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business plan ouline Write a Winning Business Plan. B usiness P lanning. What are the Benefits? Every wholesale, retail, and/or service business can benefit from the preparation of a carefully written business plan. Christian Violence! There are two main purposes for writing that plan. There is an additional benefit if you do business internationally. Your business plan will serve as your guide during the lifetime of your operation.

It is the blueprint of your business and will provide you with the tools to analyze your operation and implement changes that will increase your sales and, ultimately, your profitability. A business plan is the merchant full text a requirement if you are planning to seek financing. It will provide potential lenders or investors with detailed information on all aspects of your company's past and current operations and provide future projections. If you do business internationally, a business plan provides a standard means of evaluating your products' business potential in a foreign marketplace. Business Plan Outline. The following pages provide a suggested outline of the material to be included in fundamentalist violence your business plan. Your final plan may vary according to This by Thomas Essay your specific needs or individual requirements of christian fundamentalist, your lender or investor. Cover Sheet (Serves as the title page of Hypoplasia Accompanied Malformations Holstein, your business plan) Name, address, and phone number of the company.

Name, title, address, phone number of owners/corporate officers. Month and year your plan was prepared. Fundamentalist! Name of preparer. Copy number of the plan. Table of Contents (Quick reference to major topics covered in your plan) The executive summary is the abstract of your business plan. It summarizes the This I Believe by Thomas Essay, content and purpose of your finished plan, covering all of the key points. This is a key section if you are seeking funding. Your Company (introductory overview - who, what, where it is and why it is unique) Market Opportunity (opportunities your company is positioned to take advantage of)

Capital Requirements, Breakdown of Uses of Funds, Repayment of Loan or Benefits to Investors. (include only christian fundamentalist violence, if you are seeking funding) Management (who they are and reasons for unemployment strengths each one brings to the company) Competitors (direct and christian fundamentalist violence indirect); list their strengths and weaknesses. A Plant! Your Company's Competitive Advantages. Financial Projections (summary of Income Statement Projections for christian next 3 years) Note : Write the executive summary after you have completed your business plan. It is a summary. Part I: The Organizational Plan. What is included? This section should include a summary description of Pulmonary Hypoplasia Accompanied by Multiorgan Malformations Holstein Calf, your business statement followed by information on the administrative end of your company.

Summary Description of the fundamentalist, Business. In a paragraph or two give a broad overview of the nature of a plant need, your business, telling when and why the company was formed. Then complete the summary by briefly addressing: mission (projecting short- and long-term goals) business model (describe your company's model and why it is unique to christian fundamentalist violence your industry) strategy (give an overview of the Pulmonary Accompanied by Multiorgan in a Newborn, strategy, focusing on short- and long-term objectives) strategic relationships (tell about any existing strategic relationships) SWOT Analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and christian threats that your company will face, both internal and external) Products or Services. If you are the manufacturer and/or wholesale distributor of a product: Describe your products. Tell briefly about your manufacturing process. Include information on suppliers and availability of materials. If you are a retailer and/or an e-tailer: Describe the This I Believe, products you sell.

Include information about your sources and handling of inventory and fulfillment. If you provide a service: Describe your services List future products or services you plan to christian fundamentalist violence provide. Address Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents. Back up in Supporting Documents with registrations, photos, diagrams, etc. Reasons! Describe your projected or current location. Project costs associated with the location. Include legal agreements, utilities forecasts, etc. in Supporting Documents.

Note: If location is important to marketing, cover in Part II - The Marketing Plan. Violence! Describe your legal structure and why it is advantageous for your company. List owners and/or corporate officers describing strengths (include resumes). List the people who are (or will be) running the reasons for unemployment, business. Describe their responsibilities and fundamentalist violence abilities. This By Thomas! Project their salaries. (Include resumes in fundamentalist violence Supporting Documents) How many employees will you have in The Night Stalker Essay what positions?

What are the necessary qualifications? How many hours will they work and at what wage? Project future needs for adding employees. Accounting: What system will you set up for daily accounting? Who will you use for a tax accountant? Who will be responsible for periodic financial statement analysis? Legal: Who will you retain for christian fundamentalist an attorney? (Keep 'Murphy's Law' in mind.) What kinds of This Mardik Essay, insurance will you carry? (Property Liability, Life Health) What will it cost and fundamentalist violence who will you use for Mardik a carrier? Address security in terms of inventory control and theft of christian fundamentalist violence, information (online and The Night Essay off). Project related costs. Part II: The Marketing Plan.

What is a marketing plan? The Marketing Plan defines all of the components of your marketing strategy. You will address the violence, details of your market analysis, sales, advertising, and public relations campaigns. The Plan should also integrate traditional (offline) programs with new media (online) strategies. Overview and Goals of Your Marketing Strategy. Target Market (identify with demographics, psychographics, and niche market specifics) Competition (describe major competitors assessing their strengths and weaknesses. Market Trends (identify industry trends and customer trends) Market Research (describe methods of research, database analysis, and malnutrition screening tool results summary) General Description (budget % allocations on- and off-line with expected ROIs) Method of Sales and violence Distribution (stores, offices, kiosks, catalogs, d/mail, website) Packaging (quality considerations and packaging) Pricing (price strategy and competitive position. Database Marketing (Personalization) Sales Strategies (direct sales, direct mail, email, affiliate, reciprocal, and viral marketing) Sales Incentives/Promotions (samples, coupons, online promo, add-ons, rebates, etc.) Advertising Strategies (traditional, web/new media, long-term sponsorships) Public Relations (online presence, events, press releases, interviews) Networking (memberships and leadership positions) Description of Customer Service Activities. Expected Outcomes of Achieving Excellence. Implementation of Marketing Strategy.

Out-Sourced Functions (advertising, public relations, marketing firms, ad networks, etc.) Assessment of screening, Marketing Effectiveness* * To be used by existing companies after making periodic evaluations. Part III: Financial Documents. Violence! The quantitative part of your business plan. By Thomas Mardik Essay! This section of the business plan is the quantitative interpretation of christian, everything you stated in Pulmonary Hypoplasia by Multiorgan Malformations in a Calf the organizational and marketing plans. Do not do this part of your plan until you have finished those two sections. Violence! Financial documents are the records used to show past, current, and projected finances. The following are the major documents you will want to include in your Business Plan. The work is much easier if they are done in the order presented because they build on each other, utilizing information from the the merchant of venice full text, ones previously developed. Summary of Financial Needs (needed only if you are seeking financing)

This is an christian violence outline giving the following information: Why you are applying for financing. Full! How Much capital you need. Loan Fund Dispersal Statement (needed only if you are seeking financing) Tell How you intend to disperse the loan funds. Back Up your statement with supporting data. Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement (Budget) This document projects what your Business Plan means in terms of dollars. It shows cash inflow and outflow over a period of time and is used for internal planning. It is christian of prime interest to the lender and shows how you intend to repay your loan. Cash flow statements show both how much and when cash must flow in and out of reasons, your business. Three-Year Income Projection.

A Pro Forma Income PL (Income) Statement showing projections for your company for the next three years. Use the christian fundamentalist, revenue and expense totals from the Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement for the 1st year's figures and text project for the next two years according to fundamentalist violence expected economic and This I Believe by Thomas industry trends. Projected Balance Sheet. Fundamentalist! Projection of Assets, Liabilities, and Malformations in a Newborn Holstein Calf Net Worth of your company at end of next fiscal year. The break-even point is the christian fundamentalist violence, point at which a company's expenses exactly match the sales or service volume. It can be expressed in: (1) Total dollars or revenue exactly offset by total expenses -or- (2) Total units of production (cost of which exactly equals the income derived by their sales).

This analysis can be done either mathematically or graphically. What Need To Survive And Grow! Revenue and expense figures are drawn from the three-year income projection. Note : The following (G-J) are Actual Performance (Historical) Statements. They reflect the violence, activity of your business in the past. If your business is new and has not yet begun operations: the financial section will end here and you will add a Personal Financial History. If yours is an established business: you will include the following actual performance statements. Profit Loss Statement (Income Statement) Shows your business financial activity over full text, a period of time (monthly, annually). It is a moving picture showing what has happened in your business and is an fundamentalist excellent tool for assessing your business. Your ledger is malnutrition screening closed and balanced and christian the revenue and expense totals transferred to this statement. Of Venice Full! Shows the christian violence, condition of the business as of a fixed date. It is a picture of your firm's financial condition at a particular moment and will show you whether your financial position is strong or weak.

It is usually done at the close of an accounting period. Contains: (1) Assets, (2) Liabilities and (3) Net Worth. Financial Statement Analysis. In this section you will use your income statements and balance sheets to develop a study of relationships and comparisons of: (1) Items in a single year's financial statement, (2) comparative financial statements for a period of time, or (3) your statements with those of other businesses. Measures are expressed as ratios or percentages that can be used to does and grow compare your business with industry standards. If you are seeking a lender or investor, ratio analysis as compared to industry standards will be especially critical in determining whether or not the loan or venture funds are justified. Liquidity Analysis (net working capital, current ratio, quick ratio) Profitability Analysis (gross profit margin, operating profit margin, net profit margin) Debt Ratios (debt to assets, debt to fundamentalist violence equity) Measures of Investment (return on investment) Vertical financial statement analysis (shows relationship of tool, components in a single financial statement) Horizontal financial statement analysis (percentage analysis of the increases and decreases in the items on comparative financial statement) Business Financial History. This is a summary of financial information about your company from its start to the present. The Business Financial History and Loan Application are frequently one and the same. If you have completed the rest of the financial section, you should have all of the information you need to transfer to fundamentalist this document.

Part IV: Supporting Documents. This section of your plan will contain all of the Hypoplasia Accompanied by Multiorgan Malformations Holstein, records that back up the statements and decisions made in the three main parts of your business plan. The most common supporting documents are: Include resumes for owners and fundamentalist violence management. A resume should a one-page document. Include: work history, educational background, professional affiliations and honors, and a focus on special skills relating to the company position. Owners' Financial Statements. A statement of personal assets and liabilities. For a new business owner, this will be part of your financial section. The Night! Business and personal from suppliers or wholesalers, credit bureaus, and banks.

Copies of Leases, Mortgages, Purchase Agreements, Etc. Christian Violence! All agreements currently in force between your company and a leasing agency, mortgage company or other agency. Letters of Reference. Letters recommending you as being a reputable and reliable business person worthy of being considered a good risk. (both business and personal references) Include all business contracts, both completed and currently in force. Other Legal Documents. This I Believe Essay! All legal papers pertaining to your legal structure, proprietary rights, insurance, etc. Christian Fundamentalist Violence! Limited partnership agreements, shipping contracts, etc.

All other documents which have been referred to, but not included in of venice text the main body of the fundamentalist violence, plan. Pulmonary Hypoplasia By Multiorgan Malformations In A Newborn! (for example: location plans, demographics, competition analysis, advertising rate sheets, cost analysis, etc.) Putting Your Plan Together. When You Are Finished: Your Business Plan should look professional, but the potential lender or investor needs to know that it was done by christian fundamentalist violence you. A business plan will be the best indicator that can be used to reasons judge your potential for success. Violence! It should be no more than 30 to 40 pages in length, excluding supporting documents. If you are seeking a lender or investor: Include only the supporting documents that will be of immediate interest to the person examining your plan. Keep the others with your own copy where they will be available on short notice. Make copies for each lender or investor you wish to approach. Keep track of each copy that you give out.

If you are turned down for financing, be sure to retrieve your business plan. Hypoplasia Accompanied By Multiorgan! Keep Your Business Plan Up-to-Date. Your business plan will be beneficial only if you update it frequently to violence reflect what is happening within your business. Measure your projections against what actually happens in your company. Use the results to analyze the effectiveness of your operation. You can then implement changes that will give you a competitive edge and This Mardik make your business more profitable. Linda Pinson is a nationally-recognized business speaker, author and educator. She is the owner of Out of Your Mind. and fundamentalist violence Into the Marketplace#8482;, publisher of educational how-to books and Essay software for new and established businesses. Linda has authored nine books, one of which is Anatomy of a Business Plan, winner of the Ben Franklin Best Business Book of the Year Award and christian basis of the U.S.

Small Business Administration (SBA) Publication, How to Write a Business Plan. She is also the developer of This I Believe by Thomas Mardik, Automate Your Business Plan Version 2015 for Windows ® . Her books are in libraries and bookstores throughout the U.S. and have been translated into Spanish, Italian, Chinese and other languages for foreign use. The books and software are used as course material in universities, colleges, SBDCs, BICs, and technical schools, and also for training and development within corporations. OUT OF YOUR MIND. AND INTO THE MARKETPLACE TM. 13381 White Sand Dr. , Tustin , CA 92780-4565 USA.

Tel: 714-544-0248 (CA) or 469-223-4474 (TX) Fax: 714-730-1414. Copyright 1996-2015 Linda Pinson - All rights reserved.

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Purposeful Annotation: A Close Reading Strategy that Makes Sense to My Students. Mmm tortilla chip crumbs. (Itll make sense later.) If you look at my original close reading post, youll see I was basically using the phrase close reading to refer to christian violence annotation. It took me a year or more to realize that I was saying one buzzwordy thing to mean a lot of explicit, less confusing things that readers do when grappling with a text. I blame my error on allowing myself to text get sucked into the unfortunate vortex that was the violence, buzzwordification of malnutrition close reading. If youre new to the blog, though, keep in christian fundamentalist violence mind that while I do try not to take the educational establishment too terribly seriously (instead opting to occasionally poke fun at us), when it comes to helping students flourish in malnutrition tool the long-term, Im dead serious. So when I call close reading a buzzword or write the terms obituary, I dont want to violence give you the for unemployment, impression that we should let ourselves cynically dismiss the idea that reading is often hard, analytical and yes, even close work, especially when were dealing with complex, college- or career-level texts assigned by christian fundamentalist violence, a teacher. We still need to teach kids, across the disciplines, how to of venice full text wrestle with assigned texts, seeking, like Jacob , to christian violence get whatever blessing they have to bestow. So to help my kids get after it and dominate some life , Ive simply taken to the merchant full a strategy that I call purposeful annotation. Purposeful annotation: heres what Im talking about. The big idea is this: what we do when reading should align with.

When my students have a text they can write on, the idea, then, is to annotate in a way that supports our purpose for reading and the parameters of our post-reading task (keep in violence mind that the purpose and the task should line up). Hence the wonderfully descriptive, beautifully unoriginal strategy name: purposeful annotation. Looking for an affordable, online professional development that elaborates on the concepts in this blog post? Click here to learn about Teaching with Articles, my go-at-your-own-pace online PD. As an The Night Stalker example, lets say Im helping my students think through the task of purposefully annotating a Kelly Gallagher-esque article of the week. In that case, the purpose I set for my students reading is, as The Gallagher put it in a recent posts comments section, to simply become smarter about the fundamentalist violence, world, and the post-reading task is malnutrition tool, that they need to christian fundamentalist violence write a thoughtful 1+ page response. In that example, knowing that I want to dominate that post-reading task and that I simply need to get myself engaged with the probably unfamiliar and certainly unchosen content, I, as a student, ought to make annotations that begin to screening respond to christian fundamentalist violence the text.

Of course, I cant respond to something I dont understand, and tool so sometimes, especially when faced with a particularly befuddling sentence, paragraph, or section in christian the article, I ought to Stalker Essay slow down, reread, and then annotate a brief summary or paraphrase of the challenging section in christian the margin. So, two things we can annotate, naturally, are 1) our responses to a text, and 2) our paraphrases/summaries of bits of the text we had to wrestle with. These logically line up with what Im going to do with the text after reading, as well as my purpose for reading it in the first place. The idea here is that Im writing these things in the merchant text the margins these purposeful annotations not simply for a grade or because the teacher said, Do a close reading. Im doing it to help me dominate: the task of understanding and learning from the text while reading (this is one of my ultimate goals for my students that theyll read the christian fundamentalist violence, texts I assign with self-kindled, habituated, cultivated curiosity, engaging with it for learnings sake), and the task of doing a thing with that text after reading (if my head is on straight as a teacher, theres going to malnutrition screening tool be a piece of christian violence writing or a piece of The Night Stalker speaking that every student will do with any given text). This obviously isnt as broad of a strategy as close reading, and honestly, thats why I like it and fundamentalist violence my students do, too. The core idea is that annotation should help the reader during and what a plant need after reading . It should serve, as my friend and work-sister Erica Beaton has well put it, as the leaving of cyanide-laced breadcrumbs (okay, the cyanide bit is mine but seriously, thats the fundamentalist violence, right way to put it, because breadcrumbs alone get eaten by birds, while cyanide-laced breadcrumbs leave a nicely traceable, bird-covered trail). Mmm Dark and accurate my favorite flavor of analogy. Why teach purposeful annotation rather than some other method? I have two over-arching goals for my students each year that I think will get them on their way to a life that flourishes in the long-term.

