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Arts: Film/The Pianist term paper 20313. This analysis of The Pianist (Roman Polanski, 2002) will argue that the use of realism through each of the technical codes of style enhances the expressions of the text in its predominant realistic settings consistent with the era in which the story takes place. Hr Practices? It will also assess the ways in which these technical codes interact to create its desired effect. Make And How To Avoid Them? The different meanings constructed within the text will also be analysed. Each code will consist of justifications for each point and examples will be given to provide evidence of each constructed meaning. Hr Practices? At the conclusion of the discussion, after each technical code has been analysed, a conclusion will be drawn upon to combine each code into one and to dissect these and then to combine them back together to create the overall stylistic expression of the text, which will be considered as ‘sombre realism’. The Mise en Scene in the 2002 film The Pianist, works around a realistic perception of stylization which is seen throughout the film. The use of dull colours to emphasize the depressive feeling of the characters is highlighted with their costume, set decoration as well as the buildings around them. The text is set in from pulp fiction, the early 1940’s period of World War II and every part of the mise en scene has been carefully created to conform with this era in hr practices, order to make it seem realistic. Natural soft lighting is used throughout the text, and it is from pulp, only used in scenes out of the hr practices Jewish Ghetto.

For example, an interior scene within the apartment of one of the protagonists’ friends who is trying to help him shows very bright natural light to create a binary opposition between the world of the main character, and that of the Polish people who are considered much more contented. This use of three point lighting reflects both worlds in very different ways. Inside the Ghetto, very little lighting is used, and many grey and brown shades of colour are used together with the lack of lighting to a Novel Conde create the hr practices necessary sensitivity to evoke the scene from fiction emotions of hopelessness and despair. Make up and costume also plays an imperative part in establishing the realism of the text. At the commencement of the film each character is considered well groomed and looking in good health, all with costume consistent with that of the hr practices pre-war period.

Also, it would be near impossible to tell the difference between a Jew and a Pole. Naturalism? However, as the text progresses, the health and look of the Jewish people living inside the Ghetto decreases, this is made very relevant considering the ways in which they are living. All of this culminates in the end, after the protagonist has made it so far to reach the end of the hr practices war, albeit looking much discarded; he manages to borrow a German officer’s coat to keep him warm. This proves to be a bad idea when the Polish police begin shooting at before, him, thinking he is a German. This creates an ironic stylized effect which is unknown throughout the previous sections of the hr practices text.

As noted before, realism plays a very important part in such a film set in from, such a time. The acting styles within this text also reflect that fact. A very serious undertone is used throughout, with very little humour to set the sombre undertones that is needed to in effect echo within the text. The use of language code between characters throughout the text is somewhat inconsistent, to also evoke the realism of the hr practices time. For example, German officers only on The Miracles speak German throughout the text, whether this is speaking to other officer’s or the Jews themselves.

The Jew’s on the other hand speak English consistently, while speaking German and hr practices, Hebrew sporadically at certain times throughout the text while communicating with other characters. The cinematography in The Pianist is effective in creating the desired depressive war time effects all throughout the film. The camera is efficient in on The of Cannabis, drawing attention to the very small important details that the mise en scene puts out hr practices, there in front of the camera. For example, character expressions are very important in such a film to evoke all of the necessary emotions to the audience. With the use of low angle to medium shots, the camera is used to take the characters out of the picture and into the minds of the Essay audience. Swift camera movements and extreme close ups throughout the war action scenes assist in making the conflict a lot more realistic and believable. Hr Practices? This emphasises the nature of the conflict making it appealing and showing the true nature of scene from war. On the exterior scenes of the wall, the camera movements are much more steady and stable, tracking down characters along the footpath. For example, at one stage while the hr practices protagonist is walking down the path at night time in an attempt not to be seen, a consistent frame image is created with the camera to induce the feeling that the character does not want to be seen, and certainly not caught. Where mobile framing is concerned, pan shots are used frequently to show the destruction that the war has bought to the world of the story. These pan shots are used at various stages throughout the text, each time bringing a different meaning to the story to create the feeling of realism.

Within these pan shots, shots of long duration are used in combination with the music (which will be discussed later in depth) to steady the motion of the forthcoming story. Potato? The continuity editing system is used throughout most of The Pianist, this making for greater realism and allowing the story world to speak for hr practices, itself. However, at selected parts the montage editing system is used. In these sections, they are combined each time with musical score to show the expressions of the naturalism Jewish people as they are being relocated, usually between Ghettos. Hr Practices? This editing system places a greater emphasis on the relationships between shots and the graphic, rhythmic, spatial and temporal possibilities of these relationships, and the way they affect the on The story world within the text. Elliptical editing also plays an important factor throughout various stages of The Pianist. An ellipsis is created at selected stages to move the story onward in less screen time. For example, this can be seen a lot more in the earlier stages of the film, particularly when new policies are coming in from the German government to the Jewish people such as when they have to wear their arm bands. These elliptical instances are much more frequent in hr practices, the early stages, while the beginnings of the war are coming into from pulp, plan and everyone is being affected by them. Diegetic sound plays a very important role from the outset in hr practices, establishing each and every emotion in The Pianist.

With the use of the piano as a recurring motif throughout the film in order to a Novel by Maryse express the hr practices feeling of the people around him, as well as the a Novel by Maryse feelings inside himself, the protagonist uses diegesis to exemplify the feelings of everyone in hr practices, the story world to the audience. Sound perspective is also apparent within the text, bringing a sense of spatial distance and location analogues to the cues for visual depth and volume which is obtainable through its visual perspective. Together with this, it becomes clear that non-diegetic sound is also very influential in realising the expressional realism throughout the film. American Naturalism? The dynamics of the score are very consistent the entire way through, and hr practices, the sound of the piano music becomes almost expected during scenes of despair for the characters involved. Non-diegetic sound is on The Miracles, very significant in hr practices, this way, especially during long establishing shots of nationalism ww1 landscape showing the destruction that the hr practices war has bought to the characters involved in the world of the story. While the haunting sound of the piano is notable throughout most of the on The of Cannabis text, there are also stages in the film whereby other sources of sound can be heard. For example, when the Jews have first moved to the Ghetto, a group of them are made to hr practices dance on the side of the road by the German officers. Cheerful diegetic music is made to be played by the band as the Jews who are in fear of being shot dance around with each other, at the amusement of the German guards. While the sound may be cheerful in itself, the meaning that this conveys certainly is not. The expressive meaning here is scene from pulp, that the sound is being used to sarcastically make the Jewish dancers feel even more worthless, and in turn make others laugh at them.

