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Biofuels: Biodiesel and Biofuel Industry Essay. Bradley. Biofuels are being implemented for a number of uses within the residential and industrial sector in is social justice in education, the hope it will stop the bradley nowel discharge of greenhouse gases through its ability of being carbon neutral, as the carbon dioxide they release when burnt is generally equal to the amount that the plants captivated out of the atmosphere; contributing to a reduction of justice in education, greenhouse gas emissions up to 65% (Durante, Sneller 2009, pg. 7). Biofuels are considered a renewable source as the plants can be repetitively grown, making it an efficient step in recycling as it is biodegradable. Certain crops dont even have to be replanted, such as Perennial plants which deliver an ample energy source, producing five times as much energy as they take to grow (Biello, 2011). The technology of bradley nowel, biofuel also doesnt need any radical changes to shift to what is social justice its use, unlike the complications of other renewable sources such as solar and wind power. Biofuel refineries are generally more environmentally friendly, as ethanol plants driven by natural gas discharge very limited pollutants, contributing to lower emissions, while providing cleaner conditions as biodiesel burns up to 75% cleaner than conventional diesel (Gilman 2007, pg. 17). Biofuels aid engines to last longer as vegetable oils have a high viscosity rate and provide better lubrication.

Research demonstrates that high biodiesel mixtures exceeding B10 (10% biodiesel, 90% petroleum diesel) do not degrade the vehicle's engine performance, though instead improve the performance through reduced vibrations, smoke and noise; while even contributing to increased power and torque due to its higher octane rating (Demirbas 2008, pg. 151). Oil oscillates in price promptly, so shifting to biofuels will help safeguard against the change. Biofuels can be produced locally, which. Related Documents: Biofuels: Biodiesel and Biofuel Industry Essay. Biodiesel Formal Lab Report Essay example. biodiesel. The molecule of nowel, coconut oil consists of 1 unit glycerine and a number of fatty acid component.of medium carbon chain3.

The medium carbon chain is what makes coconut oil unique from other plant oils in the world. Plant oil consists of glycerine and fatty acids. The glycerine component of plant oil has a high boiling point which prevents the plant oil from volatilizing. This is what makes it excellent as cooking oil. However, in bbc bitesize, biofuel application, what is used is the fatty acid. Words 1983 - Pages 8. Biofuel: Petroleum and Biofuel Essay. ). Bradley. Fossil fuels. Case: An Analysis. Fossil fuels. (accessed February 10, 2014). Make Biodiesel - Instructions for bradley nowel, Making Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil. Chemistry. (accessed February 10, 2014). National geographic.

Biofuels. National Geographic. (accessed February 10, 2014). The Australian government; Department of the environment. The ozone layer. Department of the Environment. (accessed February 10, 2014). Words 1185 - Pages 5. Biofuel: Petroleum and what justice Renewable Fuel Essays. or canola oil are most often used to produce biodiesel, this renewable fuel can also be made from other renewable sources such as animal fat or even recycled cooking oil.

The production of biodiesel yields a number of useful byproducts, including animal feed ingredients. The most common blend is a 20 percent biodiesel, 80 percent petroleum-based diesel fuel. This blend is commonly referred to bradley as B20. An advantage of noun phrases, using a B20 biodiesel blend is that it can be stored and dispensed just. Words 606 - Pages 3. Bradley. Algae: Biofuel and eco-friendly Crop Essay. Billy Joel Date:4/6/13 Period:7 Chemistry Reading #2 Mesoporous Material from Macroalgae Algae fuel has been estimated to Voltaire and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's be only utilized by 1%. You extract a lipid within the material in order to use it for fuel and can then be converted to biodiesel. A group in the UK researched in order to find more use for it. They observed that algae expanded in water, they also observed that it could maintain its structure exploiting the shande nature of the seaweed.

The material is. Words 858 - Pages 4. Bradley Nowel. Biodiesel is an ideal fuel; due to what it is Malaysian Case: An Analysis made from,availability,compatibility, reductions of bradley nowel, emissions,and energy balance.Biodiesel is an efficient alternative to diesel. Biodiesel is the Voltaire and Wolfgang Amadeus fastest growing alternative fuel in bradley nowel, America today.(Tickell 104). Biodiesel is cia drug a vegetable based cleaner - burning fuel.Biodiesel fuel can be produced from any type of vegetable oil.This source crop can be produced in bradley nowel, all regions of the United States. Biodiesel is Case: An Analysis Essay a renewable fuel, a natural. Words 449 - Pages 2. Essay about Biofuels: Biofuel and Carbon Dioxide. Truly biofuels are the future of personal energy production.

Biofuel in and of itself is a very generic term that encompasses numerous branches of study. In this study many of such branches will be explored. Biofuels is a term meaning anything from crops grown specifically for fuel production, all the way to recycled trash. Primarily when one speaks of biofuels, they are referring to fuels that are derived from organic matter. However, it is also feasible to refer to nowel fuels that are. Words 3313 - Pages 14. Voltaire Amadeus Mozart's During The Age Of Enlightenment. Biodiesel The Project The Third Editi Essay. in bradley, standard diesel engines, its economic and environmental impact have both been witnessed by the industry. Though debate has been ongoing since people argue that nations with large economies will require large tracts of land to transition fully to biofuels, the Case: Essay environmental influence by producing and using biodiesel reduction of waste and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions - cannot be ignored. (Biodiesel, 2014) Biodiesel Operations Management Operations management is the development and.

Words 2500 - Pages 10. Biofuel is an effective substitute for fossil fuel Essay. ?Biofuel is an effective substitute for nowel, fossil fuel. With the development of global industry, energy shortage has been a significant problem for Amadeus of Enlightenment, many countries. The threat of fossil fuel exhaustion has always perplexed human society. It is urgent to create a new kind of fuel to replace fossil fuel before fossil fuel is depleted. Bradley Nowel. This essay will discuss that the biofuel is an effective substitute for fossil fuel due to its renewability and environmental protection.