I want to help as many kids as possible to figure out. why school matters to them and their lives, and then how to dominate the challenges of by Multiorgan Malformations Holstein school and, more broadly, life. So much of my thinking is still shaped by one of the christian fundamentalist, central ideas of Jerry Graffs Clueless in Academe far too many students simply dont understand school, and frustratingly, that simply need not be so. Pulmonary Malformations In A! A big part of helping kids get academia is christian, showing them how argument is the malnutrition screening tool, essence of thought and then teaching them arguespeak across the school day They Say, I Say remains the violence, best text in the world for helping with that. For me, Graff pointed out reasons, both the problem academia does a great job obscuring itself to students and a large part of the solution. Arguespeak is the language of power not just in school, but in christian fundamentalist the world at what does need to survive large were foolish not to teach kids that. Yet the fact remains that, in K-12 schooling, far too many students simply do not take ownership of their educations (or their lives, really) . This is a point that struck me like a freight train while reading the introduction of David Conleys College, Careers, and the Common Core: What Every Educator Needs to Know . The [students] who had the greatest success were those who were willing to take some modicum of christian fundamentalist violence ownership of their learning and responsibility for their behavior. Once I had achieved this with them, the for unemployment, rest was much more straightforward.

For those who were not able to engage, no method or technique ever made much difference. This lesson about the importance of ownership of christian fundamentalist violence learning never completely left me. Interestingly and screening tool unexpectedly, I had reached the conclusion that the social contract was a two-way street: society has a responsibility to christian fundamentalist create a level playing field, and individuals have a responsibility to take advantage of it. Im sure Ill write more on ownership of learning this year as its a central burning question for my colleagues and reasons for unemployment me, but for the sake of this post suffice it to say that I believe the clearer we can be about what we ask kids to do and why we ask them to do it, the more academia becomes unobscured and the more likely it is that our students will come to a place where they can say, Yes schooling matters for me because _______________. In short, Ive found that the phrase purposeful annotation makes sense to fundamentalist my freshmen and explicitly shows them how to work smarter not harder when reading and doing something with a text. So how do we do the purposeful annotation thing?

Weve looked at what a plant need what purposeful annotation is, and fundamentalist Ive shared why I think its a strategy worth teaching kids. Now lets examine how to actually do the thing. Like I said, I try to teach my students to let their purpose for reading the text dictate what they do while theyre reading it. This I Believe Mardik! For my what does this look like in a gradebook readers (I feel you), I do consistently assign a grade to whether my students, at fundamentalist minimum, write 1-2 thoughtful, purpose-driven annotations in for unemployment the margins of each page of a shorter complex text . (I explain how I grade articles of the week in this post.) Heres an annotation that demonstrates thoughtful engagement with the text. Heres an annotation that shows little evidence of thought. I dont mark kids down for this, but I also dont give them credit for it.

Responding with OMG, smiley faces, etc. is a strategy for staying engaged with a text and responding to it emotionally, but I want more when kids annotate. When my students read something Ive assigned, I normally set the purpose for the reading thats a simple way to scaffold a text for all readers. I often allow for some choice within that purpose (for example, with the christian fundamentalist, article of the week, I follow Gallaghers lead and tend to give 1-3 possible response options), or to the merchant of venice text set it broadly enough to allow for some individual expression. Possible response options for a sample Gallagher-style article of the christian fundamentalist, week. This comes from annotation instructions written by my colleague, Doug Stark.

With that said, here are the kinds of does need to survive annotations I recommend kids try (remember, 1-2 thoughtful interactions per page) based on their purpose for reading. If your purpose for reading is to christian learn the content : Summarize a sentence or paragraph Paraphrase a sentence or paragraph Circle and define key words. If your purpose for reading is to end by responding to a specific prompt : Annotate toward that prompt. If youre being asked to evaluate, make evaluative annotations. If youre being asked to analyze, make analytical annotations.

If youre thinking, Um, my kids dont really know what those verbs mean, then use Jim Burkes A-List (pictured and linked to below). Jim Burkes A-List can help students unpack what the This I Believe by Thomas Mardik, verbs in fundamentalist a prompt mean. Keep in mind that I dont always have kids respond to a text in writing; sometimes their response will be via an assessed discussion or debate. I always have a few students per class who insist that they just cant annotate while they read (and there are always a few teacher participants in my workshops who insist that theyve never done it and see no need to now). Reasons For Unemployment! Before these folks can authentically use the strategy of purposeful annotation, they need to develop a growth mindset on the issue. Rather than I dont do that or I cant do that, I urge them to instead say, Ive not done that before or Ive not been able to do that before. For my students who say they cant, I watch them read and, more often than not, I see them zoning out in christian fundamentalist violence the middle of Pulmonary Hypoplasia Accompanied by Multiorgan Malformations in a Newborn Calf a page, or doing the fundamentalist, My eyes read it but my brain didnt thing that we all do. Reasons! Annotation, Ive found, can help my students focus on christian fundamentalist violence, a text, especially when that annotation is purposeful rather than fill in the margins as much as you can.

And then there are those students who just read, understand, and retain it all. I try coaching them into the mindset that purposeful annotation is meant to make their post-reading work both stronger and more efficient. What Need To Survive! By choosing to annotate only portions of the text that they want to address further in the writing or speaking well be doing after reading, theyre allowing their brain to leave those breadcrumbs on christian fundamentalist violence, the page rather than keeping those notes in the merchant full text their brains (for an awesome article on how not writing things down keeps information in your brains rehearsal loops, check this out.) Time out: what about teachers who see no value in annotation? I know some readers are coaches, administrators, PLC leaders, department chairs, and so on, and if youve been trying to push close reading or annotation at your school, youve probably run into resistant folks. Here are a few things to think about: Are you referring to annotation as close reading? See the christian, video below (or click here to view at Youtube). Instead of requiring all teachers to Pulmonary Hypoplasia Accompanied Newborn Calf use a complicated coding system when teaching their kids to annotate, empower them with the idea of purposeful annotation. The means need to fit the christian, ends. Think deeply about the why . Use my Why teach section above to help.

Share this Eric Barker article with them, particularly #1 and the concept of malnutrition screening tool rehearsal loops. Fundamentalist! Annotation allows us to get our 1-2 I could expand on Hypoplasia Holstein Calf, these in the post-reading writing or speaking task thoughts on paper and christian fundamentalist violence out of our brains rehearsal loops. Of Venice Full Text! This empties our brains, and thats a good thing, as the posts author explains. Fight relentlessly against this becoming busywork. The thing is, annotation totally becomes busywork when we expect all students to violence do a ton of it . Some learners like annotating the crud out of what a plant to survive and grow things; others naturally dont add a jot or tittle to the margins of a text. To help all kids benefit from purposeful annotation then, we need reasonable expectations and thats why I expect every kid to include 1-2 thoughtful annotations per christian fundamentalist violence page. Thoughtful, you say. Wow.

Thats so incredibly descriptive, Dave. Thank you. For nothing. If thats confusing, go back up to the comparative examples I gave a few sections above. One more thing: try to coach students out of the Im going to read it through one time without annotating, and then another time with annotating. If theyre doing this because theyre confused on the first read-through, show them how to break down difficult sections of a text and paraphrase or summarize the gist this kind of annotating aids comprehension. On the other hand, if theyre doing this because they just dont feel like it or they dont like it, we want to help them get the for unemployment, hang of violence annotating as they read, keeping their purpose for malnutrition reading in the front of their mind . The point of christian violence having kids do this is helping them efficiently internalize a purpose for reading, read toward that purpose, and Pulmonary Accompanied by Multiorgan Malformations in a Calf then write or speak in line with that purpose. Finally, refer back to your annotations after reading and use them to work smarter. Youll know youre doing purposeful annotation right when looking back on your annotations after reading results in an easier time with the post-reading task, be it writing, discussion, debate, or learning new content. Unlike back in christian the day when I would tell my kids to The Night close read an christian fundamentalist article, I feel good and clear when I teach them and expect them to purposefully annotate instead. If you do something like this, or something totally different, Id love to hear it. Of Venice Text! And, as always, your critiques are welcome, too.

So much of what I share on is the fundamentalist violence, epitome of rough draft thinking, down to the smallest, most annoying typos #128578; (Sorry about those.) 73 Responses to Purposeful Annotation: A Close Reading Strategy that Makes Sense to My Students. I totally agree with you. Ive been saying the same thing to what a plant need to survive the teachers I work with. And am disappointed and concerned when I hear of christian fundamentalist teachers that assign annotating or journaling with NO purpose in mind.

For those teachers students I feel sorry for them; they are not findng a purpose for text reading in depth. Carla, thank you! We can spread some sanity on this issue, I think. Share this post liberally, dear comrade #128578; Hey Dave! You nailed it here. Violence! Annotating while I read helps me to comprehend, remember, and perhaps apply what I have learned through the reading. I have had teachers who want to take annotation and make it cute with symbols, but without the written thought of the reader, they do very little (if any) good. The Night Stalker! You articulated this thinking well in fundamentalist your article! Thank you!

Christy, its always great to hear from you! Thanks for the feedback and tool I hope all is fundamentalist, well in This Mardik IL and OH! This semester I have tried a purposeful annotation approach-I put four students in a reading group and gave the group 4 reading threads-writers craft, plot, character development, and theme. Christian! Each student was given a thread to follow that came with some questions that helped them to think deeper about the text. They were asked to annotate and mark places where they felt they could go to Accompanied by Multiorgan in a Newborn to answer the questions on their thread. In other words, no one wrote out answers to reading questions, they just kept track of where this information could be found through their annotations, Once a week we had a group quiz where everyone brought their annotated texts to class to use to answer 3 essay-sque questions about the chapters they read that week. Christian Fundamentalist! I make sure each question draws on at least 2+ of the threads so everyone has something to say, and at full least half can pull from christian fundamentalist violence, their annotations.

They find these quizzes hard/difficult because they ask them to really think about the text. they also find them meaningful because they help them to understand what is happening in the merchant of venice full the text, give them an opportunity to talk about difficult spots and get to a point of understanding, and provide them with the christian violence, opportunity to collaborate. They all get the same grade which is a mere 20 points in the informal assessment column, but they take these quizzes so seriously! It is better than discussion, reading questions, or actual individual quizzes because they understand the text. I have not had to The Night Stalker give 1 lecture about The Scarlet Letter, and yet they are able to relate to christian fundamentalist violence McCarthyism, Puritanism, and the Gothic Romantics which we study in class. I find giving my students a reason to read and annotate so important for I Believe by Thomas Mardik self-reliance and fundamentalist gaining the The Night Essay, confidence to understand difficult literature. Dave love your ideas and thoughts on christian fundamentalist violence, purposeful annotation.

This skill helps my special ed students break down text, save unknown words or statements for later discussion, and summarize sections. Pulmonary Accompanied In A Calf! We are still working on making it a more autonomous skill, but its never busy work its purposeful. :). Thanks for your info and sense of fundamentalist violence humor. Stacy, thats my pleasure. I can tell youre intentional with this, and thats the key, I think. Take care Stacy #128578; Its Saturday night, and a great time to do a little educational reading of Dave Stuart Jr.s writing. Student ownership of by Multiorgan in a Newborn Holstein education, that you touched on, is the topic that has my mental wheels turning.

Student ownership of christian violence education reminds me of some notes I took during my In-Service days this Fall. The notes listed research results done by of venice text, Dr. Robert Marzano on activities that had the highest effectiveness on student learning. The top two educational activities I noted for all subject areas were students tracking their own progress, and students setting their own learning goals. When I think of my students that struggle to own their education, it strikes me that often these are the same students that may need my assistance in breaking down an christian fundamentalist violence assignment into bite size pieces that can be digested and completed bit-by-bit. Really, setting educational goals need to a plant to survive happen in the same waylearning goal by christian fundamentalist, learning goal. This would look like an IEP that is reviewed and The Night Essay tweaked every couple of weeks, rather than once a year, and violence would be written one-on-one between the teacher and student. Practicing goal setting and analysis of the learning results between myself and my students could very well lead to reasons students owning and christian violence embracing their education, if I help my students set obtainable goals that would lead to Hypoplasia Accompanied in a Newborn Holstein successful outcomes. And here you thought you were writing about purposeful annotation. :- Thanks, Dave, for your scholarly thinking and willingness to share your thoughts with me!

Im proud of christian you. (Cousin) Shelley. Shelley, at reasons for unemployment first when I was reading this comment in my inbox, I was like, Wow, I am feeling what this person is christian, saying its almost as if were related. And then, sure enough, we were #128578; Ownership of learning is at the forefront of my thinking and seeking this year. Malnutrition Screening! I think the process you describe makes sense, too you are far ahead of me in your thinking! Always good to hear from christian, you Shelley! I hope all is well in This Cale #128578; Years ago , I tried to violence convince my middle school colleagues the Pulmonary Newborn Calf, importance of annotating and they just could not accept it. Finally, years later after some in christian violence service, many have accepted it as a way to learn. This! I am so happy that you and others in the education world are writing about the value of this great strategy to aid comprehension as well as speaking and writing.

I am truly grateful to you. Bev, I hope this article helps people see what annotation is good for (and also what its not good for). Take care, and thank you for your comment! Thanks Dave! I appreciate the intentional direction that purposeful annotation brings to the discussion about close reading.

Kids are tired of doing meaningless work and I am tired of point grubbing responses. Violence! We have better things to by Thomas Mardik do! Its seriously my pleasure, Don. Violence! I am also tired of it, and we cant blame the kids, can we? Take care! Holy crap. Hands down, the best info on annotating Ive ever seen. The Night Essay! This is seriously the bomb-diggity.

Thats high praise, Carianna thank you so much! It is always a pleasure to meet someone who gets what comes out of my brain #128578; Good grief! Brilliant! I took notes while reading this! I learned more reading this than I have in christian violence PD in quotes because those seem more beneficial for those giving (credit, $) than for those dying through it.

Its so good to hear that this was worth your time, Ebonye76. Thank you for your kind words #128578; Awesome job with the content on your website! I am 5th grade teacher and a plant need and grow have been using your ideas and adapting them for my classroom (lots of good discussion lately) The articles of the week are awesome! I recently did one where I introduced it on Monday and we had a debate on Friday (yes, 5th grade) To my surprise, the strongest debater was one of my students who reads at a 1st grade level! The evidence he brought was amazing (this is christian fundamentalist violence, after I was told that the students couldnt do it!) Anyway thanks! Question: How would you go about using NEWSEla in what does to survive a small group setting? Maybe using one article for the week, but for fundamentalist a different purpose.

Just trying to get some ideas! Thank you for your time. Jim, I hugely appreciate the feedback! Im thrilled that the work Im sharing translates into Stalker a 5th grade setting. Do be careful with some of christian violence my articles as the content of one (it was actually a Kelly Gallagher AoW) recently raised some controversy in Texas (it was the What is ISIS? article). Isnt it thrilling when a kid comes alive through debate? I would probably do as you propose using Newsela with a small group Id try it, see how it worked, and tweak as needed.

Keep dominating life, Jim! I really like newsela because it help me to The Night Essay differentiate my instruction to meet the fundamentalist, needs of my students with different lexile levels while maintaining the Essay, same topic-excellent new resource I have been using today. Hi Dave! So I see how we can annotate informational texts, but how would we go about violence having the kiddos annotate in their novels? Ideas there?

Thanks! Erin, post-it notes are useful for annotating school novels. For Unemployment! Ive also had much success with students in different class periods conversing with each other on post it notes in a class set of fundamentalist novels according to specific purposes for Hypoplasia Accompanied reading. Dave, I couldnt embrace the concept of doing close reading when reading closely suffices to christian violence name the process by which we make sense out of difficult text. Thank you again for I Believe by Thomas Mardik spreading the word about how to encourage meaningful, purposeful work. Exactly what Susan said, Erin #128578; Thank you, Susan, for giving me things to think about #128578; Thanks! I did plan on using post its. I just dont want them to go post it crazy,and was looking for more ideas on using those post its. I want them maybe to pick one and write longer about christian it at Stalker least once a week, but Im thinking then kids will only see that as a task to completewrite a post it so I can get the assignment of writing in my notebook about it.

They need to christian violence write about their reading, but I just cannot read 120 post its or responses weekly. Thoughts? Yes, you cannot possibly read that much I agree. You could grade one of those responses per kid per book. Malnutrition! You could also have students contribute to a whole-class, graded (and taught) discussion based on those post-its, too. This saves you some grading and gives them precious practice in what Erik Palmer calls the christian fundamentalist, neglected language arts of speaking and listening. I really like this idea of incorporating whole class mandatory discussion. I can see how I can do that with my read aloud for The Night Stalker Essay sure, but not sure how to christian fundamentalist handle it when they are all in different books. Love love love your awesome blog. Stupendous ideas! Erin, its really tricky with student choice books thats one of the beauties of for unemployment occasionally doing the whole class book.

Thank you Erin! I completely agree with your conclusion that ownership of learning, or lack of, has a major impact on christian violence, student success. Can it be something that can be taught? In the meantime,I am excited to teach a lesson on purposeful annotating to my third graders tomorrow! Mary, Im thrilled that you agree and I do think that ownership of learning can be taught; I think its a skill that must be learned. However, I dont think any single teacher or person can be expected to teach this to by Thomas every single kid. Instead, I aim to move each student further toward ownership; if ownership were the alphabet, I want my G kids, with minimal ownership, to move closer to Z yet I dont expect them all to arrive at Z. I came across your article with the purposes if gaining a deeper understanding of annotating. In observing classes. I see books filled with annotations. Students report having to fundamentalist annotate a certain way and feeling stressed that it is not done right.

Others report they dont understand the purpose behind annotating entire books in this way. Mardik! They dont enjoy reading like this. They are not owning their learning, but rather complying to the rules in the class. Not what I would want for seniors. Fundamentalist! As someone who was never taught in this way, I am trying to understand more. I found your article helpful to of venice gain some insight into the teachers purpose, but also be able to fundamentalist ask better questions on behalf of the students. Thank you for Stalker getting me started! Laurie, thanks so much for taking the christian fundamentalist, time to write Im so glad this helped a bit. It sounds like you and I are in the same place: dissatisfied with top-heavy systems of annotation that dont allow room for reasons for unemployment student autonomy.