This analysis of hr practices The Pianist has discussed the ways in which each of the technical codes of film style affects the meanings that the text itself conveys to the audience. Mise en scene commented on the all important aspect of realism and Segu Conde Essay, the ways that costume, make up and setting all combine together to influence the war-time period setting. This section also highlighted that the lighting (or sometimes lack of) influenced the hr practices feelings of the people involved in the story world. The section on cinematography furthermore noted the aspects of shot duration with special consideration to the ways in which the camera takes the potato ireland characters expressive emotions and gives them to the audience. Editing discussed the systematic use of the types of editing used in the text, while highlighting on the important aspect on the way elliptical editing uses time as a method of conveying a meaning. Hr Practices? Lastly, sound emphasised the impact of the motif piano throughout the text, both as a signifier as well as a source of diegetic sound. With all of these four technical codes combined, a steady conclusion can be made about the intended focus on the world of the story. Firstly, the fiction impact on hr practices realism is obviously a key factor in determining the emotive instances of the text.

This is where mise en scene, cinematography, editing and sound all come together to reactively produce realism. Also, the benefits that sound has upon the text, releasing the feeling from the protagonist, has an everlasting effect that embroils the four technical codes together to produce its required result. Bordwell, David and Thompson, Kristen (2005) Film Art: An Introduction, Seventh Edition. New York: McGraw Hill. The Pianist 2002, Motion Picture, Focus Features, Germany/France/USA, Director: Roman Polanski. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints.

Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the potato famine writer throughout the entire process and hr practices, will receive the paper by american naturalism e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime.

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Future Research Directions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Published in Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 165. pp 838 -844, 2002 Internet address: www.atsjournals.org. THOMAS L. Hr Practices? CROXTON, GAIL G. WEINMANN, ROBERT M. SENIOR, and JOHN R. HOIDAL. Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri; and Department of american Medicine, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. Between 3 and 7 million Americans are currently diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the true prevalence is probably greater than 16 million (1). Hr Practices? Many of these individuals suffer years of progressive discomfort and disability. With the number of deaths per year attributed to this disease at approximately 100,000 and increasing, COPD is now the fourth leading cause of potato famine ireland death in hr practices, this country (2) and is expected to be third by the year 2020. Cigarette smoking is firmly established as the major cause of COPD, but approximately one-quarter of Americans continue to smoke, despite aggressive smoking prevention and cessation efforts.

Better means are clearly needed for the prevention and potato ireland treatment of COPD, and more scientific research is hr practices, needed to enable improvements in its clinical management. Unfortunately, research progress in this field has been slow. Most basic scientific research over the past 35 years has focused on Essay on The of Cannabis the pathogenetic roles of cigarette smoke, inflammation, and protease/antiprotease balance, based on the association of COPD with cigarette smoking and hr practices the early discovery that a subgroup of patients with emphysema is genetically deficient in an inhibitor of a neutrophil protease (3). Although the cigarette-inflammation-protease theory captures key features of Segu a Novel by Maryse Essay COPD epidemiology and pathology, this approach has not yet led to a reduction in COPD prevalence or morbidity, to the development of any therapy proven to modify the disease process itself, or to an adequate understanding of hr practices how risk factors other than cigarette smoking may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. However, there are encouraging indications for future COPD research. Data that support several novel concepts have been presented, there have been unanticipated discoveries, and new experimental approaches and techniques that are aptly suited to COPD research have been developed. Furthermore, elucidation of cellular pathways that are critically involved in COPD pathogenesis may lead rapidly to clinical trials of potential therapeutics, given the famine improving capabilities of the pharmaceutical industry for development of mechanism-specific drugs.

Because of the enormous public health burden imposed by hr practices, COPD and the urgent need for research progress in this area, the a Novel Conde Essay National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI, Bethesda, MD) convened a Working Group to hr practices discuss potential directions for future investigations. This group was charged with evaluating the Essay current state of hr practices knowledge, identifying critical gaps in our knowledge, and understanding, recognizing the most promising opportunities, and Essay developing specific recommendations to be used by the NHLBI in planning its promotion of hr practices future COPD research. This article is a summary of that Working Group meeting. Scene? Specific recommendations for hr practices future research directions in COPD follow a discussion of Essay on The of Cannabis several intriguing clinical and hr practices epidemiological characteristics of COPD that must be accounted for in a more complete theory of disease pathogenesis and a review of potato famine ireland research advances that may foreshadow important new areas of investigation. COPD is a collection of conditions, including emphysema and hr practices chronic obstructive bronchitis, which are characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is Three Managers And How Essay, not substantially reversed by bronchodilators.

COPD is most commonly seen in hr practices, long-term smokers and potato is usually associated with progressive decline in pulmonary function, more rapid than that associated with normal aging. A variety of injurious stimuli, including cigarette smoke, pancreatic elastase, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, cadmium, chloramine-T, oxidants, silica, and hr practices severe starvation, can induce changes in animal lungs that model aspects of human COPD (4). Because many seemingly unrelated pathways can cause emphysema or bronchitis, the relevance of american any one model to human disease is uncertain. Hr Practices? Conversely, no single theory of COPD is yet capable of encompassing the known correlates of the human disease. Hence, it is instructive to consider certain features of COPD that may not be consistent with a simple cigarette neutrophil protease theory. Airway inflammation and parenchymal inflammation are consistent findings in COPD, and the airways of smokers with airflow limitation contain greater numbers of a Novel inflammatory cells than do the airways of smokers with normal FEV1 (5). Nonetheless, several observations suggest that the connection between COPD and airways inflammation is hr practices, complex.

First, inflammation is observed in the lungs of smokers who do not meet clinical criteria for diagnosis of Segu Conde Essay COPD. Second, inflammation persists long after smoking cessation (6). Third, there is overlap in the profiles of inflammatory cells and mediators expressed in hr practices, COPD and in asthma (7). Fourth, inhaled corticosteroids do not prevent the progressive loss of lung function in subjects with COPD (8). Fifth, the increased numbers of infiltrating macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the lungs of individuals with COPD are less than those observed in naturalism, other inflammatory lung conditions that are not associated with the development of COPD. Furthermore, the hr practices geographical distribution of inflammatory cells is not always concordant with the sites of lung tissue destruction. In many patients, the expression of from pulp fiction COPD is dominated by hr practices, signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis with a common complaint of productive cough. The relationships between mucous hyper-secretion and pathogenetic mechanisms of emphysema and airways obstruction are poorly understood. From Pulp Fiction? Although early epidemiological studies of hr practices occupational cohorts failed to associate mucous hypersecretion with rapid progression of COPD, some more recent population-based studies have reported an association of chronic mucous hypersecretion with accelerated decline in fiction, FEV1 (9). Hr Practices? The question of whether mucous metaplasia and mucous hypersecretion cause annoying but innocuous symptoms or are instead etiologically related to long-term worsening of COPD remains unanswered.

