individuals with PD might suffer a deficit in terms of victim conversational appropriateness. Using a role-playing methodology, PD and healthy controls were asked to indicate what they would say in various situations in which request imposition and power were manipulated. In general, PD participants produced lower levels of morrison politeness and, more importantly, were less sensitive to example variations in request size than were healthy controls; the former failed to modulate the politeness of their requests as a function of request size to recitatif morrison the extent that the control participants did.
Insensitivity to power differences also occurred, but only for participants who were on large dosages of medication. Persuasive Example? Specifically, PD participants who were on higher dosage levels, relative to PD participants on lower dosage levels and control participants, did not vary their politeness as a function of the recipient’s power. 21. More recently, researchers have begun to analyze the manner in recitatif toni, which individuals handle some of the pragmatic difficulties that may occur when interacting with PD patients. Considerable complexity emerges when an interacting dyad is treated as a system, and PD communication deficits can impact that system in multiple and complex ways.
The approach taken by these researchers – conversation analysis (CA) – is a rigorous empirical approach that attempts to uncover regularities in conversation. 52 Although there is amygdala psychology a substantial CA literature, attempts to use this methodology in the examination of pragmatic difficulties in PD are recent and rare. Saldert et al 53 and Griffiths et al 54 examined in detail naturally occurring conversations between PD patients and nonimpaired others (Griffiths et al 55 for a more general discussion on recitatif toni the use of CA for analyzing PD interactional difficulties). These interactions were recorded and analyzed using common CA techniques. Several consistent patterns emerged. Persuasive Text Example? First, Griffiths et al 54 focused on talk overlap.
Although overlapping talk occurs in conversation, it is recitatif toni morrison summary relatively infrequent and typically handled quickly and mother daughter, efficiently with repair (ie, attempts to correct) sequences. 56 But timing is morrison summary critical for poems attitude, these sequences to function, and since individuals with PD produce more silent pauses, 31 the integrity of recitatif toni this system can be undermined. Also, as has been demonstrated, there is a strong systematic preference for self-repair over string define other-repair. Toni? 57 However, PD speakers, due to both speech production (dysarthria) and cognitive deficits, are at a disadvantage in initiating repair sequences. And, in fact, this difficulty appears to frequently result in the deletion of PD turns at talk. Saldert et al 53 focused primarily on trouble sources in conversations with PD participants. An important contribution of why religion their work was the identification of cognitive difficulties as contributing to the initiation of repair sequences. Morrison? Specifically, 70#37; of the instances of other-repair in these conversations were related to the semantic content of a turn produced by the individual with PD, typically word-finding difficulty or use of string define atypical wording. The approach taken by these researchers is extremely important because it points specifically to the interactional difficulties that may occur in morrison, PD and how speech and cognitive deficits associated with PD may be magnified in interactional settings.
We provide below a set of recommendations based on the literature reviewed earlier. As with our previous recommendations, these should be applied judiciously in order to avoid being perceived as condescending. Do not judge. Individuals with PD display a variety of language production deficits (long and inappropriate pauses, reduced information content, impoliteness) that may result in negative perceptions. Awareness that these features may be part of the string define, symptomatology resulting from this disorder is helpful in avoiding these unwarranted perceptions. Note also that research suggests a lack of awareness on the part of people with PD regarding their communication deficits. 58. Be patient/do not rush.
One of the clearest PD production deficits is the occurrence of long and morrison summary, sometimes inappropriate pauses. 27 These can be problematic because of the persuasive example, critical role played by pauses in the management of conversational turn-taking. When interacting with PD individuals, it may be helpful to maintain awareness of their tendency to morrison pause and give them time to complete any turns before initiating one’s own turn. It is clear that there are multiple communication deficits associated with PD. The purpose of this paper was to organize and summarize existing empirical research on these deficits and provide recommendations for dealing with these deficits in order to facilitate communication with those who suffer from persuasive example, PD. The deficits we review manifest as both difficulties comprehending others, what we refer to as comprehension deficits, as well as difficulties contributing satisfactorily to verbal interactions with others, what we refer to as production deficits. Many of these communication difficulties worsen with disease duration and disease severity, and some are helped with dopaminergic medication. In addition, some of these deficits are a result of general cognitive decline, especially impaired WM and set-shifting abilities.
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Seltzer B, Vasterling JJ, Mathias CW, Brennan A. Recitatif Toni? Clinical and poems attitude, neuropsychological correlates of impaired awareness of deficits in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease: a comparative study. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol . 2001;14(2):122–129. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of toni this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the text, Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms.
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