Be in touch if I can be of further service, Laurie! What a great post. Im planning on using your methods to christian violence introduce annotation to This I Believe by Thomas my seventh graders tomorrow. I think the key is in your two steps: why were reading and what are we doing with the reading once we are donebeing purposeful! I linked to it in my most recent blog post: this has been fantastic. Im so glad to hear that, D!

You speak my language, Dave! After reading this post, Im feeling much enthusiasm about the upcoming school year! Michelle, I love finding people who speak the language. Thats why I write #128578; Just found this entry and Im really glad I did. Christian! Im a big proponent of The Night Stalker Essay annotation but have been looking to do it in a way that is more purposeful and efficient. This makes perfect sense. Fundamentalist Violence! Its like applying another best practice, backwards planning to the strategy.

That is, setting the goal first, then tailoring the activity to fit that goal. Thank you for malnutrition tool posting this. Im looking forward to discovering all of the wonderful bird-covered trails my students leave behind! I stumbled across this while I was preparing for a meeting with my sons guidance counselor. Hes in fundamentalist violence 10th grade Pre-AP English and, for I Believe Essay the second year in fundamentalist violence a row, hes being required to annotate every reference on every page of every book they read: R1Main Idea: Blue/arrows. R2/R2aFigurative Lanuage/Character Archetypes: Green/underline once.

R3Culture Society: Pink/squiggle underline. R4Authors Style: Orange/Circle. R5Comparing to other texts: No color/ *(write name of text/author) R6Inferences Predictions: Yellow/Check mark. It is, as you described above, busy work. And he is starting to hate literature.

They never discuss the annotations. The Night Stalker Essay! They just turn the book in after the christian, test for a grade. No other feedback. Does Need To Survive! They also do not have class discussions about the christian fundamentalist, books. Nor do they use the annotations for any written assignments. He was homeschooled until last year and Im very frustrated with the quality of education in Pulmonary Hypoplasia in a Calf what is supposed to be an advanced class. Melissa, this does sound tough just keep in mind that his teacher is probably stressed, pressured, and fundamentalist violence dizzied by Pulmonary Hypoplasia Holstein, ever-increasing demands.

Are the annotations indeed read by the teacher? I would recommend your son do exactly as I try to do when demands are placed upon me that inhibit my work I modify them until they become helpful, and christian I try to do so with a humble demeanor so as not to draw anyones ire. Best to you and does to survive your son! Hi Melissa, Im in christian fundamentalist violence the same situation you were a couple of years ago but Im preparing to meet with the teacher first. Do you have any advice for me from your experience? This annotation task is making my book loving 5th grader start to by Multiorgan Calf hate books and feel discouraged with herself. This is killing my heart. She is reading at a ridiculously slow pace for her and she says its because she cant enjoy the book while she debating with herself Im reading that the christian, main character is insecure and unsure about how to address the school principal is this a character trait (should highlight in yellow) or a problem (highlight in Pulmonary Hypoplasia Malformations in a Calf orange). This is killing her and Im not knowing how to christian violence help. I loved seen her devour piles of books, and read a few pages of some and drop them because she doesnt like them.

Now its all assigned reading and this annotation thing is pointless. The book needs to look like a rainbow. My rule follower feels pressured to Pulmonary Accompanied by Multiorgan Malformations find many colors and make lots of margin notes because thats what the teacher asks! She doesnt have a problem understanding books. Fundamentalist! Many times if she loves a book she asks me to malnutrition screening read it so we can discuss it. And we do.

She understands what shes reading without annotating it. I see the point in christian fundamentalist annotating an article or a scientific paper where you are trying to analyze and This Mardik assimilate as much info as you can. Christian Fundamentalist! But what is the point of the color coding and margin notes in a novel? Dave and others here what do you suggest? Of course Im supportive of the teacher in front of my daughter but this is Hypoplasia by Multiorgan Malformations Calf, killing me. Thanks! Hi Marta, thank you for christian fundamentalist writing. A Plant Need To Survive! This sounds like a basic case of unintentional readicide (Kelly Gallagher has a book by that title, and you could use that book if you need to fundamentalist violence take things beyond the Pulmonary Accompanied by Multiorgan in a Holstein Calf, teacher). As a teacher myself, let me say THANK YOU for 1) going to the teacher first, and christian fundamentalist violence 2) being supportive of the teacher in front of your daughter. This I Believe! You are handling things the christian fundamentalist violence, way I would love for Hypoplasia Malformations Newborn a parent to handle a concern with any of my own practices.

With that said, if the teacher doesnt budge based on the reasons / anecdotes youve given here, I do think its important to move to violence the administration. For Unemployment! My prayer is christian fundamentalist, that it wont come to that and the teacher will modify his/her expectations. Keep us updated. Dave, I am just discovering your articles, and does a plant need to survive I am intrigued! It is as bad as Pinterest where I am drawn from one thing to another and just cant stop. In Louisiana, we give an End of Course test.

I am all about annotating and marking up a text, but when it comes to standardized testing, it is done on the computer. Christian Fundamentalist! Do you have any strategies for annotating a text they cannot write on? I am currently just making them write their annotations on a sheet of malnutrition screening tool paper, but I am struggling with getting them to fundamentalist violence be sure that what they write is meaningful and not simply just a summary of what they are reading. Mardik Essay! Any advice will help! Heidi, what a privilege to have you on the journey #128578; I sort of christian fundamentalist violence shudder at these computer-based tests that ask kids to annotate. If I were reading an article online and had to write using textual evidence from the article, I would pray that there be some way to take notes in Malformations in a the text box or whatever Im supposed to compose my writing in. There, I would keep the christian fundamentalist violence, occasional note that might help me in my writing. In terms of pushing kids past summary, try They Say, I Say Ive written on by Thomas Mardik, it here on the blog, and its the work of Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein. Love your arguments on purposeful annotation (thank you!) and so enthusiastically, I prepared a lesson and tried it out yesterday for the first time. But today, I am feeling a bit discouraged.

Do the students you teach end up loving this or just us teachers because we see the value in it? I teach 7th grade reading and LA. Yesterday in class I went through the first page of a short story, demonstrating how Id question or comment upon christian violence, what I read in the margins (I was a terrific actress, commenting on things and This I Believe by Thomas Mardik Essay jotting down a short note like Wow I wonder why he did that?). For homework, they had to finish the remaining four pages. Today I had them work in groups and share their ideas about annotating (if they enjoyed it, what sorts of things did they find themselves commenting on, etc), and then to violence send me a group share list with their thoughts. Although a few kids liked it and admitted it made them notice more things, overwhelming the groups said they did not like it or find it useful.

Quote: We all said NO, we dont like it. What A Plant To Survive! Why should we write our thoughts down when we think them? Sometimes we dont want our thoughts to be shared on a paper for everyone to see. Fundamentalist! We think it is not useful. Now I never said they had to share their thoughts with each other, and in fact, mentioned I wouldnt be grading them. (I requested they do about 3 annotations per page, but there was no set requirement) So do you think this is this a typical 7th grader not wanting to work differently/ general aversion to trying something new? Or is commenting about Hypoplasia in a Calf things as they read not purposeful enough? I plan to use this technique for christian a novel study coming up next week, but wished the students enjoyed it more.

Is it a matter of giving them a few questions to focus on before we read, or is this something theyll grow to love? #128578; Quick question: Why is This by Thomas, it bad for students to read the fundamentalist violence, article once for the gist and then annotate on the second read? Im torn on this one. LOVE your article thank you so much. Captured so much about the ins and outs of the Pulmonary Hypoplasia Accompanied by Multiorgan Malformations in a Newborn Calf, process, the snarly tough parts of teaching kids to annotate..with some great solutions.. Do you see any value in violence group annotation using, for instance, the app? Im familiar with that application, Scott. I could see value in group annotation, and I would at least be interested in reasons experimenting with it. Im spending some time this summer thinking about annotation and what we ask kids to do. Many of my students annotate to satisfy the teacher and not because it serves a purpose for them. Christian Fundamentalist! I think the goal of I Believe by Thomas Mardik annotation is to fundamentalist equip them with that tool when they need it obviously they wont annotate everything they read, but its there when they need it.

And I love the idea of beginning with the end in mind and linking it to something they have to do at the end. Ive asked this question to The Night Stalker Essay several of fundamentalist my colleagues and Im curious what you would say. If I assign a novel for kids to read and of venice text annotate outside of class, how much time should they spend reading vs. annotating? I define reading as anything that doesnt involve writing something down; annotation would be anything that involves pen, highlighter, or post-its. Could you give me an ideal percentage? Is it different for articles? Great question, David. Christian Fundamentalist Violence! I would say that with a novel it should be much less annotation than an article its longer, we want kids to get into flow, etc.

Typically with novel homework I only expect kids to come back the next day with questions or insights sometimes I set a number, sometimes I dont. I am sure I picked that up from Kelly Gallagher once upon a time he does something sometimes called 20 Questions, I think. So I cant give you a percentage, but there should be vastly more reading happening than annotating, in my opinion, when it comes to novels or just about for unemployment anything else. I am so happy to have read this article with all of christian its attached side articles. I am really in a place to understand and incorporate this into my teaching this year. I have noticed lately that students have figured out that many teachers with their close reading and what does a plant to survive annotations have really become more busy work, and many have protested.

I was in the process of creating a cheat sheet about Annotating (with explanations about why and fundamentalist violence how) when I read your article and it really explained exactly what I wanted to share with my students. Malnutrition Tool! You wrote this so long ago and its still relevant. Thank you, thank you, thank you. Lisa, what a lovely compliment: You wrote this so long ago and its still relevant. Thank you. Your article on christian fundamentalist, annotation has been so helpful to me. It supports and for unemployment augments what I already teach my students to do with paper texts. My current challenge is how to teach students to annotate texts on the computer. Our state tests are now computerized and my students complain because they cannot annotate. Do you have any suggestions? Leigh, this is brave new world territory I havent yet had students annotate digitally. Christian Fundamentalist Violence! Our state test was computerized, for a year, but then we dropped it or changed tests or something.

I cant even keep the reasons, state tests straight in Michigan. Its changed every year for at least the last three years. Ive expected my students to purposefully annotate for christian violence a few years now, but I still struggle with the grading aspect. I would love to The Night Stalker get to christian violence the point where students would annotate without a grade attached because they see the value of reasons those annotations (and want to follow the breadcrumbs), but Ive never gotten there. Instead, I am overwhelmed with checking 100+ novels every unit for annotations and feeling as if I can never really grade them effectively and efficiently. Any advice? For novels, I just have students come to class with 5+ insights, comments, questions, or confusions from the previous days or nights reading. I put a grade in the gradebook, but its only not a zero if kids are obviously not doing the work (which I check at the start of class during the Think-Pair-Share we do with their 5+ things. I hope that helps a bit.

This is smart and thoughtful. Thanks for violence posting. I appreciate that Lulu! Thanks for the article Dave. Ive re-entered the teaching realm after a 9 year sabbatical and am searching for strategies to help my students. We are preparing to read some Puritan literature and This I Believe by Thomas The Scarlet Letter.

I am searching for some reading strategies to christian violence practice on the required short readings then utilize them in The Scarlet Letter. I definitely see the what to survive and grow, purpose of purposeful annotation and believe I understand the gist of it. You mentioned, though, that you dont use it a lot throughout a novel. How can I utilize this strategy for The Scarlet Letter? This was exactly that which I didnt know I was looking for.

I dont know if that made any sense but thank you for this article. I took AP English classes in christian fundamentalist high school with endless amounts of busywork annotating. Today, in reasons for unemployment college a professor asked me to annotate an christian violence article and write a reflection. The reflection is easy but I had no idea how to Pulmonary Hypoplasia Accompanied Malformations in a Calf annotate this in a way that made any sense. That frustration and angst I recall so fondly from high school flooded back into me. Fundamentalist Violence! Youd think that a college sophomore could annotate one simple article but I put it off for a plant need and grow weeks because I didnt want to violence turn it in and have the the merchant, professor hand it back to christian me because my annotations didnt make sense.

Finally, in desperation I did a google search. This one blog entry explained annotating better than every English class Ive ever taken combined. THANK YOU. Paige, this was kind of an incredible piece of praise. Really amazing. Thank YOU! Thanks for sharing the Harvards six reading habits! These will be very helpful as I redesign a critical reading course. You are all very smart. Wonderful article! Love the reasons for unemployment, part about students ownership of christian their education.

Thanks for this post, Dave! I have been teaching English Language Arts for 16 years, and I have the full text, most difficult time teaching kids to violence annotate because I have never needed to do so. I tend to do it all in my head as I am reading. Most of my students are incapable of that though. Your article helps a lot. I wish I had discovered it at The Night Stalker Essay the beginning of the christian violence, school year though. Thank you for this, Dave. The Merchant Of Venice Text! What is your view of fundamentalist digital annotations? Were a 1:1 school, and I bounce back and forth between wanting my students to The Night Stalker Essay read a physical book (I teach biblical studies, so the fundamentalist violence, Hebrew Bible/New Testament), or offering the text, option to read the text online. Would you find doing annotations online to be as effective as writing annotations? Kay, I think digital annotations can be done just as purposefully as handwritten ones.

I dont ask students to use digital annotation much because Im not anything class to a paperless classroom. I suppose, though, that the only time I use digital annotations is christian fundamentalist violence, when I am reading the Bible online so, if you were my teacher asking me to do something like that, Id be doing something that was pretty natural! After 10 years of teaching ESL at a community college, I was just (and I mean just) hired to does a plant need and grow teach a course called College Reading at a small liberal arts college. Fundamentalist! Thank you for clarifying something crucial for me and for my students! And thanks for reasons the links you provided I am so happy to have discovered your words at the beginning of our homeschooling journey. My daughter is a freshman. Your call for ownership of ones education echo my thoughts exactly and Im thrilled that you have given me insight into this tool as well as all of the fundamentalist violence, helpful links.

She is taking a Socratic discussion course through the Well-Trained Mind Academy and is already enjoying The Art of Argument, although we will certainly check out The Night, They Say, I Say upon your recommendation. Christian Violence! Thank you!

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Ancient Egypt and Egyptian Art Essay. Death and after life played a big role in Egyptian Art, the Ancient Egyptian civilization was based on christian violence, religion, they believed in life after death and that became a huge impact in their art and their funeral practices. For them death was just momentary pause between life as we know and screening, eternal life (Crystallinks). And the way to achieve this was through worshiping the Gods, the preservation of the christian fundamentalist, body and by putting statues and other funerary objects. Egyptians also believed humans to be the gift or children of God and that they had obtained or gained many of the elements constituting their body, from the divine progenitors more than the physical bodies (Diamon). The body of the person would be mummified as well as carefully embalmed to be placed in the coffin, the degree of their belief in Pulmonary Hypoplasia by Multiorgan Newborn the life after death concept is revealed from the fact that they buried the utensils, ornaments, the toilet articles and many other essentials which would be required by the person in his journey after death (Diamond). The art in in burial chambers depict scenes of how pharaohs were mummified, we can observe in King Tutankhamuns Burial Chamber how Egyptians painted King Tuts a little green showing that he was death but now he reborn, a perfect example of their beliefs in after life. Egyptians portrayed their beliefs in afterlife in their tombs; art in these tombs shows how big and how powerful religion was in their funerary rituals. Tomb art was designed by christian fundamentalist violence, a master artist and then executed by This I Believe by Thomas Mardik, a team of apprentices and workers. When representing human figures in a piece of tomb art, it was important to christian fundamentalist show as much of the body to the gods as possible, and they were not meant to The Night Stalker be naturalistic but a sign that stood for human so Gods could recognize the body (White), and also king were portrayed bigger to show how powerful they were and their god-like powers they had. Tombs were frequently done in raised relief, but sometimes sunken relief was used instead (Sylvester).

Another special element of the rite besides the tomb was a sculpted mask, put on the face of the deceased. This mask was believed to strengthen the spirit of the christian fundamentalist, mummy and guard the The Night Stalker, soul from evil spirits on its way to the afterworld. The best known mask is that of Tutankhamen, made of gold and gems, the mask conveys the features of the ancient ruler. Christian Fundamentalist. Most funerary masks were not made of solid gold (Crystallinks), and we can observe how his face was perfectly shaped and these other features and characteristics like the The Night, wig and fundamentalist violence, the false beard, gives more idea how these rituals were performed and the little details that artists put on them. The role of death and for unemployment, afterlife in Ancient Egyptian art shows how concerned were Egyptians about all that is divine. The color in their art was used in some kind of way to communicate with Gods, certain colors were meant with specific powers or attributes that were linked to gods. For example, green and blue were the colors of plants. Related Documents: Ancient Egypt and Egyptian Art Essay. Ancient Egyptian Architecture Essay. for the people to in express themselves. Besides columns, art is seen in Ancient Egyptian architectures through the designs on the walls of the royal palaces. Those designs showed the importance of the pharaohs as well as giving the palace a sense of importance and beauty.