Acute Exacerbations and Bacterial Infections. The slow progression of COPD is typically punctuated by acute exacerbations characterized by increased dyspnea, cough, and potato ireland mucous production often with a change in mucus color. Airway infections are involved in at least some cases but the cause of hr practices most exacerbations is not known. The possible role of pathogens or of the acute exacerbations themselves in progression of COPD remains uncertain. One suggestion is Three Good Make And How Them, that cigarette smoking predisposes to bacterial colonization and that bacterial products then contribute to inflammation, activation of proteases, and alteration in subsequent host responses to inhaled toxicants (10). Despite striking differences between COPD and asthma, several facts demand continued consideration of the relationship between these diseases. First, some patients with COPD show considerable, albeit partial, reversal of hr practices airflow limitation with bronchodilators. Second, methacholine reactivity, a hallmark characteristic of nationalism ww1 asthma, is hr practices, strongly associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 in individuals with COPD (11). Essay Of Cannabis? Third, inflammatory cells and cytokines typical of hr practices allergic disease are increased in the airways of patients with COPD and are associated with more severe disease (7, 12). Scene Pulp? Fourth, transgenic mice overexpressing mediators associated with asthma and allergic disease have shown characteristics of COPD such as airway neutrophilia and emphysema (13, 14). These observations suggest that certain pathogenetic processes may be common to hr practices asthma and COPD.

A basic question regarding pulmonary function in COPD remains unanswered: Why is a simple measure of Segu a Novel by Maryse Conde Essay airflow limitation such a useful index of severity and prognosis across the full range of disease manifestations? Although it is well established that individuals with low FEV1 are more likely to show rapid decline in hr practices, pulmonary function and are more likely to die from Mistakes Good Managers to Avoid Them Essay COPD (15, 16), the connection between specific disease mechanisms and impairment in pulmonary function remains unclear. Hr Practices? In fact, neither CT quantification of Three Mistakes Managers And How Them emphysema nor pathological measures of hr practices airway structural abnormalities correlated well with FEV1 (17). American Naturalism? The meaning of pulmonary function deficits in COPD is further obscured by hr practices, the fact that FEV1 (% predicted) is significantly associated with lung cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality, as well as COPD mortality (16). Finally, although FEV1 is an essential measure in COPD research, its usefulness is Essay on The Miracles of Cannabis, limited by its inability to reveal regional variations in disease within the lungs or to distinguish between a wide range of pathophysiological processes, including smooth muscle hypertrophy, fibrosis, mucous metaplasia, inflammation, and loss of bronchiolar tethering with alveolar destruction. Variation in hr practices, Susceptibility to before ww1 COPD and Disease Progression. Cigarette smoking is by far the most important causative factor for COPD; and in population studies the amount of smoking correlates with loss of lung function. Hr Practices? Nonetheless, only a minority of smokers, widely quoted as 15%, ever develop symptomatic COPD (18). Several genetic and environmental associations have been identified, but the greatest portion of from fiction individual variation in susceptibility cannot be attributed to known factors. Understanding why only certain smokers develop COPD is important not only for hr practices understanding the true mechanisms of disease development, but also because such knowledge might allow targeting of intensive smoking interventions to individuals at highest risk and might enhance the effectiveness of those interventions.

Even among those with COPD, the Segu Essay rate of hr practices decline in FEV1 can vary from apparently normal values to american naturalism greater than 150 ml/year, despite similar smoking histories and levels of initial FEV1 (19). Such striking variation in the rate of decline in FEV1 among individuals suggests that as yet unknown intrinsic or environmental factors may be important determinants of disease course. These factors may or may not be the same as those determining susceptibility to disease. There is also remarkable unexplained variation in hr practices, the manifestations of american COPD with regard to the severity of bronchitic symptoms, the extent of emphysema, and the distribution of emphysematous changes in hr practices, the lung (centrilobular vs. panlobular patterns). Other Lung Diseases Associated with Cigarette Smoking. Several interstitial lung disorders may be relevant to COPD pathogenesis because they typically occur in current or former smokers: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (including both usual interstitial pneumonitis and desquamative interstitial pneumonitis), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary histiocytosis X (20). Although all of nationalism these conditions involve some form of hr practices lung inflammation, each presents a distinctive pattern of a Novel by Maryse Conde pathological findings, reversibility, responsiveness to hr practices corticosteroids, and potato prognosis. A more complete understanding of hr practices cigarette smoke effects in the lungs should explain these varied diseases as well as COPD. NEW RESULTS, CONCEPTS, AND OPPORTUNITIES IN COPD RESEARCH. COPD researchers have presented a number of unexpected results, novel ideas, and promising approaches for further research. This section briefly describes some innovative concepts identified by the Working Group that may prove important in COPD pathogenesis and some more recent methodological advances that will likely be of value to american research in this field.

Diversity of Protease Functions. In addition to degradation of hr practices elastic fibers and other components of the extracellular matrix, it is now appreciated that proteases have many other pathophysiological actions that may be relevant to COPD pathogenesis (21). Pulp Fiction? Proteases act to facilitate antigen presentation, inactivate host-defensive surfactant protein A, stimulate serous and hr practices mucous secretions, liberate chemotaxins from the extracellular matrix, inhibit removal of apoptotic cells, induce and inactivate interleukin 8, and activate tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 beta. Rational therapeutic agents may possibly be developed by clarification of naturalism which alpha protease actions are of importance in COPD, identification of which of the many proteases elaborated by hr practices, inflammatory and lung septal (endothelial, epithelial, smooth muscle, and fibroblast) cells perform those actions, and design of small molecules with an appropriate spectrum of protease inhibitory activity. Cigarette smoking imposes severe oxidative stress on the lungs both directly, via reactive species in Three Mistakes Make to Avoid, the smoke, and indirectly through activation of inflammatory cells. Hr Practices? Oxidative stress may contribute to COPD through many biological actions, including cellular injury, oxidation and nitration of proteins, changes in Three Good Make And How Essay, gene expression, stimulation of hr practices mucous secretion, inactivation of antiproteases, expression of proinflammatory mediators, remodeling of blood vessels, and enhancement of apoptosis (22). Markers of oxidative stress (e.g., hydrogen peroxide, 8-isoprostane, and lipid peroxides) are elevated in Essay on The Miracles of Cannabis, the breath or serum of subjects with COPD, and epidemiological studies have demonstrated negative associations of dietary antioxidant intake with pulmonary function and with obstructive airway disease (23). A plausible risk factor for the development of COPD is the presence of latent viral infection in hr practices, the lung.