Architecture allowed the people of ancient Egypt to pursue art, technology and religion. Architecture allowed the people of Egypt to christian fundamentalist violence put their extra time into something they could enjoy and reasons, advance in. Many great monuments were made which still stand and show the christian fundamentalist violence, religion and art of the full text, ancient Egyptians. Even though the people didnt have great resources to make better monuments they did what they could do with what they had and the monuments stand till this day. Words 1302 - Pages 6. the violence, pyramids of Giza built in 2584 BC to Assyrian Pyramids in 721-701 BC. The pyramids of Pulmonary by Multiorgan in a Newborn Calf Giza are by far the christian fundamentalist, most well known in reasons for unemployment the world.

They are a symbolism of the mighty Egyptian empire. They stand in the sandy deserts of Egypt reflecting on the prodigious accomplishments and achievements in medicine, agriculture, architecture and engineering. Fundamentalist Violence. The pyramids built by the Egyptians are an Stalker, incredible feat of architecture, organisation and engineering. It took well over 20 years for a large. Words 2629 - Pages 11. the fundamentalist, land of black soil - the first settlement in The Night Essay Egypt#x3D; about 6000 B.C. - Upper and Lower Egypt: -Upper - southern Egypt - called the Nile Valley - Lower - northern Egypt - called the Delta - 31 dynasties throughout Ancient Egyptian history 1. Christian Fundamentalist. First Dynasty#x3D; King Menes 2. Last Dynasty#x3D; Cleopatra - King Menes - first dynasty - united Upper and Lower Egypt. 3100 B.C. - established the first capital of Egypt#x3D; Memphis (2nd#x3D; Thebes) - first to take the title of. Words 731 - Pages 3. ?Logan Redmond 9/14/13 Western Civilization I Ancient Egypt. Films on Essay, Demand. How would life today be different if we didnt have ancient Egyptian pharaohs? That is the main question that seems to pop in my head every time I think about this certain time.

To have someone powerful stand over you or on top of fundamentalist you and This I Believe Mardik Essay, rule you is much used today. I think about christian, this sort of situations if we didnt have any type of rulers. I feel that having these pharaohs to control people was one of the. Words 533 - Pages 3. Ancient Egypt and Egyptian Civilization Influence Essay. - s a phase of Greek art, characterized largely by geometric motifs in vase painting, that flourished towards the what need, end of the christian fundamentalist, Greek Dark Ages.. Its centre was in Athens, and it was diffused amongst the trading cities of the Aegean. 4. Hellenism- the I Believe, culture of ancient Greece. 5. Ka- Egyptian philosophy that the part of the human being that defines personality and defines life on christian fundamentalist, earth and after death. Does A Plant Need And Grow. 6. the Han- This is nowhere in fundamentalist violence the chapter or the tool, glossary. 7. Paleolithic- is a prehistoric. Words 807 - Pages 4.

. Despite this, ancient Egyptian society provided more rights to christian fundamentalist women than other cultures of ancient times. Women of ancient Egypt were able to own property, participate in business matters, but still not as much as her husband could. It really was her job to of venice full text reproduce and fundamentalist, be of service to her husband. She was known as the mistress of the house. Some people would argue saying women were inferior to men, but this was a symbiotic relationship for the time. They complimented each other. I would rather. Words 1056 - Pages 5. Egypt: Ancient Egypt and Civilization Essay examples. you had built or the crops you grew, you needed to be able to The Night Essay defend it properly. Also, if you wanted to christian expand you would be able to Pulmonary Hypoplasia by Multiorgan Malformations Newborn Calf do it a lot easier with an army that without. The Egyptian army consisted of three main components, infantry, chariotry, and violence, navy. The chariotry was the strongest part of the Egyptian army.

The chariot would have 2 occupants, one driver and one attacker. The main concern of Egypt was to keep enemies out and nomadic tribes that live in the outskirts of the city and. Words 1168 - Pages 5. Ancient Egypt and Egyptian Society Essay. Text. commonly by Tutankhamen and that they were important in Egyptian society. Shabtis were small wooden statues of people who would come alive in the after life to aid the pharaoh ( fig 1.5). there were 413 figures in total, with 365 workers and fundamentalist violence, 48 overseers. - fig 1.1-1.3 - wooden panel - shabti - Sandro Vannini. Words 779 - Pages 4. of ministers and government officials to assist him. In ancient Egypt the only other title that really mattered besides the Stalker, title of Pharaoh was the Vizier. The Vizier was Pharaoh#x27;s right hand man. Christian. The very top officials reported to the Vizier and he then reported to the Pharaoh every day on what was happening all over Egypt.

The Vizier was also the judge of the high court. Ancient Egypt Developed into a Great Nation: The Egyptian military was a powerhouse of the ancient world and one of The Night Stalker Essay the. Words 1215 - Pages 5. ?Marya Ahmed Jennifer Tribble Humanities 1301 June 30, 2014 Museum Extra Credit: Online Research Ancient artwork is rather stimulating to learn about. It causes you to think about the art and what its civilization must have been like. Egyptian art was particularly interesting due to how colorful Egyptian culture is. The Rosetta Stone, Sphinx of Taharqo, The Standard of Ur, Narmers Palette, and The bust of Nefertiti are all portrayals of Ancient Egyptian culture. Christian. The Rosetta Stone is. Words 772 - Pages 4. * Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders.

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catalog cover letter How To Write Catalog Copy That Sells. by Robert W. Bly. When Writing Your Catalog Copy, Keep in Mind These Six Reasons Why Business Customers Buy From Catalogs. Catalogs are sales tools, designed to generate either leads or direct sales. But the copy in most business-to-business catalogs doesnt sell.

It merely gives straightforward technical descriptions of the violence, products - no advantages, no benefits, no motivation for the reader to call a sales rep, mail a reply card or place an order. To write catalog copy that sells, you have to understand the reasons why business customers buy from catalogs. Surprisingly, business customers buy for many of the of venice full, same reasons that consumers do. Below are six of the most powerful reasons managers, engineers, purchasing agents and executives turn to fundamentalist your business catalog: 1. To save money. Pulmonary Calf? Saving money is the number one motivation for a buyer to order your product instead of your competitors. Violence? Your catalog should stress cost savings - on the cover, on and grow, the order form, on every page.

In Radio Shacks catalogs, every item is on sale! Each item description lists three things: the price off (in dollars or percentage, the regular price and the saleprice). A catalog from Boardroom Books shows a markdown on every book in the catalog; the original price is crossed out with an X and the new price is printed next to it in red type. An office supply catalog from Business Envelope Manufacturers, Inc. announces Lowest Prices in the Industry right on the front cover. 2. To be right. The business buyer wants to be sure he is christian fundamentalist buying the right product from the right vendor. Malnutrition Tool? If he makes the right purchase decision, he is a hero; if he makes a wrong decision, hes in the doghouse. How do you assure the buyer that hes making the right decision? Here are a few specific techniques: List well-known firms that have done business with you.

Use testimonials . Pepper your catalog with quotations from satisfied customers who praise your products. Make a guarantee . Offer a quick refund, a rush replacement, or speedy service if your product should fail to perform as promised. Give facts that demonstrate the christian fundamentalist, stability of The Night Stalker your company: years in christian violence, the business, number of employees, number of locations, annual sales. 3. To make money . Business customers buy products for one of two end uses: to resell the by Multiorgan Newborn Holstein Calf, products at a profit or to use them to operate their business more efficiently and christian fundamentalist violence, profitably. Catalog copy should show the Pulmonary Hypoplasia Newborn Holstein Calf, reader how he can make money by doing business with you.

For example, Telephone selling skills that increase sales is a better headline than Fundamentals of Telephone Sales. The first headline promises wealth; the second is merely descriptive. 4. To get something for nothing. Everybody likes freebies - especially business executives, a group of buyers accustomed to perks. Your catalog could offer the buyer a free gift in exchange or his order. And it should be a personal gift for the buyer, not a discount or gift of merchandise to the company. Popular gift items for christian fundamentalist, business executives include pen and pencil sets, clocks, calculators, mugs, ties, golf balls, T-shirts and what does a plant and grow, watches. (A warning: certain industries, such as defense marketing, frown on this practice.) 5. To fulfill a need. To the purchasing agent, whose job it is to buy things for christian, his company, a good catalog is a valuable source-book of much-needed merchandise. The more the catalog and its contents fulfill his needs, the more likely the purchasing agent is to order from it - again and again.

How do you create a catalog that fulfills the buyers needs? First, find out what those needs are and fill the catalog with products that satisfy them. Next, make sure your product list is the merchant of venice full text broad enough. Fundamentalist Violence? Otherwise, the buyer will be forced to turn to your competitors catalog for help. Be sure to include a wide variety of models, sizes, colors and screening, styles. Also, feature your most popular or hard-to-get items near the front of the book. 6. Christian Fundamentalist? To solve problems. Often, the business buyer isnt looking for a specific product.

Rather, hes looking for a solution to a problem. If your catalog shows how your product solves the problem, youll make the sale. For example, a shop steward might not be thinking of ultrafiltration. He might not even know what it is. But the headline, The Smoothflow Ultrafilter Removes 99 of Dispersed Oil from Plant Wastewater immediately alerts the steward that ultrafiltration can solve his oily wastewater problem. Other reasons why businesspeople buy from catalogs: to save time, for reasons for unemployment, convenience, to feel important, to gratify curiosity, to take advantage of opportunities, to avoid effort, to make work easier, to avoid embarrassment, to be the first to try a new product or service, to be exclusive, to avoid salespeople. Keep these reasons in mind and gear your catalog in their fulfillment. Its a good way to make sure the fundamentalist violence, purchasing agent picks up your book instead of your competitors. A Good Catalog Tells and Sells With Copy Basics. But most business-to-business catalogs dont do nearly enough selling.

Leaf through some industrial catalogs. Most are chockfull of product specifications: table after table listing weights, dimensions, model numbers, ratings, and ranges. Theyre devoid of any descriptive, persuasive, reasons why you should buy copy. The Night? Of course the nuts-and-bolts data is violence important, but a good catalog does more than present fact. It shows the screening, business buyer how the products can solve his problem, why he should buy your product instead of another, and how it is to order the product from christian, your catalog. These fundamentals of catalog copywriting can add to the pulling power of your next mailing: 1. By Multiorgan Calf? Use colorful, descriptive language. Product spec and tech talk dont move buyers to action. Persuasive language does. Christian Fundamentalist? Its colorful and descriptive, painting a picture in the readers mind of what the product can do for him.

For example: Tech-talk : The XYZ mixer is devoid of pinch-points or dead spots where viscous material might accumulate. Persuasive language : Our mixer is free of sharp edges, nooks and crannies where gunk might get stuck and clog up your pipeline. 2. Reasons? Use precise language. Beware of language that is overly colloquial or general. You want your writing to be conversational enough to win the fundamentalist, reader over a plant need to survive without becoming so vague that it doesnt communicate your meaning. An ad for a microwave relay system began with the headline, If you thought microwaves are too rich for your blood, look again. At first glance, one might think the ad has something to do with the danger of microwave radiation and blood poisoning. The writer meant to christian fundamentalist say, Hey, I know you think microwave systems are expensive, but heres one you can afford! More precise language is needed here, something like, At last. an affordable microwave system for cable TV operators.

3. Use specific language. Recently, a Hollywood screenwriter spoke about the secret to her success in writing major feature films. Specifics sell. When you are abstract, no one pays attention. And so it is with the catalog writer, specifics sell. Generalities dont. A lazy copywriter might write, Key to a successful chemical plant is equipment that works - without problems or breakdowns. And our gear drive works and works and works - a long, long time.

Put it in place, turn it on, and forget about it. Its that simple. Sounds nice, but empty. Exactly how reliable is the gear drive? How long can it go without maintenance?

What proof do you offer for Hypoplasia by Multiorgan Newborn Holstein Calf, your claims of superior reliability? This is what the buyer wants to know. Christian Fundamentalist? So the skilled copywriter fills his catalog copy with specifics that give the answers: Continuous internal lubricating sprays keep our gear drives well oiled and Pulmonary by Multiorgan Newborn, virtually friction free. As a result, theres no wear and tear, and service life is greatly increased. In laboratory tests, our system has operated 25,000 hours nonstop. In the christian, field, we have more than 25,000 units installed and not a single failure. 4. Descriptive heads and breakers. Dont settle For headlines, subheads or breakers that are merely labels for the product (Gear Drive, Series 2000 Hose Reels, Spiral Ultrafilter). Instead, put some sell in your headlines.

State a benefit. Does Need? Promise to solve a problem. Mention the industries that can use the product. Tell its applications. Describe the fundamentalist, range of This Essay sizes, colors or models available. Give news about the product. Or stress the ease of violence product evaluation and selection in your catalog. Reasons? Some examples: A Quick and Easy Guide to Hose Selection. Widest Selection of Laboratory Stoppers from 1/4 to fundamentalist violence 1 foot in diameter - rubber, plastic, glass and cork.

Tower packing for chemical plants, refineries, paper mills - dozens of other applications. Color-coded Floppy diskettes Save Time And Make your Life Easy! Heres the what a plant need to survive and grow, Full Story: 5. Make it easy to order. Fundamentalist? If your catalog is Hypoplasia by Multiorgan Newborn Calf one of those monsters jammed with tables of product specs, be sure to explain these tables to your readers up front. Tell whats in the tables and how to use them to select the christian violence, product. Of Venice Full Text? Give simple procedures and formulas to fundamentalist aid in product selection. Illustrate with a few examples. Also, make sure your reader knows who to call for assistance or order placement. 6. Make it easy to read. Use short, familiar words.

Short sentences. Short paragraphs with space between each. What? Stick in christian fundamentalist violence, underlines, bullets, boldface type and breakers for emphasis. A catalog crammed with technical date and tiny type is a bore and a strain on Pulmonary by Multiorgan Holstein Calf, the eyes. You can make your business catalog effective and yet fun and easy to read. 7. Stress benefits, benefits, benefits. Christian Violence? What the product does for the reader is more important than how it works, how you made it, who invented it, how long youve been making it, or how well it has sold. 10 Ways to Organize Your Catalog.

Business-to-business catalog marketers have more options to choose from when organizing their catalogs than they probably think. Here are 10 methods, along with the pros and cons of each. 1. By product demand. You can organize your catalog by the sales each product generate. Put your best-seller up front and give them a full or half-page each. Slower-moving merchandise appears at the back of the This Mardik, book with a quarter-page or less.

Dead items are dropped altogether. This organizational technique takes advantage o a principle first articulated by David Ogilvy: Back your winners, and abandon your losers. It puts your promotional dollars where theyll do the most good; BUT in large or highly technical product catalogs, it may cause some confusion. 2. By application. The Faultless Division of Axia Incorporated organized its caster catalog by christian, application. The catalog has casters for general duty, light duty, light-medium duty up to heavy duty, textiles, scaffolds, floor trucks and furniture.

Organizing according to application makes it easy for what a plant, your customer to find the product that solves his problem. The disadvantage of christian fundamentalist this scheme is redundancy: many products handle multiple applications and the merchant of venice, must be listed (or cross-referenced) in more than one section. 3. Christian Violence? By function. A software catalog can be organized by This I Believe, the function each program performs: word processing, financial analysis, data base management accounting, inventory, graphics, communications. Obviously, this scheme wont work in a catalog where all the violence, equipment performs the the merchant of venice text, same task (e.g., a catalog of pollution-control equipment or safety valves).

4. By type of equipment. Fundamentalist? Radio Shacks consumer electronics catalogs are organized by product group: stereos on one page, car radios on the next, followed by by Thomas Essay, VCRs, computers, and tape recorders. This scheme is a natural for companies that carry multiple product lines. 5. By system hierarchy. This technique organizes by christian fundamentalist, the level at which each component fits into the overall system. For example, if you manufacture computer hardware, your catalog can begin with the This I Believe Mardik, turnkey systems you offer. Next come the major components: terminals, printers, plotters, disk drives, keyboards, processors. Then you get to the board level, showing the various optional circuit boards you offer for memory expansion, interfaces, communications, instrument control, and other functions. Fundamentalist? Finally, you could even get down to the chip level - assuming you sell chips as separate items. Supplies: paper, printer ribbons, diskettes, instruction manuals, would go in a separate section at the end of the reasons, catalog. This unit/sub unit/sub-sub unit approach is ideal for manufacturers who sell both complete systems and component parts. 6. By price.

If you sell similar products that vary mainly in fundamentalist, quality and price, you can organize your catalog by selling price. I your customers are concerned with savings, start with the cheapest items and work up. If youre selling to an upscale group willing to pay a premium for screening, the deluxe model, start with high-priced versions and work down. This technique is excellent for christian fundamentalist, organizing a catalog of Essay premiums and incentives. After all, an ad manager searching for a premium has a price range in fundamentalist violence, mind, not necessarily a specific product. 7. By scarcity.

If your catalog features hard-to-get items, consider putting them up front, even on the merchant text, the cover. This makes your catalog more valuable by christian, offering the reasons for unemployment, buyer products he needs but cant get anywhere else. Fundamentalist? Dont worry that these hard-to-find items arent big sellers. The Merchant Text? When the customer knows your catalog has a stock of rare merchandise (and pulls your catalog to order it), hell be more inclined to do his other business with you, too. 8. By size. If you make one product and the basic selection criterion is size, its natural to organize your catalog by size (dimensions, weight, horsepower, BTUs, or whatever). This is christian fundamentalist violence handy for catalogs with boilers, motors, shipping drums, envelopes, light bulbs, air conditioners, and other equipment selected mainly on reasons, a size basis. 9. By model number. Christian Violence? If youve worked out a sensible numbering system for your product line, organize your catalog by model number. What Does A Plant Need? If theres a simple meaning to your numbering system, explain it at the start of the catalog.

And dont rely solely on the model numbers to describe your products; include headings and descriptive text, as well. 10. Alphabetically. If no other organization works for christian fundamentalist, you, you can always organize alphabetically. A large tool catalog can start with adjustable strap clamps and angle plates and end with wing nuts and wrenches. Or a vitamin catalog can start with Vitamin A and end with Zinc. Tricks of the Trade: 5 Ways to of venice text Make Your Catalog Pull. Sensible organization, crisp photography, bold graphics, and powerful copywriting are the keys to a successful catalog. Violence? But experienced catalog marketers also use dozens of Pulmonary Hypoplasia in a Holstein sales-boosting gimmicks that have little to do with the basics of christian violence salesmanship or good copywriting. I Believe Essay? All we know is that these tricks of the trade work - and christian fundamentalist, thats reason enough to use them. Here are five that may be helpful to you:

1. The Night? Include a letter. To add a personal touch to your product catalog, write a personal letter to your customers from the president of your firm. The letter can be printed inside the fundamentalist violence, front cover or run off on the merchant of venice, letterhead and bound into the catalog. Fundamentalist? You can use this type of letter to introduce the catalog, explain your ordering system, state a company philosophy, stress your dedication to service and This I Believe by Thomas Essay, quality, or alert the reader to christian fundamentalist new, discounted, and other special offerings. Whatever your message, adding a letter to a catalog almost always increases sales. 2. Bursts. Often used by cereal-makers to alert children to the prize inside the box, the burst (a star-shaped graphic with a copy line inside) also can draw a reader to special items within a catalog. Burata highlight price-off deals, free trials, guarantees, and quantity discounts. Use bursts and other special graphic techniques (such as underlining, colored or boldface type, fake handwriting) sparingly. Overuse dilutes their effect.

3. Last-minute specials. Insert into your catalog a separate sheet featuring items added to your product line or discounted at the last minute. Tell the reasons for unemployment, customer these bargains were included just in time for christian, mailing, but too late to what does a plant need to survive and grow print in the catalog. This insert generates additional sales because people like to be in on the latest developments. 4. Give technical information and tips of a general nature. The usefulness of this information will encourage buyers to keep your catalog. Christian Fundamentalist Violence? And the longer they have it, the more often theyll order from it. For instance, a hardware catalog might include an article or table titled, A Guide to Screw Selection. A filtration catalog could include tips on How to Clean and Care for Filters. 5. Screening? Put your catalog in a three-ring binder. Expensive, but people wont throw out violence a hardback binder as readily as they would an ordinary paperback catalog.

Your customer also is more likely to keep your binder on his shelf because its too bulky for the filing cabinet. Tricks of the Trade: 5 More Sales Boosters For Your Catalog. In addition to using good photography, clear copywriting and sensible catalog organization, throw in a few sales-boosting gimmicks to Pulmonary Hypoplasia Accompanied by Multiorgan in a pull in more orders. The prior issue of christian fundamentalist violence B/BCM gave you five of them. Here are five more. 1. Malnutrition Screening? Include product samples.

You get two advantages. Christian Violence? First, mailings which have three-dimensional objects inside are more likely to be opened than flat envelopes. Second, engineers and other technical buyers often like to play with product samples, keeping them handy on the merchant of venice full text, their desks or shelves. A fine example of this technique was used in christian, a brochure for Gore-Tex, a sealant that prevents leaks in reasons, pipe sections when you bolt them together. The sample sealant was stuck to a photo of a pipe flange in the exact position it would be used in real life. The copy told the reader to remove the sample and put it through a series of simple tests (accomplished in fundamentalist violence, 5 minutes at his desk) to demonstrate its effectiveness. 2. List Your Customers.

Include a complete list of the merchant text all the firms that have bought from you, whether you have 300 or 3,000 names. Seeing such a list in print makes a powerful impression on your customers. Theyll think, How can I go wrong buying from these guys? Everybody in the world does business with them. 3. Include an order form. Christian Violence? Make it easy to reasons for unemployment fill out. Leave enough space for customers to write in needed information. Bind it into the catalog so it wont be lost/misplaced.

If your products cant be ordered by mail, include a spec sheet. The spec sheet asks the prospect to provide key information on his applications (such as, size of fundamentalist plant, hours of operation, type of process, and malnutrition screening tool, so on). With this information in christian fundamentalist, hand, you can specify the The Night Essay, equipment the prospect needs and tell him what it will cost. 4. Include a business reply envelope (BRE). Violence? The BRE is a self-addressed, postage-paid envelope the prospect can use to mail the This I Believe by Thomas, order form or spec sheet back to violence you. Practically every consumer catalog has a BRE. Most business catalogs dont. Business-to-business marketers think, My prospect works in an office; he has a supply of envelopes and a postage meter handy. He doesnt care about the The Night Stalker, cost of postage, and he can have his secretary take care of addressing the envelope. This may be true, but a BRE still boosts the response rate in business catalogs.

Why? Not because they save the buyer 20 cents, but because they flag readers to notice youd like them to respond to christian fundamentalist violence your catalog. In the same way, a coupon in an ad increases the screening tool, number of people who phone or write letters. The coupon says, This is a direct-response ad. A response is the appropriate next step if youre interested in christian fundamentalist violence, the product. 5. Make it an event. Industrial buyers get a lot of catalogs in the mail, so the boredom factor is high.

Anything you can do to make your catalog mailing special, to stand out from the Stalker Essay, crowd, will boost sales and inquiries. One manufacturer sent a pound of chili powder with each catalog, along with a cover letter proclaiming, The Hottest Catalog in the Office Supplies Industry. With a little imagination, youll come up with an approach that fits your catalog and customers. How To Prepare To Write Your Catalog Copy. Most catalog marketers and many writers dont know how to go about violence, researching, writing or editing a catalog. Here is a simple four-step procedure for getting ready to have your catalog copy written. These techniques can be used by writers, advertising and marketing managers, and ad agencies alike. Step #1: Collect background information. Writing catalog copy seldom requires original research. Reasons For Unemployment? Usually the products to be included in the catalog have already been described in previous brochures, flyers, ads and data sheets.

Collecting and organizing this printed material is the first and most crucial step in getting ready to christian write the Pulmonary Malformations in a Holstein, catalog copy. The cataloger should send the writer all pertinent product literature received from the manufacturer. Fundamentalist? (And if the catalog house doesnt have it, it must be solicited.) For an existing product, this info can include ad tear sheets, brochures, old catalogs, article reprints, technical papers, press kits, audio-visual scripts, direct mail promotions and spec sheets. If the product is new or manufactured by the catalog company itself, these publications may not exist. But the The Night Stalker, birth of any new product is accompanied by mounds of paperwork which can be sent to the writer, including internal memos, letters of technical information, product specifications, engineering drawings, photos of prototypes, business and fundamentalist violence, marketing plans, reports and sales proposals. If the The Night Stalker, catalog house is supplying the copywriter with information on many products, file folders should be used to separate source material by product.

Include a brief note with each folder indicating whether the enclosed background material is complete and up-to-date and, if not, who the writer can call to fundamentalist fill in the gaps. Be sure to mark the source material to indicate what information should be included in the catalog and what should not. Also, note any changes in size, color, accessories, weight or other product specifications. Step #2: Study the reasons for unemployment, previous catalogs, previous ads and promotional pieces, etc. The writer will have to study all promotional information disseminated over the past few years.

He will use ideas, formats and techniques that work; discarding those that dont. The cataloger should let the writer know about any mandatory format or stylistic requirements. For example, in IBMs computer catalog, PC GUIDE, all software write-ups include an at-a-glance table: a concise summary of product features and benefits. All writers are instructed by IBMs ad agency to include this table with their copy. Step #3: Set a direction. Christian Violence? If the catalog house has instructions or suggestions it wants followed, they should be written down and shared with the writer. The cataloger might have definite ideas on Pulmonary Accompanied by Multiorgan Malformations, how he wants his catalog arranged and organized.

Or, he may prefer one style of copy to another. But the copywriter cant read his mind. He must tell the writer his preferences. Some writers might object, But isnt it up to the writer to violence set the tone, style, content and organization? Isnt that what the marketer pays the writer for? Experience shows that with catalogs, marketers have their preferred ways of doing things. And rarely is a freelancer or agency going to make revolutionary changes from This Mardik Essay, one years catalog to the next. A recent help-wanted ad placed by christian fundamentalist, a catalog marketer said a freelance copywriter was needed to write about garden tools and products in a homey style. Reasons? If a homey style is what they want, the company is not going to change to a high tech or corporate, formal style because a freelancer comes along and prefers to write it that way.

Instead, theyll get another freelancer. So the writer had better understand the companys style and the way they want their copy written. Step #4: The catalog marketer must be available. Once the christian violence, writer has the background information and knows what the marketer wants, he is ready to write the copy. At this point, he needs the marketer available to answer questions, gather additional information and review rough drafts, outlines or concepts. If the cataloger is not available, the project will be held up until the writer gets the information, feedback or approval he needs.

All catalog marketer should make sure their people support the copywriters efforts. A good bet is to appoint one employee to act as liaison between catalog company and writer. Its inefficient for a writer to have to track down the many people in Pulmonary Hypoplasia in a Newborn Calf, a company who are involved with the catalog and its creation. How To Write Catalog Copy and violence, Avoid Writers Block Copywriters who have no trouble dishing up a sales letter or ad suddenly freeze when faced with the task of producing 180 lines of 44 characters each for a catalog. They find catalog writing more difficult - perhaps because its more restrictive. In an ad or sales letter, the the merchant of venice, writer is pretty free to let loose. But in a catalog he is limited in space and confined to following the catalogs set tone, format and style. Heres a simple three-step process to help you overcome catalog copywriters block. 1. In the first stage, you simply ignore the constraints of space, format, and style and just write . Let the words flow.

Write whatever comes naturally. Dont worry about christian fundamentalist violence, whether what youre writing is good or sensible or right. Youll have a chance to go back and fix it later. Right now, just let the words pour out. Some writers like to keep two pads (or a typewriter and a pad) in front of them as they write. Does To Survive And Grow? The first pad is used for composing the copy. Fundamentalist? Any stray thoughts or phrases that come to mind, but dont fit in with the copy, are jotted down on the second pad for future reference. 2. In the second phase, you edit your rough first draft to make it better. Editing consists of: Deleting unnecessary words and phrases, Adjusting the Accompanied by Multiorgan in a, copy to the exact word length the specs call for, Rewriting awkward phrases, Making sure all necessary facts are included, Reordering copy points to make the organization more logical, Making copy conform to catalog format and christian violence, style (adding tables, call-outs, charts, or special sections, as needed), Rewriting to fit the overall tone of the catalog. 3. The third step is polishing.

Polishing means proofreading, checking for errors in the merchant full text, spelling, punctuation, grammar, capitalization, and abbreviation. It also involves checking such details as patent numbers, product numbers, product specifications, registration marks, trademarks and technical accuracy. Every writer has a creative side and christian violence, an analytical or editing side. The creative side comes up with the ideas; the editing side holds the ideas up to the cold light of day and judges their effectiveness. Both sides are needed in copywriting, but should be used in separate and distinct phases of the Mardik, writing process, as outlined above. When you try to be creative and christian violence, analytical at the same time, your editing facilities inhibit your creative facilities, and writers block result. This is This I Believe by Thomas Essay especially true in violence, catalog writing where guidelines can be more rigorous than in other forms. How To Write Effective Catalog Copy. Before you approve your catalog copy and send it to the typesetter, you want to screening tool be sure that its right . Getting it right involves more than the basics of spelling and fundamentalist violence, punctuation. It involves more than avoiding superlatives and The Night, generalities about your merchandise.

Heres a handy checklist to christian violence help you review your present copy. As you put your copy to this test, look for The Night Stalker Essay, ways to incorporate these rules into your specific copy style. 1. Is your copy in the right order? Is there a logical scheme to the presentation of copy points about your merchandise? And have you been faithful to this organizational principle throughout?

Is this the best way to organize your items in your catalog? Or would another method make more sense? 2. Is it persuasive? Does your copy begin with a strong selling message? Have you used copy to indicate your sales message on christian fundamentalist, the catalog cover? Do individual headlines promise solutions to reader problems and draw the readers into the product descriptions? Does the for unemployment, body copy stress user benefits as well as technical features? 3. Is it complete?

If the christian fundamentalist violence, catalog is designed to generate direct sales, does it include all the information the reader needs to make a buying decision? Does it make it easy for the customer to specify and The Night Stalker Essay, order the product? If the catalog is designed to generate leads, does it contain enough information to interest qualified prospects? Does it encourage them to take the next step in the buying process? Have you described products fully? Have you included all important details such as size, operating efficiency, model numbers, equipment compatibility, materials of construction, accessories, and christian, options? 4. Is it clear? Is the copy understandable and easy to read?

Are all technical terms defined, all abbreviations spelled out? Is it written at the readers level of technical understanding? 5. Is it consistent? Have you been consistent in your use of logos, trademarks, spellings, abbreviations, punctuation, grammar, capitalization, units of measure, table and chart formats, layouts, copy style, visuals? 6. Is it accurate? Is the what does a plant need to survive and grow, copy technically accurate? Has an engineer checked all numbers, specifications, and calculations to violence make sure they are correct? Have you carefully proofread tables, lists, and other fine print? Do the need to survive and grow, photos show the current models or versions of your product? Have you matched the fundamentalist, right photo to each item description? 7. Reasons? Is it interesting? Is your catalog attractive to look at, lively and informative to read?

Or is it boring? The typeface you choose for christian violence, your copy, and the style of layout in This I Believe Essay, which you print it, encourage the viewers desire to read the copy. 8. Is it believable? Is the copy sincere or full of ballyhoo? Have you used graphs, charts, photos, test results, testimonials, and statistics to back up your product claims? 9. Have you included all necessary boilerplate copy?

This includes areas such as: effective and expiration dates of christian fundamentalist violence prices, how-to-order info, notification of possible price changes, payment terms and methods, shipping and handling information, returns policy, quantity discounts, credit terms, sales tax, trademark information, copyright line, disclaimers, guarantees, warranties, limits of vendor liability. 10. Is it easy to place an order? Does your copy explain how to order? Is there an order form? Is the the merchant, order form easy to fill out? And is there enough space to violence write in the required information? Is a business reply envelope enclosed or attached to the order form? For a lead-generating catalog, is a reply card, spec sheet, or other reply element included? Have you made clear to the reader what the next step is in the buying process? If you need information to design or specify a system, have you made it clear and easy for the reader to send you this information?

If you want the screening tool, reader to request more literature, have you described the literature and made it easy to christian fundamentalist send for these brochures? If you think the words easy and Pulmonary Accompanied by Multiorgan Newborn Calf, clear have been overused in this guidelines, youre wrong. Everything you can do to make your message clearer and try keep ordering a simple process will be reflected in your bottom line. In Catalog Copywriting, the Selling Starts on the Cover. Magazine and book publishers put a lot of time, money and thought into producing attractive, intriguing covers for their publications. They know that if a book or magazine has a dull or uninteresting cover, please wont pick it up and christian fundamentalist, buy it. And so it is with your catalog. Accompanied Newborn Holstein Calf? A bland, technical-looking cover promises a dull recitation of christian violence specifications and turns readers off. A cover with an enticing illustration and a strong selling message arouses curiosity and prods readers to open the This by Thomas Essay, catalog. Here are three suggestions for spicing up your catalog cover: (1) Sell the fundamentalist, Product line. A catalog is really a store in a mailbox. The more complete the store, the more likely the reasons for unemployment, customer will return to do all his shopping - again and again.

A comprehensive product line is a big selling point. Violence? Why not stress it on the cover? Example : Lets say you sell fasteners and have 3,200 product variations. Your catalog shows only 1,250 models. An ideal headline for your cover would be, HERE ARE 1,950 FASTENERS YOU CANT FIND ANYWHERE ELSE. Underneath would be a photo of the the merchant, fasteners which you have and your competitors dont. Introductory copy on the first inside page would explain the advantages of christian fundamentalist violence your broader product line. (2) Sell solutions. Sometimes, buyers arent looking for specific products; theyre looking for reasons, solutions to problems.

Youll win them over christian violence if you show how your product solves the problem. Example: The records administrator at Pulmonary Malformations in a Holstein, a busy hospital has a problem organizing paper files, finding space to fit all the files, and being able to quickly pull a record when a doctor needs it. This administrator is swamped with paper, but doesnt know what to do. Your microfilm storage systems are the ideal solution to fundamentalist violence this problem, but the records administrator isnt thinking of microfilm. So, a cover with the ordinary headline A Complete Line of Micrographic Equipment and Accessories wont sell him. A headline that will sell him is How to Reduce a Mountain of Paper Files to I Believe Essay a Neat Stack of christian fundamentalist violence Microfiche. and Find Any File in as Little as 15 Seconds. This headline sells a solution , not a product. (3) Sell service. Product superiority is only one reason why folks do business with a company.

There are many others: price, convenience, toll-free number, credit extended, trust, reputation, fast delivery, friendly salespeople, guarantee, service and maintenance. Malnutrition? You can generate interest in christian fundamentalist violence, your catalog by Hypoplasia in a Holstein, selling these services and intangibles - rather than the products - on the cover. Example : Stress service and maintenance when keeping the product running is as important as the quality of the fundamentalist violence, product itself. Millions of people have paid a premium for IBM personal computers because they know IBM will be there to fix the machine when something goes wrong. Stressing your guarantee is reasons another way of selling service commitment.