In a study of surgical specimens, a segment of the Three Good Make Essay adenoviral genome was found in greater copy numbers in tissues from patients with airflow limitation than in tissues from control subjects. In a guinea pig model, latent adenoviral infection potentiated the inflammatory effects of cigarette smoke, and transfection of cells in vitro with adenoviral DNA was shown to activate nuclear factor B and potentiate corticosteroid-resistant production of interleukin 8 (24, 25). Chronic bronchitis is associated with hyperplasia of both epithelial goblet cells and submucosal glands in the airways. Mucous hypersecretion may also be induced by inflammation in the absence of substantial gland enlargement (26). Hr Practices? Progress is american naturalism, being made in identifying the cellular pathways by which diverse stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, increase epithelial mucin secretion. The protein tyrosine kinase c-Src and hr practices the mitogenactivated protein kinase Erk 1/2 appear to be important in transducing signals initiated by components of cigarette smoke (27). Less is known about the regulation of submucosal glands, despite the fact that these are the source for most of the mucus in Segu by Maryse, the airways (28). Emphysematous human lungs showed increased numbers of apoptotic alveolar endothelial and epithelial cells in comparison with control lungs (29). Although the cause and significance of this finding remain uncertain, there are several possible links between programmed cell death and mechanisms of COPD pathogenesis. First, excess protease activity could cause cellular apoptosis through loss of cell matrix attachments.

Second, the apoptotic rate regulates the lifetimes of various inflammatory cells; and cigarette smoke extracts induced apoptosis of alveolar macrophages in vitro (30). Third, neutrophil elastase can inactivate a phosphatidylserine receptor involved in hr practices, cellular uptake and potato removal of apoptotic cells (31), possibly enhancing inflammation through diminished release of transforming growth factor beta or through the release of hr practices inflammatory mediators from neutrophils that are not properly removed. Role of Blood Vessels. Treatment of rats with a blocker of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) type 2 receptor caused emphysema that was associated with endothelial cell apoptosis and ww1 with markers of oxidant stress but was not accompanied by inflammation (32). The relevance of this process to COPD is supported by observations that oxidant stress decreases VEGF levels and that expression of both VEGF and its receptor are decreased in emphysema (29). Hr Practices? Emphysema might result from failure of a lung cellular and molecular maintenance program due to a vicious cycle of oxidant stress and protease activation. Little is known regarding chronic regulation of alveolar septal endothelial cells, but studies of larger pulmonary vessels indicate that endothelial injury can lead to increased elastase activity and degradation of extracellular matrix (33).

An attractive therapeutic goal would be reversal of emphysema by increasing the number of alveoli. Potato Ireland? One model for this process is the hr practices septation of scene from pulp alveoli that occurs during late fetal and postnatal development. Hr Practices? Although it has generally been assumed that adult lungs lack a capability for a Novel by Maryse Conde alveolar plasticity, the hr practices emphysema caused by lung instillation of elastase in adult rats was reversed by treatment with all- trans retinoic acid (34). A feasibility study of retinoic acid is underway in subjects with COPD. There has been encouraging progress in the identification of chemical markers of COPD.

Subjects with stable COPD were shown to have elevated markers of nationalism before ww1 oxidant stress in exhaled air (35), of inflammation in hr practices, serum and sputum (36, 37), and of elastin degradation in urine (38). These results suggest that multifaceted characterization of COPD patients may be possible by noninvasive means. Pulmonary function is influenced by heredity (39, 40). There is also familial aggregation of COPD, indicating probable heritability of risk factors for the disease (41). Precisely how genetic factors contribute to Three Make the risks of development and progression of COPD remains unknown, but there has been progress toward identification of relevant genes. Case control studies suggested associations between COPD and polymorphisms of the alpha1-antitrypsin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and surfactant protein B genes (19, 42, 43).

A genome-wide screen of families having a proband with severe, early-onset COPD identified interesting regions on several chromosomes that may yield linkages with phenotypes of hr practices airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis (44). Only modest progress has been made in characterizing the lung inflammation associated with COPD, particularly in comparison with the extensive profiling that has been performed in potato famine ireland, individuals with asthma. There are increased numbers of CD8 + T cells in the airways and lung parenchyma of smoking subjects with COPD, and there is a negative correlation between FEV1 (% predicted) and hr practices CD8+ T cell number (45). Three Mistakes Good And How To Avoid Essay? The large airways of smokers with severe COPD show increased numbers of hr practices neutrophils, macrophages, and natural killer lymphocytes in comparison with smokers without clinically defined COPD; and each of these cell types is negatively associated with FEV1 (5). Neutrophils tend to localize with the airway epithelium, but nodules of B lymphocytes are found in the submucosa and adventitia (46). Substantial progress in Segu a Novel Conde Essay, immunological research should provide a basis for detailed characterization of the inflammatory process in COPD.

Airspace enlargement has been seen in numerous genetic mouse models, including both inbred strains (e.g., tight skin, pallid, and blotchy mice) and mice designed with constitutive overexpression of particular genes (e.g., collagenase or platelet-derived growth factor B). Hr Practices? More recently, mouse models with inducible, lung-specific expression of american particular cytokines have been shown to hr practices manifest lung abnormalities that are clearly not attributable to by Maryse Conde aberrant development of the lung. Overexpression of interleukin 11 in adult mice produced peribronchiolar lymphoid nodules similar to those observed in human COPD but did not cause emphysema (47). Overexpression in adult mice of either interferon, a major product of hr practices CD8+ lymphocytes, or interleukin 13, a mediator associated with CD4+ T cells and scene from pulp fiction asthma, produced emphysema-like changes (14, 48). These models showed distinguishable profiles of increased protease expression and only interleukin 13 caused mucous metaplasia. Finally, a gene-targeting approach (loss of function) has proven useful for testing the contributions of hr practices various matrix metalloproteinases in the development of Segu Conde Essay cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in the mouse (4).

Developments in three techniques for lung imaging may allow more sensitive detection and better quantification of lung injury in hr practices, smokers and patients with COPD. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) now provides images of airways as small as 2 mm and indices of parenchymal density that correlate well with diffusing capacity (49). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tracer gases in the lungs can demonstrate ventilation in real time (50) and may provide a measure of Three Mistakes Managers Make And How alveolar size (51). Positron emission tomography (PET) can potentially be used to quantify inflammatory cell activity in the lungs (52). These methods may prove to be of hr practices great value for characterization of the lung in COPD with respect to localization of disease (e.g., pattern of emphysema by CT), physiological sequelae (e.g., air trapping by MRI), and in vivo biochemical and cellular analyses (by PET).

Molecular Characterization of Diseased Tissues and Cells. The identification of most human genes paves the way for characterization of diseased tissues at an unprecedented level of molecular detail. American Naturalism? The expression levels of a multitude of genes in a tissue can be assayed with microarrays of gene-specific probes, whereas reverse transcription in histological sections can be used to show the distribution of expression of a particular gene at high spatial resolution. Development of antibody-based microarrays may allow characterization of the expression of multiple genes at the protein level. Hr Practices? Of particular interest to COPD research, given the multiplicity of nationalism before ww1 cell types in the lung, are methods such as laser capture microdissection for isolation of RNA from single cells (53) and hr practices techniques for reverse transcription and cDNA amplification in Conde Essay, situ . Coupled with sensitive assays, these developing methods may allow gene expression profiling at the single-cell level (54). Hr Practices? Immunoblot analysis of a protein from a single cell may also be possible by amplification of a double-stranded DNA label on the secondary antibody (55). Classes of pharmaceuticals of potential usefulness in nationalism before, COPD that are either available now or are anticipated in the near future include long-acting M3-selective muscarinic antagonists, leukotriene B4 inhibitors, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, thromboxane antagonists, endothelin antagonists, adenosine A2a agonists, antioxidants, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitors, adhesion molecule antagonists, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, interleukin 8 antagonists, tumor necrosis factor antagonists, neutrophil elastase inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, tachykinin antagonists, mucolytics, antiapoptotic compounds, and enhancers of mucociliary clearance. Even when proof of principle is established, the ability of any of these agents to hr practices alter outcomes in COPD remains speculative because the critical pathogenetic pathways for this disease have not yet been determined. American? An important limiting factor in development of drug treatments for COPD is the lack of efficient and economical means to identify which drugs are most likely to be of value and to hr practices test their clinical efficacy.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. There was consensus among members of the Working Group that the ireland following objectives are important to hr practices COPD research and are feasible within approximately five years. It was noted that the accomplishment of these goals will require a substantial increase in COPD research activity, with training and recruitment of additional researchers and Miracles enhanced cooperation between universities and hr practices the pharmaceutical industry. In many cases, the need has long been recognized, but the opportunity to accomplish the research has come about as a result of the development of new experimental tools and techniques. Description of the Disease Process. Characterization of Good human lung tissues by advanced molecular, biochemical, microbiological, and hr practices histopathological methods. Research progress in COPD is hampered by a lack of fundamental knowledge regarding the pathology of this disease, particularly with regard to small airways.

Changes with COPD in the structure, cellular composition, inflammatory status, and chemical milieu of the lung are poorly defined, as are the fiction relationships of these changes to hr practices clinical manifestations of the disease. There is a need for systematic comparison of lung structural, inflammatory, and Essay on The biochemical characteristics with clinical history, status, and hr practices course. Characterization of lung tissues can now be performed with exquisite detail, using advanced methods of immunology, viral and microbial detection, molecular histopathology, microarray profiling of gene expression, and proteomic analysis. An appropriate source of tissues for such studies may be surgical specimens from individuals with suspected lung cancer, a population that is at substantial risk for COPD. An appropriate mechanism might be a cooperative research program that combines the efforts of academic and industrial researchers in characterization of a large number of subjects and in ireland, the establishment of a repository for DNA, tissues, other biological specimens, and clinical data. Biomarkers and intermediate end points. One limitation in COPD research is the lack of readily measurable markers that correlate with disease severity or outcome. Long-term monitoring of declines in hr practices, FEV1 has been used to identify risk factors and gauge the efficacy of putative therapies, but that approach is slow and expensive. Biomarkers of COPD would be of scene from fiction value for investigations of the natural history and hr practices epidemiology of COPD, for phenotyping in genetic studies, and for clarifying the fiction relationships of animal models to hr practices human disease.

Validated surrogate markers of COPD might also serve as intermediate end points for evaluations of efficacy and appropriate dosage of potential therapeutic agents in relatively short-term studies. Markers involving noninvasive methods would be of particular value. A wide range of possible approaches exists, including ( 1 ) chemicals in breath, sputum, blood, or urine that reflect lung inflammation or injury; ( 2 ) improved noninvasive mechanical tests of lung function; ( 3 ) proteomic and gene expression profiling; and ( 4 ) lung imaging by famine, CT, MRI, or PET. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of hr practices well characterized smokers with and without COPD are needed to evaluate the correlation of a broad array of putative markers with COPD susceptibility, severity, exacerbation, and progression. Inflammation. Despite the failure of inhaled corticosteroids to slow the famine ireland decline of FEV1 in hr practices, COPD (8), other anti-inflammatory agents might be highly effective.

Studies are needed to better characterize the inflammation of COPD, to define what is appropriate immune function in the lung, and to from pulp fiction discover pharmacological means for ensuring beneficial, rather than injurious, contributions of lung inflammatory cells. Three lines of investigation may be involved. First, extensive characterization of the inflammatory status of hr practices smokers with and Segu a Novel by Maryse Conde without COPD is needed to define the hr practices subtypes of inflammatory cells present, the movement and fate of immune cells recruited to the lung, and the particular cytokines involved. Second, genetic factors governing immune responsiveness should be identified and tested as possible determinants of susceptibility to lung injury. Third, in vitro systems and animal models should be utilized to investigate the effects of tobacco smoke components on inflammatory cells and to study inflammatory cell trafficking and mechanisms of sustained inflammation.

Genetic risk factors. A knowledge of genetic determinants of COPD could lead to recognition of biochemical pathways that contribute to the disease and potato ireland allow targeting of public health interventions to individuals at greatest risk. A program for identification of genes related to COPD should consider several issues: First, simultaneous characterization of multiple phenotypes will be necessary because different genes may be related to different aspects of the disease (e.g., susceptibility, severity, propensity to exacerbation, rate of progression, and chronic bronchitis vs. emphysema). Second, family-based studies involving genome-wide screening by linkage analysis of hr practices affected sibling pairs or extended pedigrees should be used because there is a high probability that unsuspected genes are involved. Families in isolated populations, rather than outbred populations like the general U.S. population, may be studied more efficiently. Third, animal models are an essential component of a human genetics program because they can be used to identify candidate genes and to study the pathophysiological ramifications of a defined genotype.

Fourth, case-control association studies of particular candidate genes will eventually be needed to test the relevance of results obtained in particular families to potato the disease in the general population. Selection criteria for candidate genes should include probable biological relevance to known pathophysiology, evidence of involvement with disease in animal models, and data from human studies for gene linkage with COPD. Fifth, although not ideal for hr practices genetic studies, clinical trials involving large numbers of well-characterized subjects with COPD should obtain and archive DNA samples whenever possible to scene pulp fiction allow for hr practices later analysis of candidate genes. Causes and consequences of exacerbations. Although disease exacerbations are a major concern of both patients with COPD and their physicians, an understanding of the origins and development of these episodes is lacking. There is a need for research directed toward identifying the a Novel Essay bases of COPD exacerbations and clarifying the hr practices pathophysiological processes that contribute to worsening of symptoms.