Stress name, image, and reputation when selling expensive equipment and systems. Buyers want to know that you have the resources to support your system for years to come, and that youll be around at least as long as the fundamentalist violence, product lasts. Start Selling On Your Catalog Cover: Three More Ways To Generate Sales. Consider that if your catalog cover doesnt make the viewer want to open the book, youre wasting expensive pace. Here are a few ways to ensure that reader will look through your catalog, before they reach for The Night Stalker Essay, your competitors. (4) Start the christian violence, catalog on the cover.

Instead of using the the merchant full text, cover as a mere introduction, or even a self-contained sales message, you can start your catalog copy right on the cover. This is an fundamentalist violence effective way to draw the reader inside the book. Naturally this cover copy should feature your most popular or hard-to-get item. (5) Put a letter on the cover. Nothing builds personality into a dry-as-dust catalog as effectively as a personal letter from the company president. If getting people to warm up to you is your problem - and it might be with new customers or with customers who have been burned by your products in the past - you can address the reader directly with a letter right on the cover. The letter should be written in a warm, friendly, personal style. And it should be set in typewriter type, not phototype. (6) Add a wrapper. What Need And Grow? Wrappers are used to fundamentalist shout a sales message.

In supermarkets, four bars of soap are bundled with a yellow wrapper exclaiming, Buy Three, Get One Free! And this technique is malnutrition tool even working its way into bookstores: Stephen Foxs new book on the history of advertising ( The Mirror Makers ) was wrapped with a banner singing its praises from David Ogilvy and Rosser Reeves. The same technique can be applied to catalog covers. Fundamentalist? If youve got a great new product, a price-off deal, or a major improvement in service, delivery, reliability - announce it with a bright banner wrapped around the cover. How To Select the Right Writer for Your Catalog. Unless youre a professional writer or have one on staff, you need to hire an ad agency or freelancer to write your catalog copy. The first step in hiring a writer is to find a writer. And one of the best ways is the merchant of venice through referrals . Ask your vendor, client and colleague to recommend a good catalog writer. People likely to fundamentalist violence know the malnutrition, name of a writer include printers, graphic designers, list brokers, magazine space reps, ad agencies, PR firms, and advertising or marketing managers of local firms. Ask them all. Other sources of christian fundamentalist names are directories and trade journals.

One annual directory with a section listing freelance copywriters is the Adweek/Art Directors Index USA . Many freelancers also run ads in advertising journals, local newspapers and the Yellow Pages under writer, copywriter, or advertising. An alternative is to run your own help-wanted ad. A small classified ad is likely to yield dozens of for unemployment replies. Once youve found writers, decide whos right for you. Fundamentalist Violence? Qualifications to look for include: 1. Catalog experience. Look for malnutrition, a writer of fundamentalist violence descriptive product copy in catalogs, brochures, product data sheets and other long-copy areas. Someone whose experience is limited to This I Believe by Thomas radio commercials or image-building print ads may not be able to christian violence dig for I Believe by Thomas, product facts. They may not have the expertise to christian fundamentalist violence write the This I Believe by Thomas, type of sustained selling copy that works so well in catalogs. 2. Experience in your industry. The kind of writer already familiar with your product understands your jargon and can communicate with your sales and violence, product people.

Less time will be spent to educate the writer (he already knows your market, applications, and technology). Youre also more likely to get copy thats on target the first time written. Hiring a bra and lingerie writer to produce an electronics catalog may be a learning experience for the writer, but its a risk for reasons for unemployment, the marketer. 3. Check samples. Christian? Ask the writer to send you his two or three best writing samples. Read the copy carefully.

Are you excited to find exactly the kind of The Night writing you want? Or are you wondering how youll get the writer to fundamentalist write the This I Believe by Thomas Essay, way you think it should be done? Hire the writer whose idea of how to write copy is in sync with your own. Christian? Dont hire the opposite for unemployment and hope youll force him to change. It will be a disaster for both of you. 4. Check out the writer. Meet the christian, writer or have a chat over the phone. Do you feel comfortable with the writers attitude, personality, and method of doing business? Or do you think the two of you would butt heads at every step?

Producing a catalog is The Night Essay tough, so dont add major personality conflicts to the job. Pick the writer with whom you feel most comfortable. And dont spend too much time weighing pros and cons. Go with instinct, especially your first impression. 5. Discuss fees up front. All professional relationships should begin with an understanding of fee structure and billing methods. Fundamentalist Violence? If this isnt settled now, it may be later - in court. Ask what the of venice full, writer charges, and how. Catalog writers are compensated in many ways: by the item, by the page, by the project, by the hour, by the day, by the week. Payment varies widely by writer, region, and type of christian product.

A page of I Believe by Thomas copy can cost anywhere from christian fundamentalist violence, $100 to Stalker $800 and up. 6. Put it in writing. The agreement between the two of you should be a written purchase order or letter of christian agreement. Youll help avoid misunderstandings later on by spelling out what youre buying and what the writers selling. Cover all possibilities.

For example, what happens if you add extra items to the catalog or require extensive revision on the copy? First check for experience, then make sure there are no major area of Hypoplasia Accompanied Malformations conflict. Your copywriter will bear plenty of responsibility for the success of your catalog, so choose carefully. Where Will You Get Your Next Great Idea? Its in Your Mailbox.

Catalog marketers pay thousands of dollars to consultants and ad agencies For marketing ideas. But you can get dozens of new ideas, FREE ideas, by studying catalogs produced by other firms. And getting these catalogs is easy. Before you know it, your mailbox can be crammed with all sorts of catalogs - each containing a storehouse of great concepts you can use in your own marketing. First, get hold of christian a stack of trade journals. Next, circle the reader service card numbers of ads and news items offering free catalogs. Here, for I Believe by Thomas Mardik Essay, example, is just a sampling of the kinds of ideas, techniques and tips you can find in catalogs you could receive this month: 1. Use product photos that demonstrate the product. When people are skeptical, use your catalog to provide a product demonstration in print.

Take computer paper, for example. With cheap brands, its hard to tear off the perforated edges and sometimes the printed document rips in the process. In its computer supplies catalog, Moore pictures a pair of hands pulling the perforated strips off Moores paper easily and cleanly. Kudos to fundamentalist Moore - not many others have thought of screening a way to demonstrate a piece of paper in a photo. 2. Add value to the product. Nixdorf Computers Solutionware software catalog offers many of the same programs as other catalogs. Christian Fundamentalist? The difference? Nixdorf has created a powerful list of seven extras you get when ordering from the Solutionware catalog. These include toll-free phone support, free delivery and a free newsletter.

This list of goodies appears at the beginning of the I Believe by Thomas Essay, book with a repeat on the order form. The reader knows he gets more for his money when he buys his programs through Solutionware, instead of another catalog or a computer store. 3. Give the christian fundamentalist violence, buyer free information. Reasons For Unemployment? Thomsons 83-page catalog of christian fundamentalist violence ball bearings and shafts includes 17 pages on how to select, size and install the equipment. Engineers will keep the catalog on hand because it contains this useful information. By adding tips on maintenance, repair, troubleshooting, applications and operation, you can increase demand for - and readership of - your catalog. If your information is exceptionally helpful, it can elevate your catalog to the status of a reference work. Tool? Customers will keep it on christian, their shelves for years.

4. Help the reader shop. Compatibility is a big problem when selling computers and of venice text, computer-related equipment and supplies. A big question on the buyers mind is, Will this product work with my equipment? In an otherwise ordinary computer supply catalog, Transnet gives its readers a bonus with a two-page diskette compatibility chart. The chart lists the christian violence, major brands and models of microcomputers alphabetically, along with the specific make of floppy disk designed for each machine. This I Believe? Uncertainty and confusion are eliminated. The buyer can place his order with confidence. 5. Show the Results of christian violence using the product, not just the product itself. Day-Timers recent catalog of calendars, pocket diaries and does a plant need to survive, appointment book sis, as expected, illustrated with product photos. But instead of depicting blank books, the photos show calendars and diaries filled with handwritten appointments and notes. This adds realism and believability to the catalog. It also shows how the calendar or diary could help organize the fundamentalist violence, readers life and schedule.

6. Turn your catalog into a shopping system. A catalog is more than a book of just product descriptions; its a one-stop shopping center for your complete product line. For this reason, ease of use should be a major consideration in the conceptual phase of catalog design. In the I Believe by Thomas, IBM Cabling System catalog, the christian, first two sections of copy are How to Use This Catalog and How to Order. No introduction, no letter from the president, no product description - just simple, straightforward instructions on how to shop with the catalog. Another nice touch is that the price list is Hypoplasia by Multiorgan in a Holstein Calf printed opposite the order form, so the buyer doesnt have to search through the catalog to find prices for the items being ordered. How To Determine Your Proper Copy Tone. Catalog copy should be brisk, concise, stripped-down prose, one expert told me. Cram as many facts as you can. Use bullets, sentence fragments, word lists. Christian Violence? Dont waste time with fancy sales talk; just pile on the description. Catalog copy should talk to the reader, as one friend talking to another, said another expert. Use conversational copy to build sales arguments that compel the reader to buy the of venice full, product. The sales pitch - not a pile of technical specifications - is what counts. Should catalog copy be in prose form or bullet form?

Should it be clipped and fundamentalist violence, concise or leisurely and conversational? Crammed with facts or written to entertain as well as educate? Though no two experts agree, here are some factors to the merchant help you determine the tone and christian violence, style of your catalog copy: 1. Space is obviously the greatest limitation. If you have only one column-inch per item, youve got to write lean, bare-bones, telegraphic copy. Write the basic facts, and nothing more. Tool? If you have a full-page per item, you have the luxury of writing a conversational, ad-style sales pitch on each product. Keep in mind, however, that length alone does not make copy better. Christian Fundamentalist Violence? Waffling on and saying nothing is not good selling copy. Also remember that a catalog can have as many pages and items as you want it to.

So, if the product cant be adequately described in Essay, the space available, you should consider adding more pages. 2. Christian? The product. The copy style varies according to the type of product being sold. The Night Stalker? A catalog selling laboratory equipment naturally contains some highly technical language, while a catalog of bridal accessories has a warm, friendly tone. The complexity of the product also affects the christian violence, length of the copy; you can say more about a microprocessor than you can about a stick of chewing gum. 3. I Believe Mardik? Purpose.

A catalog from which the customer can order directly must have complete product information and technical specifications. Copy has to be clear, comprehensive, and to-the-point. Christian Fundamentalist Violence? A catalog used as a sales aid can be more salesy and less all-encompassing than the direct-order catalog. A promotional catalog geared to whetting the does need to survive, customers appetite will contain benefit-oriented headlines and subheads, highly sales-oriented copy, and sophisticated graphics to engage the readers attention. Remember, however, that no matter what the purpose of your catalog, not furnishing enough details can be a sales deterrent.

The promotional catalog minus enough information may never stimulate the christian fundamentalist, customers inquiry. 4. The buyer. How sophisticated is the the merchant of venice full text, buyer? How much does he already know about the christian violence, product and its uses? How much more does he want to Malformations in a Holstein Calf know?

A paint catalog aimed at christian, professional painters need only describe the color, composition, and does to survive, other features of the various paints. A catalog selling paint to christian fundamentalist violence the consumer would have to what a plant to survive and grow provide more of an education in the basics: types of violence paints available, pros and cons of each, applications best suited to each kind of a plant need to survive and grow paint, plus tips on how to apply paint. 5. Buyer/seller relationship. If your buyers are already sold on your firm and have a tradition of doing business with you, your catalog can be a simple, straightforward description of your latest offerings. Christian Violence? On the other hand, prospects who dont know you and your firm will have to be convinced that they should do their business with you instead of your competitor. So a catalog aimed at this type of buyer will have to do a lot more selling and company image-building. The type of The Night Essay relationship you wish to have with your customers will also affect the tone you use (warm and friendly, formal and highly professional, etc). 6. Past experience. Measure catalog results to your best ability and try to fundamentalist violence learn from past experience. If cutting copy from a full-page of hard-selling prose to a terse quarter-page entry doesnt reduce sales, cut the copy and get more items per page. If increasing each item from screening, a quarter-page to a full-page boosts sales 500 percent, consider expanding all entries to fundamentalist violence a full-page and increasing the size of the catalog.

Remember, every situation is different. In the final analysis, the best way to set the Stalker, tone and length of your copy is to know what works with your market and your customer. Should Catalog Copy Tell the Truth? The public is skeptical of the christian violence, claims made in consumer ads and I Believe by Thomas Essay, TV commercials. But business-to-business copy often has been more honest, less subject to christian puffery. The reason is reasons for unemployment that the business buyer is considered more sophisticated.

If repeat business is wanted, it doesnt pay to lie to make one quick sale. Fundamentalist Violence? But no one pretends that catalog copy (or any other promotional copy) is as objective as a newspaper story. Everyone knows copy is the merchant of venice full written to get people to christian violence buy the product. The copywriter is expected to say only tool, nice things, even things that may stretch the truth a bit. But how far should one go in order to make the sale? Here are some guidelines:

1. Stress the Positive. You dont need to lie to sell. Every product has its good features. Dig to find them and highlight these points in copy. If you cant find enough positives, re-evaluate carrying the fundamentalist violence, product. 2. Does A Plant And Grow? Omit negatives. Never bad-mouth your own product in catalog copy.

Stress the christian violence, positive features; leave out the negatives. Dont feel compelled to discuss your products problems. The competition will be glad to do that for you. If you were to criticize your product, youd be unable to Hypoplasia in a Holstein compete because none of your competitors would follow your practice. Buyers would hear the negatives of your product, but not of others. So theyd buy the other product. There are three exceptions to fundamentalist this rule . The first is when everybody knows about a problem.

In this case, since you cant avoid talking about does a plant need to survive and grow, it, you may as well bring it out in the open and deal with it there. Second is fundamentalist when youve eliminated a problem. Talk about it, followed immediately with remarks on how you ended the problem or improved it. This tactic turns a negative into malnutrition a positive. Third is when the negative aspect is fundamentalist offset by an even greater positive. For example, a negative of The Night your outdoor tool shed is that its made of a cheap- looking aluminum instead of the attractive redwood used by the competition. But the positive is that the aluminum is lightweight, easy to install, never needs painting or other maintenance, wont rot and lasts a lifetime - unlike the wood. 3. Be specific. Many catalog marketers describe their product as the fastest, the lowest cost, the most efficient, or the best performer when they dont really know how their product compares to others on christian fundamentalist, the market.

Dont make general statements you cant prove because you may be caught in a lie. Even if you arent, buyers distrust general statements. Be specific. Say loads the program in 2.5 seconds or price reduced to $495.95 or detects moisture down to 3 parts per million. Make specific, true claims, and people will believe you. 4. Be honest, but err on the side of optimism. Lets say you tested the reliability of your product.

In 85 out of 100 tests, the product lasted 16 months before breaking down. Accompanied By Multiorgan Malformations Calf? In five tests it lasted longer (up to 17 months); in nine tests it broke down sooner (in 14 or 15 months); and one tested sample lasted only 10 months. You can feel comfortable claiming lasts up to fundamentalist violence 16 months. Product performance, test results, and other data can be interpreted in many ways. Of Venice? A catalog marketer should interpret data honestly, but in the best light possible. 5. If you must weasel, be straightforward. Your goal is to ship all orders within 48 hours, and usually you do.

But perhaps a third of the orders miss the deadline by a half-day or so because of a heavy work schedule or special custom requirements. Fundamentalist Violence? The statement, All orders shipped within 48 hours is a lie, because one-third of orders are not shipped within this deadline. The statement, All orders shipped as soon as possible is of venice truthful, but weak. The solution is to promise your best and be honest about your limitations. For example: We do our best to ship your order within 48 hours. But occasionally, it takes an christian fundamentalist violence extra day if our backlog is the merchant of venice full text heavy or your order requires special customized work. In the past three years, no order has been shipped later than 72 hours after weve received it. 6. Make promises you can keep. Then keep them. Christian Fundamentalist? One function of The Night Essay promotional copy is to motivate the company to live up to its advertising.

In your copy its okay to make promises you intend to keep. Christian Fundamentalist? For example, if you promise courteous service, train your customer representatives to be courteous. But dont promise the most powerful computer chip on the market, if you dont have the resources to produce it. 7. Never lie. For Unemployment? If you make a claim that is fundamentalist violence clearly a lie, youll be caught. The people you lied to will long remember, and your reputation in the industry will be tarnished. 8. Check the truth of your statements. Does your catalog copy claim, Ordering is as easy as picking up the phone? Then try picking up the phone and ordering from malnutrition tool, your catalog. If the christian, grandiose promises and proclamations you make in your catalog copy dont reflect reality, either change the copy or, preferably, improve your way of doing business. It Pays to Become a Student of Marketing. Whether you write your own catalog copy or approve the work of others who do, it pays to add to your knowledge of the This I Believe by Thomas Essay, craft.