Of particular interest are the roles of Mistakes Managers Make infectious agents, other environmental insults, and hr practices immune responsiveness in exacerbations and the relationships between exacerbations and the underlying disease process. Mucous metaplasia and excess mucous secretion. Mucous production is american, troublesome to many patients with COPD, yet little is known regarding the mechanisms of hr practices mucous hypersecretion, the benefits and risks associated with increased mucous production, or the means whereby mucin secretion, mucus composition, and mucociliary clearance might be therapeutically regulated. Essay On The? Research is needed to expand our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mucous metaplasia and excess mucous production. Studies of the submucosal glands of small airways are especially needed because these glands are probably of hr practices most importance in COPD and have attracted relatively little research interest. Animal models. The development of new animal models of COPD is important for hypothesis testing regarding pathogenetic mechanisms of COPD. Topics of special interest include the biochemical basis of lung growth, damage, and repair; the nationalism before ww1 necessity and hr practices sufficiency of american naturalism specific inflammatory and mucous pathways for the development of hr practices small airways disease; and the reversibility of lung damage.

Efforts should be made to correlate pulmonary physiological abnormalities, radiographic images, proteomic profiles, and small airway pathology in these animal models. Lung development and alveolar regeneration. Stimulation of alveolar regeneration is an exciting possibility for disease-modifying therapy of COPD. Fundamental advances in Three Good And How, this area are likely to hr practices derive from from animal studies of hr practices alveolar development in the late fetal and postnatal periods. Such research might include gene expression and proteomic analyses of the from pulp fiction developing lung, studies of the regulation of expression of relevant genes, studies of the coordination of vascularization and lung development and hr practices repair, use of transgenic mice to evaluate the role of specific growth factors in the lung, and Good Make And How Them Essay investigations of the mechanisms whereby toxins (e.g., in utero nicotine) impair lung growth. In addition, studies of alveolar regeneration in adults of multiple species are needed to deter-mine the capacity of mature lungs for alveolar regrowth and the conditions under which alveolar regeneration can occur. Clinical studies.

Although not extensively discussed, Working Group participants recommended controlled studies to validate or revise current clinical practices. Potential areas for hr practices such research include, but are not limited to, indications for long-term oxygen therapy, management of sleep disturbance in Segu by Maryse, COPD, alleviation of nocturnal hypoxemia, prevention and treatment of hr practices exacerbations, and better tools for disease monitoring. Acknowledgment : Participants: Chair John R. Hoidal, M.D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Session Chairs David M. Center, M.D. (Boston, MA), Donald J. Massaro, M.D. (Washington, DC), Robert M. Senior, M.D. (St. Louis, MO), Steven D. Shapiro, M.D. Essay? (St. Louis, MO), and Edwin K. Silverman, M.D. (Boston, MA); and Carol B. Basbaum, Ph.D. Hr Practices? (San Francisco, CA), Linda B. Clerch, Ph.D. Pulp Fiction? (Washington, DC), Thomas L. Croxton, Ph.D., M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Francis M. Hr Practices? Cuss, M.D. (Kenilworth, NJ), James Eberwine, Ph.D. (Philadelphia, PA), Dorothy B. Gail, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Jack A. Elias, M.D. (New Haven, CT), Michael D. Goldman, M.D., Sc.D. (Los Angeles, CA), Douglas Hay, Ph.D. (King of Prussia, PA), Peter M. Henson, Ph.D. (Denver, CO), Jonathan Jaffe, M.D. (Kenilworth, NJ), James P. Kiley, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Talmadge E. King, M.D. (San Francisco, CA), Barbara Knorr, M.D. (Rahway, NJ), Claude Lenfant, M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Gloria D. Massaro, M.D. (Washington, DC), George T. O'Connor, M.D. (Boston, MA), Marlene Rabinovitch, M.D. (Toronto, Canada), Sri Ram, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Garth Rapaport, M.B.Bch., MRCP, FFPM (Greenford, Middlesex, UK), Anuradha Ray, Ph.D. (New Haven, CT), Stephen I. Rennard, M.D. (Omaha, NE), James R. Before? Snapper, M.D. (Research Triangle Park, NC), Rubin M. Tuder, M.D. (Baltimore, MD), Norbert F. Voelkel, M.D. (Denver, CO), Gail G. Hr Practices? Weinmann, M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Scott T. Weiss, M.D., M.S. Scene From? (Boston, MA), Robert A. Wise, M.D. (Baltimore, MD), Theodore J. Witek, Jr., Dr.P.H. (Ridgefield, CT). 1. Stang P, Lydick E, Silberman C, Kempel A, Keating ET.

The prevalence of COPD: using smoking rates to estimate disease frequency in hr practices, the general population. Chest 2000;117:354S -359S. 2. Murphy SL. Deaths: Final data for 1998. In: National vital statistics reports. Volume 48, no. 11. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics; 2000. 3. Eriksson S. A 30-year perspective on alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Chest 1996;110:237S -242S.

4. Shapiro SD. Animal models for naturalism COPD. Chest 2000;117:223S -227S. 5. Di Stefano A, Capelli A, Lusuardi M, Balbo P, Vecchio C, Maestrelli P, Mapp CE, Fabbri LM, Donner CF, Saetta M. Severity of airflow limitation is associated with severity of airway inflammation in smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:1277 -1285. 6. Rutgers SR, Postma DS, ten Hacken NHT, Kauffman HF, van der Mark TW, Koeter GH, Timens W. Hr Practices? Ongoing airway inflammation in patients with COPD who do not currently smoke. Thorax 2000;55:12 -18. 7. Jeffery PK. Potato Famine Ireland? Lymphocytes, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Hr Practices? In: Chadwick D and Goode JA, editors.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: pathogenesis to treatment. Novartis Foundation symposium 234. New York: John Wiley Sons; 2001, p. 149 -161. 8. Lung Health Study Research Group. Effect of scene pulp inhaled triamcinolone on the decline in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1902 -1909. 9. Vestbo J, Prescott E, Lange P. Association of chronic mucus hypersecretion with FEV1 decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morbidity. Copenhagen City Heart Study Group. Hr Practices? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:1530 -1535.

10. American Naturalism? Sethi S. Bacterial infection and the pathogenesis of COPD. Chest 2000;117:286S -291S. 11. Hr Practices? Tashkin DP, Altose MD, Connett JE, Kanner RE, Lee WW, Wise RA. Potato Famine? Methacholine reactivity predicts changes in lung function over time in smokers with early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:1802 -1811. 12. Balzano G, Stefanelli F, Iorio C, de Felice A, Melillo EM, Martucci M, Melillo G. Eosinophilic inflammation in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:1486 -1492. 13.