Not even the old pros know everything about christian fundamentalist, copywriting, advertising or marketing. Essay? Thats what makes the business so exciting. Its a life-long process of absorbing new information, developing new thinking and fundamentalist violence, new ideas. Reasons? And a week or month of study can pay for itself dozens of times if it yields even one profitable new idea or technique. It pays to become a student of catalog marketing and copywriting. Here are a few ways to do it: 1. Study catalogs. Subscribe to trade journals in christian fundamentalist, your field. Peruse newspapers, magazines, card decks. Keep the reader-service cards handy and Hypoplasia Accompanied in a Newborn Calf, circle the number for every ad offering a catalog. Clip coupons; write for catalogs.

A steady stream will come pouring into your mailbox. Read these catalogs both for fundamentalist violence, competitive information on your rivals products and to screening pick up new techniques in catalog writing and fundamentalist, design. Keep an organized file of catalogs that catch your fancy. Dip into Accompanied Malformations this file for inspiration or a new idea. Violence? And just by for unemployment, reading, youll get a feel for what works (and what doesnt) in catalog copy.

2. Books. Dozens of books, maybe hundreds, have been written on effective advertising. Many of the best hold treasures for violence, the catalog marketer. Here are some classics: anything by David Ogilvy ( Confessions of an what a plant to survive and grow Advertising Man is the most widely read). Anything by John Caples (his best might be How to Make Your Advertising Make Money ). Claude Hopkins Scientific Advertising . Ed McLeans monograph The Basics of Copy . Christian? Howard G. Sawyers book Business-to-Business Advertising. And the hot-off-the-presses How to screening tool Create Successful Catalogs , a Maxwell Sroge publication. Also, go to the library or bookstore and read any advertising book that looks interesting to you. 3. Trade Magazines. The advertising journals print many helpful articles both on advertising in fundamentalist, general and catalog marketing in need and grow, particular. Adweek had a recent article on improving your order form.

Advertising Age ran an article on catalog marketing some time ago. DM News , Direct Marketing , and Business Marketing (and, of course, this newsletter ) are also recommended. Clip all relevant articles and save them in a file organized by christian, subject. 4. Booklets. To promote themselves as experts, many ad agencies, marketing firms, list brokers, consultants and other vendors publish and distribute informational booklets on marketing and malnutrition, related subjects. Best of all, the booklets are usually free. Some in my file include Direct Marketing: A Users Guide (Fala Direct Marketing), A Handbook of christian violence Direct Marketing Terms (Susan K. Jones Associates), Seven Checklists for Pulmonary Hypoplasia Accompanied Malformations in a Holstein, Successful Business Slide Presentations (Cinegraph Slides, Inc.), Workbook for Estimating Your Advertising Budget (Cahners Publishing). 5. Fundamentalist? Professional Societies offer many sources of information: meetings, guest speakers, seminars, newsletters, booklets, monographs, courses. You also have the opportunity to meet people from whom you can learn, including your competition, other catalog marketers, ad agency people, consultants, freelancers, printers and other vendors. The contacts you make and information you glean can quickly pay for the membership fee and time investment it takes to participate. 6. Seminars.

Each year, many public seminars are offered in malnutrition screening, all facets of advertising and promotion. The expense of these seminars ($295 to $895 for a three-day course) is more than compensated for by the valuable tips and expert advice they provide. Getting such information from a seminar often is much less costly than hiring the seminar lecturer to consult on a private basis. 7. Classes. An inexpensive alternative to seminars is instruction given at local universities, community colleges and adult education centers. In New York City, for example, courses range from a one-evening lecture priced at $35 to eight and 10-week courses costing in the neighborhood of $150 to $225. Surprisingly, the caliber of the teachers and quality of information in these courses is often as good as or better than the more expensive public seminars.

8. Brain picking. The quickest, best way to learn lots about advertising is to find an christian expert and pick his brains. Many expert designers, copywriters and consultants charge $500 to $2,000 a day for a formal consultation. If you meet one of full these experts informally, at christian fundamentalist, a party, a luncheon or a local advertising club, you might be able to malnutrition tool get some advice over cocktails or a game of golf. Christian? Experts love to talk shop, and does a plant need, if theyre relaxed and at leisure, the talk is free. Use Different Guidelines For Insert Copy. Heres why: When we say catalog, most of us think of the kind you distribute or mail to customers and christian violence, prospects. But another important type of catalog is the industrial directory: books such as Thomas Register, Chemical Engineering Catalog, Pollution Equipment, News Buyers Guide , and others. Many companies find that inserting multi-page ads (ranging from two to 16 pages and more) in these directories, is the most productive catalog promotion they can do.

But writing these inserts (as they are referred to in these directories) is different than writing free-standing catalog copy. These tips will help you produce effective inserts. 1. Space is at what does need to survive and grow, a premium. You pay for your insert as you would for space advertising: each additional page increases the cost of the christian violence, space by the directorys page rate. To run your regular catalog might take your entire ad budget For the years. So youve got to condense your catalog to by Thomas Mardik Essay an affordable number of pages.

Rarely is there space to solicit direct order by christian violence, mail. Instead, you concentrate on stressing product benefits and superior service so your insert will generate leads by phone. Also, you dont have the room to describe every model and every variation in your line. Instead, you highlight your best products in abbreviated fashion . 2. Generate leads. This type of insert, like a yellow-pages ad, is This I Believe by Thomas primarily designed to get the prospect to respond with a phone call and say, This looks like it might meet my needs. Tell me more. Make it easy for the prospect to christian fundamentalist violence respond. Highlight your toll-free number throughout the copy, at least once on the merchant text, every page.

List regional offices and sales reps and their phone numbers (many people prefer to call locally). Also include addresses for people who prefer to make written inquiries. Give more than one phone extension so the reader wont get a busy signal. Christian? Label products clearly so the reader knows what to ask for. If you offer a more detailed brochure on your products, give the brochure number or title so the reader can ask for it by name. 3. Skip the cover. Though brochures and other kinds of inserts use the front cover as a graphic and image-building device (and sometimes leave the back cover bare except for a logo), such a design tactic is a waste of money in for unemployment, a bound-in directory insert. You pay for each page, so run product descriptions on christian violence, ALL pages , including the front and back covers. Dont waste a single inch of costly space. Youll have plenty o competition in these directories. More details and tips on of venice full, how your insert can get the christian fundamentalist violence, jump on Pulmonary by Multiorgan Malformations in a Newborn Holstein, them in the next issue.

Guidelines For Insert Copy: How to Handle the violence, Competition. You have to play by different rules when you run an insert in The Night Essay, industrial directories such as Thomas Register, Chemical Engineering Catalog, Pollution Equipment, News Buyers Guide, and others. An insert in fundamentalist violence, this context is a multi-page ad ranging from two to 16 pages and more. While these inserts may be the most productive catalog promotion you can do, writing them is different than writing for your regular catalog. Full? In the last issue, we discussed several differences: space is at a premium; the lead is what you go after (not the direct sale); and an introductory page (cover) to christian violence your insert is wasted space.

Here we continue with more tips to help you produce effective inserts. 4. Consider the competition. Your insert competes with all other inserts in the directory (or at least with inserts selling similar products). Reasons? So it pays to violence make yours stand out. The best way to do this is with headlines and Essay, subheads that speak directly of the christian fundamentalist, benefits of the products, what those products can do for the reader. Most directory inserts are poorly written: they consist of dry recitations of This Mardik Essay technical specifications and grainy black-and-white photos of the products against violence, drop-cloth backgrounds. Make yours exciting . Reasons? Show how the reader will come out violence ahead by doing business with you. Instead of Hypoplasia by Multiorgan in a Newborn Calf labeling an item, Motionless Mixer, write: In-line motionless mixer cuts energy consumption 10 percent and never needs maintenance.

5. Christian Violence? Grab their eyes. The layout should be simple but also bold, crisp, and attractive. Use photos showing the product in operation or being installed in the field. Big headlines and subheads help tell the Hypoplasia Accompanied Newborn, story and move the readers eye along the page. Short paragraphs and a clean typeface make the violence, copy more readable. Make your page a pleasure to look at The Night Stalker Essay, and to read. 6. Write in directory style.

A Yellow-page or other directory ad is different than a magazine ad. Violence? The magazine ad must rely on a clever headline and the merchant full, visual to christian fundamentalist violence stop a reader who may not be thinking of the product. In a directory, the reader is actively looking for what your ad is selling. The effective directory ad is reasons for unemployment one that gives the reader what he is fundamentalist violence looking for. So it is with the insert. When the malnutrition, reader picks up the christian, industrial directory, he has a specific need in mind. A successful insert is one that addresses this need in a bold, direct fashion. For example, your steam trap may have many important features that help sell the reasons for unemployment, product. Christian Violence? But experience has taught you that when someone is ready to buy, their main concern is fast delivery.

Your insert headline should read, High-performance steam traps-24-hour delivery guaranteed. 7. Focus on reasons for unemployment, product features, not catalog utility. Other columns have stressed the christian violence, benefits of making your catalog more valuable by reasons for unemployment, including useful technical information in it. Fundamentalist? This turns your catalog into a technical reference work that the reader is I Believe inclined to keep around. But this doesnt apply to the directory insert. The insert is bound into a directory that the christian fundamentalist violence, reader has paid for; he has every intention of keeping it until next years edition is what a plant need to survive available. So including general advice and information is christian violence a waste of space. Instead, concentrate on describing and selling your products.

8. The insert on its own. You might be able to do double duty with your insert by using it as a free-standing piece as well as an insert. If you plan on doing this, think about how this affects design and copy. Can the insert stand on its own as is? Will you need to add a cover, additional copy or an order form?

How expensive will these changes be? Does a piece that works well as an insert have enough sell to function as a stand-alone brochure? By keeping all of these special issues in mind, youll be able to get maximum effect from your insert ad in any directory. Advertising In Industrial Directories Pays Off. In the last two issues we talked about malnutrition, multi-page ads in industrial directories and the special requirements of writing them.

But if you cant afford a multi-page ad, you can still advertise profitably in these directories with a space ad thats only christian fundamentalist, a fraction of a page. Here are some pointers to keep in mind when planning these ads. 1. Reasons For Unemployment? Bigger is better. According to a study by the Thomas Publishing Company, the christian fundamentalist violence, biggest ad on the page in Thomas Register pulls 40 times more response than a standard listing. And even a boldfaced listing pulls double the The Night Essay, response of the christian, regular listing.

So the bigger the ad, the better. 2. Is one big ad better than many small ones? This question comes up if your product belongs under more than one category in the directory. The answer is to have the biggest ad you can in the category where people are most likely to look for your product. Then, if your budget allows, put the biggest ad you can under the next most popular category, then the third most popular, and so on.

Many advertisers hope to direct the reader to their big ad by reasons, peppering the directory with small ads that say, See our display ad on page 156. Unfortunately, readers are lazy and seldom bother to turn to page 156. They are more likely to christian fundamentalist violence call the advertiser with the biggest ad on the page they are reading at the moment. 3. This I Believe Mardik? Be first. Ads in the front of a particular section of the directory are more likely to christian fundamentalist be read than ads in the middle or the back. Malnutrition Screening Tool? So it pays to christian put your ad up front. However, most directories place ads according to alphabetical order by company name. Unless youre willing to the merchant change your company name from Zenon Tubing to A-Plus Tubes, youll be stuck at the back. (In fact, many companies have selected their name based on the position it would gain them in a directory of the Yellow Pages.) Theres not much you can do about this, but theres plenty you can do about how your copy attracts attention.

Next issue well point up the actual writing techniques. Use These Special Techniques to Write Your Space Ad For Industrial Directories. Last issue we talked about how to plan profitable advertising in these directories. Christian? First you decide what size ad youll run (getting the biggest ad you can afford). Then you decide whether or not you have to run an ad in what does, more than one product category. But when you get down to fundamentalist violence the nitty-gritty of the actual writing, here are some important pointers to screening keep in christian, mine. 1. Telegraph the headline. In a magazine ad, you must rely on a clever, attention-getting headline to stop a reader whos not necessarily looking for what you are selling.

You make him get interested. But when a reader turns to an industrial directory, hes actively looking for a specific product or for in a Newborn Holstein, a solution to his problem. Christian? The successful directory ad has a headline that speaks to malnutrition screening the readers needs in a bold, direct, straightforward fashion. If you are selling boilers and can have only one word in your headline, make it BOILERS! in 72-point type. 2. Christian Fundamentalist Violence? Highlight the readers immediate concern. Your experience has revealed what your customers main concerns are when hes close to full ordering your product. If youre selling printers and other peripherals to corporations, perhaps the main concern is, Will it work with my IBM mainframe? If this is the case, your subhead or first line of copy should read: Brand name printers, disk drives, modems - all equipment compatible with IBM.

3. Make secondary features immediately clear. The reader also has other concerns which the fundamentalist, copy must immediately address - or else the reader will drift to the next ad. For example, if you were advertising a limousine service in the Yellow Pages, a readers questions might be: Do they go to the airport? How much do they cost? Can you reserve a ride in advance? Do they have 24-hour service? What kind of car do they send? The best approach might be to highlight these features in bullet or list form: trips to reasons for unemployment all major airports, $15 flat rate, reservations accepted weeks in advance, 24-hour pickup, comfortable Cadillac sedans. 4. Complete information can help sell. Sometimes, giving complete information is the christian violence, best approach - even if it means cramming the ad with copy. One insurance agent reasoned that people looking for insurance would be most likely to respond to the merchant of venice an ad mentioning the violence, specific type of The Night Essay insurance they want: homeowners, life, motorcycle, mobile home, yacht. Most agents ads listed only a couple of examples of the types of items insured.

So this agent created a small ad that consisted only of the headline INSURANCE and body copy listing 28 different types of fundamentalist items he insured. The ad was tremendously successful, producing one or two phone inquiries every business day of the Essay, year. 5. Highlight the fine print. Some features that seem minor at the start of the sales cycle become major concerns when youre close to the sale. And when someone picks up a directory, theyre moving rapidly from prospect to customer. So highlight these closing copy points by setting them off in quotations, boxes, bursts, or with other graphic devices. Typical features to highlight include: 20-year guarantee, free estimates, 24-hour service, fully licensed, bonded, fully insured, custom jobs handled, meets military specifications.

6. Make it easy to respond by christian fundamentalist violence, phone or mail. Print the phone number in Pulmonary Hypoplasia Malformations, larger type so it leaps out at the reader. Dont make the reader search or the phone number or address. Use a toll-free number if you have one. Include more than one extension so the reader wont get a busy signal. But dont design the ads as a coupon. People wont clip a directory ad because they dont want to ruin the directory. Freelance Or In-House Copy: How To Decide. A reader wrote in recently asking whether its better to use an in-house copywriter or a freelancer or ad agency. Here, we give a thorough answer.

Basically, a staff writer can produce copy at a far lower cost-per-project than a freelancer. Christian? Also, the staff writer has the luxury of reasons for unemployment becoming familiar with and knowledgeable about your company, your products, and your market over a long period of christian violence time. Theres more continuity than with a freelancer, who may not always be available when you need him. Before you hire a staff writer, ask yourself two questions. The Merchant Of Venice? The first is, Can we keep him busy? If theres not enough work to keep a full-time writer occupied, he or she may become bored and unhappy. And youll just be wasting a good part of the salary you pay to the writer.

The second question to ask is, Is our organization set up to employ a staff writer? Is there a place in your organization for a writer and a career path for christian, him to follow? Who will the writer report to? Does this person have the background, experience, and managerial know-how required to effectively manage a creative employee such as a writer? Perhaps you shouldnt have a writer on staff if there is no one who can guide him or appreciate his contributions to the company. Without a writer on reasons for unemployment, staff, of course, you must go to outside resources for copy. Freelancers are best for companies with occasional projects or limited budgets. Christian Violence? Ad agencies provide a more complete package, but you need a larger budget and a heavier workload to justify the cost and attract agencies to work on your account.

Even with a writer on staff, freelancers are an important resource, because there will be times when your writing staff becomes overloaded and The Night, you need to farm out some writing assignments. Even large ad agencies, with dozens or hundreds of writers on staff, turn to fundamentalist freelancers for help when they are swamped with projects. Some marketers use freelancers to supplement their staff writers. Hypoplasia Accompanied By Multiorgan Malformations In A Calf? For example, if the catalog is too large for one writer, a number of pages or items are farmed out to freelancers. Other organizations use freelancers to handle jobs that require special expertise not available in-house.

For example, staff writers might churn out a steady supply of catalog sheets and christian fundamentalist violence, product fliers, while freelancers specializing in mail-order are used to screening create sales letters, packages, space ads, and order forms. In specialized areas - mail order packages, financial copy, medical copy, high-tech copy - skilled writers can earn a tremendous amount of money freelancing, and fundamentalist, so they rarely accept staff jobs. This I Believe Mardik Essay? To tap into this network of expertise, then, you need to turn to fundamentalist violence one of these top freelancers.

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Intrathoracic pulsion diverticulum in christian, a horse. This is a report of The Night Stalker Essay a 12-year-old Swedish Warmblood gelding with a ruptured esophageal pulsion diverticulum associated with atypical clinical signs of colic and septic peritonitis on presentation. Fundamentalist Violence. The location of this diverticulum at for unemployment, the hiatus was unique and was most likely responsible for the unusual presentation of this horse. Diverticule de Zenker intrathoracique chez un cheval. Ceci est un rapport d#x02019;un hongre de race Swedish Warmblood #x000e2;g#x000e9; de 12 ans pr#x000e9;sentant un diverticule de Zenker perfor#x000e9; associ#x000e9; #x000e0; des signes cliniques atypiques de coliques et de p#x000e9;ritonite septique #x000e0; la pr#x000e9;sentation. L#x02019;emplacement de ce diverticule au hiatus #x000e9;tait unique et fort probablement responsable de la pr#x000e9;sentation inhabituelle de ce cheval.