Pan Z-Z, Parkyn L, Ray A, Ray P. Hr Practices? Inducible lung-specific expression of RANTES: preferential recruitment of neutrophils. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2000;279:L658 -L666. 14. Pulp? Zheng T, Zhu Z, Wang Z, Homer RJ, Ma B, Riese RJ Jr, Chapman HA Jr, Shapiro SD, Elias JA. Inducible targeting of IL-13 to the adult lung causes matrix metalloproteinase- and cathepsin-dependent emphysema. J Clin Invest 2000;106:1081 -1093.

15. Scanlon PD, Connett JE, Waller LA, Altose MD, Bailey WC, Buist AS, Tashkin DP. Smoking cessation and lung function in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:381 -390. 16. Hole DJ, Watt GCM, Davey-Smith G, Hart CL, Gillis CR, Hawthorne VM. Impaired lung function and mortality risk in hr practices, men and women: findings from the Renfrew and Paisley prospective population study. Br Med J 1996;313:711 -715.

17. Gelb AF, Hogg JC, Muller NL, Schein MJ, Kuei J, Tashkin DP, Epstein JD, Kollin J, Green RH, Zamel N, et al. Contribution of emphysema and by Maryse Conde small airways to COPD. Chest 1996;109:353 -359. 18. Fletcher C, Peto R, Tinker C, Speizer FE. The natural history of chronic bronchitis and emphysema: an hr practices, eight-year study of early chronic obstructive lung disease in working men in London. New York: Oxford University Press; 1976.

19. Segu A Novel Conde? Sandford AJ, Chagani T, Weir TD, Connett JE, Anthonisen NR, Pare PD. Susceptibility genes for hr practices rapid decline of lung function in the Lung Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:469 -473. 20. Nagai S, Hoshino Y, Hayashi M, Ito I. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2000;6:415 -419. 21. Chapman HA, Shi G-P. Protease injury in the development of COPD. Scene Pulp Fiction? Chest 2000;117:295S -298S.

22. Hr Practices? MacNee W. Oxidant/antioxidants and COPD. Chest 2000;117:303S -317S. 23. Sargeant LA, Jaeckel A, Wareham NJ. Nationalism? Interaction of vitamin C with the hr practices relation between smoking and obstructive airways disease in EPIC Norfolk, European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition.

Eur Respir J 2000;16:397 -403. 24. Retamales I, Elliot WM, Meshi B, Coxson HO, Pare PD, Sciurba FC, Rogers RM, Hayashi S, Hogg JC. Amplification of inflammation in emphysema and its association with latent adenoviral infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:469 -473. 25. Yamada K, Elliot WM, Hayashi S, Brattsand R, Roberts C, Vitalis TZ, Hogg JC.

Latent adenoviral infection modifies the steroid response in allergic lung inflammation. Essay? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:844 -851. 26. Saetta M, Turato G, Facchini FM, Corbino L, Lucchini RE, Casoni G, Maestrelli P, Mapp CE, Ciaccia A, Fabbri LM. Inflammatory cells in the bronchial glands of smokers with chronic bronchitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;157:1633 -1639. 27. Basbaum C, Lemjabbar H, Longphre M, Li D, Gensch E, McNamara N. Control of mucin transcription by diverse injury-induced signaling pathways. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:S44 -S48. 28. Reid L. Measurement of the hr practices bronchial mucous gland layer: a diagnostic yardstick in chronic bronchitis.

Thorax 1960;15:132 -141. 29. Kasahara Y, Tuder RM, Cool CD, Lynch DA, Flores SC, Voelkel NF. Endothelial cell death and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in naturalism, emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:737 -744. 30. Aoshiba K, Yasui S, Nagai A. Apoptosis of alveolar macrophages by cigarette smoke. Hr Practices? Chest 2000;117:320S. 31.

Fadok VA, Bratton DL, Rose DM, Pearson A, Ezekewitz RAB, Hen-son PM. A receptor for phosphatidylserine-specific clearance of apoptotic cells. Nature 2000;405:85 -90. 32. Kasahara Y, Tuder RM, Taraseviciene-Stewart L, Le Cras TD, Abman S, Hirth PK, Waltenberger J, Voelkel NF. Three Make And How To Avoid Them Essay? Inhibition of hr practices VEGF receptors causes lung cell apoptosis and emphysema. J Clin Invest 2000; 106:1311 -1319. 33. Zaidi SHE, You X-M, Ciura S, O'Blenes S, Husain M, Rabinovitch M. American? Suppressed smooth muscle proliferation and hr practices inflammatory cell invasion after arterial injury in elafin-overexpressing mice. J Clin Invest 2000;105:1687 -1695. 34.

Massaro GD, Massaro D. Retinoic acid treatment abrogates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in rats. Nat Med 1997;3:675 -677. 35. Montuschi P, Collins JV, Ciabattoni G, Lazzeru N, Corradi M, Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ. On The Miracles Of Cannabis? Exhaled 8-isoprostane as an in vivo biomarker of lung oxidative stress in patients with COPD and healthy smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:1175 -1177.

36. Fiorini G, Crespi S, Rinaldi M, Oberti E, Vigorelli R, Palmieri G. Serum ECP and MPO are increased during exacerbations of chronic bronchitis with airway obstruction. Biomed Pharmacother 2000;54:274 -278. 37. Keatings VM, Barnes PJ. Granulocyte activation markers in induced sputum: comparison between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and normal subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:449 -453. 38. Viglio S, Iadarola P, Lupi A, Trisolini R, Tinelli C, Balbi B, Grassi V, Worlitzsch D, Doring G, Meloni F, et al. MEKC of desmosine and isodesmosine in urine of chronic destructive lung disease patients.

Eur Respir J 2000;15:1039 -1045. 39. Redline S, Tishler PV, Rosner B, Lewitter FI, Vandenburgh M, Weiss ST, Speizer FE. Genotypic and phenotypic similarities in pulmonary function among family members of adult monozygotic and hr practices dizygotic twins. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:827 -836. 40. Givelber RJ, Couropmitree NN, Gottlieb DJ, Evans JC, Levy D, Myers RH, O'Connor GT. Segregation analysis of pulmonary function among families in the Framingham Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:1445 -1451.

41. Ireland? Silverman EK, Chapman HA, Drazen JM, Weiss ST, Rosner B, Campbell EJ, O'Donnell WJ, Reilly JJ, Ginns S, Mentzer S, et al. Hr Practices? Genetic epidemiology of severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:1770 -1778. 42. Keatings VM, Cave SJ, Henry MJ, Morgan K, O'Connor CM, FitzGerald MX, Kalsheker N. A polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region may predispose to a poor prognosis in Three Managers Make And How to Avoid Essay, COPD. Chest 2000;118:971 -975. 43. Guo X, Lin H-M, Lin Z, Montano M, Sansores R, Wang G, DiAngelo S, Pardo A, Selman M, Floros J. Polymorphisms of hr practices surfactant protein gene A, B, D, and ww1 of SP-B-linked microsatellite markers in hr practices, COPD of a Mexican population.

Chest 2000;117:249S -250S. 44. Silverman EK, Mosley JD, Chapman HA, Drazen JM, Speizer FE, Campbell EJ, Reilly JJ, Ginns LC, Weiss ST. Genome screen linkage analysis of severe, early-onset COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:A909. 45. Saetta M, Baraldo S, Corbino L, Turato G, Braccioni F, Rea F, Cavallesco G, Tropeano G, Mapp CE, Maestrelli P, et al. CD8+ve cells in the lungs of fiction smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:711 -717. 46. Bosken CH, Hards J, Gatter K, Hogg JC. Characterization of the inflammatory reaction in the peripheral airways of cigarette smokers using immunocytochemistry. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:911 -917.

47. Hr Practices? Kuhn C III, Homer RJ, Zhu Z, Ward N, Flavell RA, Geba GP, Elias JA. Airway hyperresponsiveness and airway obstruction in trans-genic mice: morphologic correlates in mice overexpressing interleukin (IL)-11 and Segu by Maryse Essay IL-6 in the lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2000; 22:289 -295. 48. Wang Z, Zheng T, Zhu Z, Homer RJ, Riese RJ, Chapman HA Jr, Shapiro SD, Elias JA. Hr Practices? Interferon gamma induction of pulmonary emphysema in the adult murine lung. J Exp Med 2000;192:1587 -1599. 49.

Nakano Y, Muro S, Sakai H, Hirai T, Chin K, Tsukino M, Nishimura K, Itoh H, Pare PD, Hogg JC, Mishima M. Computed tomographic measurements of airway dimensions and emphysema in smokers: correlation with lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:1102 -1108. 50. de Lange EE, Mugler JP III, Brookeman JR, Knight-Scott J, Truwit JD, Teates CD, Daniel TM, Bogorad PL, Cates GD. Lung air spaces: MR imaging evaluation with hyperpolarized 3 He gas. Radiology 1999;210:851. 51. Chen XJ, Hedlund LW, Moller HE, Chawla MS, Maronpot RR, Johnson GA.

Detection of emphysema in rat lungs by using magnetic resonance measurements of Good Managers Make to Avoid Them Essay 3 He diffusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97:11478 -11481. 52. Jones HA, Shakur BH, Morrell NW. In vivo measurement of inflammatory cell activity in the lungs of patients with COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:A436.

53. Betsuyaku T, Griffin GL, Watson MA, Senior RM. Laser capture micro-dissection and real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction of bronchiolar epithelium after bleomycin. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2001;25:278 -284. 54. Ginsberg SD, Hemby SE, Lee VM, Eberwine JH, Trojanowski JQ. Expression profile of transcripts in hr practices, Alzheimer's disease tangle-bearing CA1 neurons. Scene From? Ann Neurol 2000;48:77 -87. 55. Zhang H-T, Kacharmina JA, Miyashiro K, Greene MI, Eberwine J. Protein quantification from complex protein mixtures using a proteomics methodology with single-cell resolution. Hr Practices? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:497 -502.

( Received in original form August 8, 2001; accepted in final form November 26, 2001 ) Sponsored by potato ireland, the Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and hr practices Blood Institute on March 5-6, 2001 in Bethesda, Maryland.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to hr practices know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the american naturalism, resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Hr Practices! Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at Essay on The Miracles of Cannabis hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to hr practices tailor your resume here . Make And How To Avoid Them Essay! 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.

Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Hr Practices! Put the Best Stuff “Above the famine, Fold” In marketing speak, “above the hr practices, fold” refers to potato ireland what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in hr practices, the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of on The Miracles, a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on hr practices the top third of your resume. Segu A Novel By Maryse Conde Essay! This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for hr practices someone to keep on reading. Scene Pulp! So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . Hr Practices! According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and scene fiction need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the hr practices, position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. Segu A Novel By Maryse Essay! There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is hr practices listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding.

The two- (or more!) page resume is Essay a hotly debated topic , but the hr practices, bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and Segu a Novel by Maryse Conde important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for hr practices it. But if you can tell the same story in scene from pulp, less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out hr practices, how to famine tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on hr practices that document, and Segu by Maryse Conde then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute.

But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and hr practices design? Keep it simple. Potato Famine Ireland! Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hr practices hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Segu Essay! You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully.

If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the hr practices, computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to before make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and hr practices design work to make it awesome. Scene Fiction! 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to hr practices include your address on from your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hr practices, hiring manager can find you on nationalism ww1 the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on hr practices each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in on The Miracles of Cannabis, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right!

13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only hr practices, show the most recent 10-15 years of pulp fiction, your career history and only include the hr practices, experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on Segu a Novel Conde your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Hr Practices! Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for american naturalism the job.

No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. Hr Practices! No matter how good your bullets are, the nationalism ww1, recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out hr practices, these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to from throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the hr practices, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an ireland, assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Hr Practices! Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the scene, hiring manager to hr practices picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to nationalism ww1 achieve them. Hr Practices! Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to famine ireland your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at hr practices your bullet points, think about Good Make And How to Avoid Essay how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only hr practices, what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you.

If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. American! But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in hr practices, your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the Essay on The, result you’re going for! 20. Hr Practices! Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.

There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in Mistakes And How to Avoid, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Hr Practices! Use our handy list of fiction, better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in hr practices, your bullet points. Not only is Three Mistakes Managers Make to Avoid this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in hr practices, applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the from pulp, most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the hr practices, job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the potato ireland, degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from hr practices college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to a Novel list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university.

28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and hr practices your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out Conde, all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and hr practices any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to on The of Cannabis have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Hr Practices! If you have lots of skills related to american a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there.

Again—we’re going for hr practices skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for Three Mistakes Make to Avoid Them a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for hr practices your church on the reg. From Pulp Fiction! Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause.

Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in hr practices, a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of potato famine, months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to hr practices The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Essay On The Miracles Of Cannabis! Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for hr practices leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue.

Re-entering the a Novel Essay, workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on hr practices your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in on The Miracles of Cannabis, gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on hr practices your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it).

While parenting is as demanding and Three Mistakes Good Make to Avoid intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for hr practices references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and pulp fiction clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to hr practices perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer.

To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of before ww1, HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in hr practices, both Google Docs and Word, and potato famine ireland then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and hr practices send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. From! Carve out some time every quarter or so to hr practices pull up your resume and make some updates. Ww1! Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to hr practices keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of potato famine ireland, Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about hr practices elevating the standard of writing on the web.

Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the from pulp, company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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