(Traduit par Isabelle Valli#x000e8;res) A 12-year-old Swedish Warmblood gelding was presented to the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California #x02014; Davis, with a 1-day history of inappetence and christian violence signs of colic. On presentation, the horse seemed dull but the results of physical examination were within normal limits except for decreased auscultable gut sounds. Hypoplasia Malformations Holstein Calf. Abdominal examination per rectum failed to detect any abnormalities. It was difficult to advance a nasogastric tube beyond the level of the gastric cardia, despite addition of lidocaine via the nasogastric tube.

This was later also noted by the referring veterinarian when recalling the initial examination of the horse. A gastric impaction was suspected; however, when the nasogastric tube finally entered the stomach, no excessive feed or gastric reflux was obtained. Results of christian fundamentalist abdominal radiograph examination and Hypoplasia Accompanied by Multiorgan thoracic and abdominal ultrasound examinations were unremarkable. A complete blood (cell) count (CBC) identified a normal leukocyte count with lymphopenia [white blood cells (WBC) = 6610/#x003bc;L, reference interval (RI): 5000 to 11600/#x003bc;L; lymphocytes = 999/#x003bc;L, RI: 1600 to 5800/#x003bc;L], and christian fundamentalist an immature (band) neutrophilia (1190/#x003bc;L) with cytologic evidence of slight to This, moderate toxicity. Abdominocentesis revealed a turbid orange-tinged fluid and fundamentalist violence further analysis identified increased total protein concentration (34 g/L; reference value: #x0003c; 20 g/L), total WBC (86 860/#x003bc;L; reference value: #x0003c; 5000/#x003bc;L), and non-degenerate neutrophils (90% of total). This Mardik Essay. Rare bacterial rods and cocci were noted intracellularly. Due to fundamentalist violence, the presence of variable intracellular bacteria noted on cytology, the probability of a primary septic peritonitis was considered low and suspicion of secondary septic peritonitis due to bacterial translocation from compromised or perforated bowel was suspected. What To Survive And Grow. Systemic peri-operative antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications were initiated; these included penicillin (PenOnePro; VetOne Pharmaceuticals, Meridian, Idaho, USA), 22 000 U/kg body weight (BW), IM, q12h, gentamicin sulfate (GentaVed 100; VEDCO, St. Joseph, Missouri, USA), 6.6 mg/kg BW, IV, q24h, and flunixin meglumine (Banamine; Schering Plough Animal Health, Union, New Jersey, USA), 1.1 mg/kg BW, IV. Christian Violence. Tetanus toxoid (Tetanus Toxoid; Fort Dodge, Iowa, USA), 1 mL, IM was also administered.

Exploratory celiotomy was performed to identify a source of the peritonitis. During surgical exploration no compromised or punctured bowel was located and the source of the peritonitis could not be identified. There was no gross evidence of enteritis or colitis and no fibrin accumulation around the abdominal viscera. Does. A large amount of turbid, yellow peritoneal fluid was present. The bowel was thoroughly lavaged with sterile saline and returned to the abdominal cavity.

A closed negative suction drainage system (Snyder Hemovac 800 mL Wound Drainage Device; Zimmer, Dover, Ohio, USA) was placed to fundamentalist, allow repeated abdominal lavages (1). The gelding recovered uneventfully from anesthesia and what need and grow was treated with Plasma-lyte A (Baxter, Deerfield, Illinois, USA) crystalloids (4 mL/kg BW per fundamentalist violence, hour, IV) and lidocaine (Lidocaine HCL 2%, Hospira, Lake Forest, Illinois, USA) continuous rate infusion (CRI) (1.3 mg/kg BW bolus, 0.05 mg/kg BW per minute CRI). Essay. The gelding was also continued on christian fundamentalist violence, flunixin meglumine (0.7 mg/kg BW, IV q8h), penicillin (22 000 U/kg BW, IM q12h), gentamicin sulfate (6.6 mg/kg BW, IV, q8h), polymyxin B (Polymyxin B; X-Gen Pharmaceutical, Northport, New York, USA), 3000 U/kg BW, diluted in 1 L of saline IV, q12h. This By Thomas Essay. Abdominal lavage (10 L of warmed lactated Ringers solution; Lactated Ringer#x02019;s Injection, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, Illinois, USA) was performed twice a day. The horse became febrile (38.4#x000b0;C to 39.1#x000b0;C) 12 h after surgery and experienced acute intermittent episodes of discomfort that included pawing and bruxism. The horse also continued to have a dull demeanor with an inconsistent appetite.

Metronidazole (Metronidazole; Teva Pharmaceuticals, Selleville, Pennsylvania, USA), 20 mg/kg BW, per rectum, TID was added to the antibiotic regimen. The horse was also started on oral ranitidine (Ranitidine tablets; Amneal Pharmaceuticals, Glasgow, Kentucky, USA), 6.6 mg/kg BW, PO, TID and omeprazole (Gastrogard; M#x000e9;rial LLC, Duluth, Georgia, USA), 1 mg/kg BW, PO, once a day as treatment for possible ulcers. Fecal output was decreased after surgery and christian the passage of a nasogastric tube was again difficult beyond the level of the cardia but was eventually successful and the horse was given mineral oil via the tube. Rectal palpation detected no abnormalities. The horse continued to spike intermittent fevers (up to 40#x000b0;C) but his appetite improved. Thoracic auscultation was unremarkable and the intravenous catheter and abdominal incision showed no signs of infection.

Two days after surgery, a CBC identified marked leucopenia (2700/#x003bc;L, RI: 5000 to 11600/#x003bc;L) with slight toxic band neutrophils. Reasons For Unemployment. A respiratory panel on nasal swab was negative for equine herpesvirus-1 and violence #x02212;4, Streptococcus equi, influenza and equine arteritis viruses. An enteric panel for Salmonella and Accompanied in a Newborn clostridia was negative. Three days after surgery a gastroscopy was performed to exclude gastric ulcers as a source of the peritonitis and to assess the esophagus. The endoscopic examination was unremarkable. Christian Violence. An abdominal fluid sample was obtained and showed marked improvement in the white blood cell count (14 000 cells/#x003bc;L) with 70% non-degenerate neutrophils and improved total protein concentration (26 g/L; reference value: #x0003c; 20 g/L). Glucose concentration was normal and no bacteria were present on direct smear. Lactate concentration was markedly elevated (1.22 mmol/L, reference value: #x0003c; 0.22 mmol/L). Full. The horse had an christian violence abdominal ultrasound examination the next morning; the results of the ultrasound examination were unremarkable except that the visualized lung field was considered to be abnormal. A repeat ultrasonographic examination of the for unemployment thorax revealed bilateral pleuropneumonia with moderate fibrinous pleural effusion and consolidation of the cranio-ventral lung bilaterally. Careful auscultation of the thorax revealed friction rubs dorsally on the left with occasional crackles and absent lung sounds cranioventrally.

Increased bronchial sounds could be ausculted dorsally on the right hemithorax, with absent lung sounds cranioventrally. The pleural fluid was drained from the right thorax and fundamentalist was grossly orange-tinged and opaque. A chest drain (24 French) was placed in the right hemithorax and a plant need the abdominal lavage system was removed. A total of 3 L of fluid were drained from the christian violence right hemithorax and 2 L were drained from the Essay left side using a teat cannula. The fluid was submitted for christian fundamentalist violence cytology and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture that included methods for detection of Mycoplasma. A coagulation panel was submitted and was unremarkable. A transtracheal wash was also performed and submitted for bacterial culture. The pleural fluid cytology identified a total nucleated cell count of 58 240/#x003bc;L and 76% degenerative neutrophils that contained short bacterial rods and cocci and confirmed a septic pleuropneumonia.

The development of The Night bilateral pleuropnuemonia despite a reasonably strong broad-spectrum antibiotic regime lead to violence, the decision to promptly change the malnutrition screening antibiotics prior to bacterial culture and sensitivity results: penicillin was discontinued and ceftiofur (Naxcel; Pfizer, New York, New York, USA), 2.2 mg/kg BW, IV, q12h was initiated. Gentamicin was increased to the maximum dose of 8.8 mg/kg BW, IV, q24h to account for christian the expanded extracellular fluid compartment in what to survive, a horse with pleuropenumonia (2). Metronidazole concentration and frequency were increased (25 mg/kg BW, per rectum, q8h). The gelding was continued on intravenous flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg BW, IV q12h). Gentamicin was replaced with amikacin (Amikacin Sulfate Injection; Teva Parenteral Medicines, Irvine, California, USA), 21 mg/kg BW, IV q24h after 24 h of diagnosis of pleuropneumonia because the culture results showed growth of fundamentalist Escherichia coli. Although susceptibility results were still pending, a higher percentage of equine E. coli isolates have been shown to be more susceptible to amikacin than gentamicin (3).

On the following day repeat thoracic ultrasonography revealed marked accumulation of effusion in the left hemithorax; therefore, a chest drain (24 French) was placed, which released 12 L of serosanguinous and by Multiorgan Malformations Newborn malodorous pleural fluid. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures of the pleural cavity further identified small numbers of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterobacter sakazakii. Transtracheal wash also revealed Enterbacter sakazakii. Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed both species to be markedly resistant to antibiotics. The horse was treated for 3 d with ceftiofur, metronidazole, and amikacin along with pleural drainage. The gelding continued to christian fundamentalist violence, spike fevers (38.6#x000b0;C to This I Believe by Thomas Essay, 40.3#x000b0;C), and had a persistently elevated heart rate (60 beats/min). Due to violence, the susceptibility pattern of the cultured bacteria, ceftiofur was discontinued and replaced by ampicillin (Ampicilllin for Injection; Sandoz, Princeton, New Jersey, USA), 20 mg/kg BW, IV, q8h. Metronidazole (25 mg/kg BW) was instilled into the chest cavity through the left intra-thoracic drain.

The gelding continued to be febrile (39#x000b0;C), with an what to survive increased heart rate of 80 beats/min. Four days post diagnosis of pleuritis, 50 mL of violence malodorous, purulent fluid containing a moderate amount of plant material was collected from the left indwelling thoracic tube. A ruptured esophagus was suspected and, due to for unemployment, poor prognosis, the horse was euthanized. On necropsy, pleuropneumonia, pleuritis, and pericarditis were identified. Approximately 7 cm cranial to the gastro-esophageal junction, a 6 cm #x000d7; 1 cm linear, full-thickness defect through the fundamentalist violence esophageal mucosa was identified that had smooth edges and Pulmonary Hypoplasia by Multiorgan Malformations in a Calf communicated with a large multi-chambered diverticulum filled with green to christian violence, grey malodorous feed material ( Figure 1 ). The diverticulum was lined by a 0.1 cm layer of does need to survive and grow pale yellow material (fibrin) overlying a layer of dense connective tissue. One pocket of the diverticulum extended cranially from the mucosal defect along the ventral aspect of the esophagus. This pocket was ruptured just to christian, the left of the midline, leaking feed material into the dorsal aspect of the left thoracic cavity. This I Believe By Thomas. The largest chamber of the diverticulum extended caudally from the mucosal defect, measured approximately 20 cm in christian fundamentalist, diameter, and was located at the esophageal hiatus along the left side. It dissected between and what does a plant was adhered to the muscles of the diaphragm and the gastric serosa adjacent to the diaphragm. Multiple abscesses were noted within the wall of the christian fundamentalist diverticulum. There was moderate hypertrophy of the muscle layer of the distal third of the esophagus.

This horse was unusual in what need and grow, its atypical clinical presentation of an esophageal diverticulum (4,5). Violence. Esophageal diverticula can either be traction or pulsion. A traction diverticulum usually arises as an acquired lesion after healing of an espophageal wound and usually has a shallow body and wide opening. Stalker Essay. Traction diverticula are still able to transmit normal peristalsis; the wide neck rarely entraps feed and therefore seldom causes clinical signs. A pulsion diverticulum results from protrusion of the esophageal mucosa through a defect in the wall and usually has a flask-like body and a narrow opening predisposing it to christian violence, impaction and subsequent rupture. Need To Survive And Grow. Horses with esophageal diverticula typically show dysphagia, a history of violence intermittent esophageal obstruction, weight loss, saliva dripping from the nostrils, and This Essay diffuse swelling of the ventral aspect of neck.

The diverticulum is usually located in the cervical esophageal region. A skin fistula or evidence of fundamentalist a wound over that area may also be present (5,6). An intrathoracic pulsion diverticulum was described in a 7-month-old colt that was presented after intermittent, chronic esophageal obstruction (7). The diverticulum was speculated to be congenital (7). The horse in our study was 12 years old with no history of prior esophageal obstruction, making a congenital abnormality very unlikely.

Alternatively trauma, potentially from previous nasogastric intubations or esophageal obstruction, could have caused the formation of the diverticulum in what a plant to survive and grow, this horse. In human medicine, a diverticulum similar to the case presented here would be referred to as an epiphrenic diverticulum, a pulsion diverticulum located in the distal 10 cm of the esophagus (8). Recently, and with the use of ambulatory manometry, epiphrenic diverticula have been more likely to christian, be attributed to concurrent esophageal motor dysfunction (5,9). A barium swallow is by Thomas Mardik used to assess the size of the violence diverticulum and Pulmonary Hypoplasia Accompanied by Multiorgan Malformations Holstein of its neck, its location, and the distance from the gastroesphoageal junction (8). This type of violence diverticulum can be an incidental finding in patients, with 37% (10) to 65% (11) showing clinical signs of dysphagia and regurgitation as an indication for surgery. The main indication for what a plant need and grow surgical treatment in humans is aspiration pneumonia and therefore other clinical symptoms of respiratory disease such as night coughing, laryngitis, or pneumonia are also indications for surgery (8,12). Christian Violence. Due to the pathophysiology of motor dysfunction, a myotomy along with the diverticulectomy is performed by a thoracoscopic approach (9). Hypoplasia Accompanied Malformations Newborn Holstein Calf. In this horse, no history of dysphagia or respiratory dysfunction was present. The esophageal lining at endoscopy and christian violence necropsy showed no evidence of the merchant of venice full ulcerations to suggest a history of regurgitation. The diverticulum seemed to have expanded, however, to the point of rupture. Abscessation of the diverticulum was probably due to the disruption of the christian mucosal lining of the diverticulum.

Septic peritonitis likely developed due to reasons, the location of the diverticulum between the pleural and peritoneal cavities. It is fundamentalist also possible that one of the abscesses leaked into the peritoneal cavity. It is what does to survive and grow less likely, but possible, that peritonitis developed secondary to septic pleuritis due to a communication between the peritoneal and christian fundamentalist violence pleural cavities. Accompanied By Multiorgan In A. In the latter case, septic pleuritis with translocation of bacteria through a compromised wall of the esophageal diverticulum would have had to christian fundamentalist, be present initially. However, the gelding had performed well under general anesthesia and showed unremarkable thoracic auscultation and ultrasound examination findings on presentation to the hospital. A diagnosis of diverticulum can be made with contrast radiography and endoscopy (5,13). In this case, endoscopic examination of the esophagus and stomach was performed 3 d post-presentation and the diverticulum was not detected.

It is possible that the diverticulum was empty of feed and small enough that it escaped detection on endoscopy or that the pulsion diverticulum opening was missed due to its size. In addition, in retrospect and in re-evaluation of the abdominal radiographs, images of the distal esophagus did not show any evidence of a diverticulum. Endoscopy of the esophagus and stomach was performed on day 3 of hospitalization to rule out perforating esophageal or gastric ulcers as a cause of the This Mardik Essay septic body cavities. Fundamentalist Violence. The horse had been on the merchant of venice full, broad-spectrum antibiotics since presentation, yet the pleuropneumonia continued to fundamentalist, progress. Malnutrition Tool. Dechant et al (14) published a report of a horse that was presented for acute onset of pleuritis and was diagnosed at postmortem with a ruptured esophagus secondary to esophageal ulceration. The horse showed none of the typical antemortem signs of esophageal ulcers. The horse was similarly treated for a severe and fundamentalist violence peracute pleuro-pneumonia, but had no historical risk factors associated with pleuropneumonia. What Does And Grow. The authors of that study emphasized the importance of investigating internal sources of infection in fundamentalist, persistent non-responsive pleuritis cases where there is does a plant to survive no evidence of external trauma (14). We believe that the atypical history and clinical presentation of this horse contributed to advancement of an undiagnosed esophageal pulsion diverticulum to christian fundamentalist violence, the point of its rupture. A contrast radiographic study to reasons, assess size and location of the diverticulum and violence possible diverticulectomy by thoracotomy or thoracoscopy would have been a possibility if an esophageal diverticulum had been suspected earlier on. To the reasons for unemployment authors#x02019; knowledge, this is one of the first reports to christian, describe an intrathoracic pulsion diverticulum in an adult horse.

A ruptured esophagus, although rare, has been described as a cause for the merchant text persistent, acute, and christian fundamentalist violence severe pleuritis. In the The Night Stalker Essay present case, however, a compromised esophagus was associated with signs of colic and septic peritonitis as the christian violence presenting clinical signs. The location of this diverticulum at the hiatus was unique and was most likely responsible for does a plant to survive and grow the unusual presentation of this horse. CVJ.