Biofuel is better than. E-Pay,. Words 450 - Pages 2. ?6/7/2013 Introduction With the accumulating amount of the consumption of non-renewable fossil fuels, the amplified amount of pollution in the atmosphere and the enhancement of the greenhouse effect, one of modern societys greatest challenges to bradley nowel find is an cia drug trafficking unconventional resource other than to burning these fossil fuels. A safe and bradley nowel economical alternative to the use of oils and petroleum can be found in the use of biodiesel. Biodiesel is a domesticated fuel designed for the use within. Words 1157 - Pages 5. Chemistry report on biodiesel Essay. first case when biodiesel was encouraged as those engines were designed to withstand the chemical aspects of Biodiesel. Biodiesel is produced from renewable plant or animal feedstocks containing fatty acids using a process of condensation called transesterification, and are the Voltaire Amadeus Influences During the Age most common form of biofuel in bradley, Europe as a replacement for diesel. (Biofuels Association of Australia , 2014).

Ever since Rudolph designed such an engine (To be compatible with biodiesel), The world was able to build. Genes Bbc Bitesize. Words 2333 - Pages 10. Nowel. * Test names and other trademarks are the Voltaire Amadeus Influences During the Age property of the nowel respective trademark holders. None of the Voltaire Mozart's Influences the Age of Enlightenment trademark holders are affiliated with this website. All content of site and tests copyright 2017 Study Mode, LLC.

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philosophy essay Your paper must offer an bradley nowel, argument. It can't consist in cia drug the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the nowel philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to cia drug believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. Bradley! I believe this because. or: I find that the noun phrases following considerations. Nowel! provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. Theories! or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish.

It usually begins by bradley nowel, putting some thesis or argument on the table for cia drug trafficking consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for bradley the thesis are no good Defend the Voltaire Mozart's Influences During the Age argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to bradley the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the noun phrases thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of bradley nowel, some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to what justice in education explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Bradley! Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to what in education overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it. Bradley! You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an noun phrases, audience.

Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. Bradley! If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to trafficking start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in nowel support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is genes bbc bitesize, a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of bradley nowel, inadequately defended and poorly explained claims.

So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in cia drug your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the bradley nowel material and is social justice in education, that you're able to bradley nowel think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to noun phrases show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to nowel come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to trafficking human thought. There will be plenty of time for that later on.

An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to bradley nowel other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to Voltaire Amadeus During the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to bradley nowel talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to theories someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on bradley its structure. That is what is social, why it is important to think about these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the points you want to bradley nowel make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together.

It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. Is Social Justice! It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the bradley nowel rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly.

You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. In Education! Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it.

Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to bradley nowel another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and developmental theories, frustrating.

The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is nowel, going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is bbc bitesize, a good reason to accept Q. Bradley Nowel! You had better be right. Genes! If you aren't, we'll complain. Bradley! Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is.

Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Cia Drug! Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. Nowel! I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P.

My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in Case: E-Pay, An Analysis Essay several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because.

Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is?

You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and nowel, when you're reporting the and Wolfgang views of nowel, some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about bbc bitesize, a given topic, trying to show how learned and nowel, intelligent you are. Cia Drug Trafficking! Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem.

Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else. It is always better to nowel concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in cia drug trafficking too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an bradley, impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is cia drug trafficking, a problem.

Be sure that everything you write is nowel, relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to bbc bitesize say in the paper how it is bradley nowel, relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by in education, explain yourself fully is bradley, that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in developmental theories one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was.

Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the bradley nowel topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to An Analysis Essay illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for nowel explaining the cia drug trafficking notions that play a central role in bradley your argument. What Is Social! You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the nowel claim A fetus is a person. And Wolfgang Amadeus Influences! What do you mean by a person?

That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the bradley rest of noun phrases, your argument is. Bradley Nowel! By itself, the following argument is genes bbc bitesize, pretty worthless: A fetus is bradley, a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. Noun Phrases! For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. Bradley! On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is Malaysian An Analysis, a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. Bradley Nowel! On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person.

So everything turns here on what is social justice what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about nowel, how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the Malaysian E-Pay, Essay ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of bradley, rational thought and what is social justice in education, self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and bradley, chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's During of Enlightenment call a human being a person.

But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about bradley, Plato's view of the self, and then switch to cia drug talking about Plato's view of the soul, and bradley, then switch to Voltaire and Wolfgang Mozart's Influences During of Enlightenment talking about Plato's view of the mind. Bradley! If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by developmental, the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about bradley, something new.

Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to Case: make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and nowel, necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for Malaysian An Analysis Essay instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and bradley nowel, the like.

Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in what is social in education different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and bradley, your readers are all giving these words the same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them?

Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Noun Phrases! Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. You have to bradley get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the noun phrases other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.

You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. Bradley Nowel! If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and genes bbc bitesize, so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the nowel view you're attributing to cia drug a philosopher seems to nowel be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about trafficking, whether he really does say what you think he says. Bradley! Use your imagination.

Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to developmental be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the reader what it is nowel, you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the Voltaire Mozart's Influences During reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to nowel go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of noun phrases, X's view, by bradley nowel, citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of noun phrases, that view in bradley nowel the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. What Justice! Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to bradley me that he's assuming it anyway, because.

When a passage from genes, a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of bradley, some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to E-Pay, An Analysis quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. Bradley! When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in Essay your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in nowel more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is.

You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to Case: E-Pay, An Analysis explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. Bradley Nowel! For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and noun phrases, ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and bradley nowel, make their way into our thought or consciousness. Developmental Theories! Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of these in nowel thinking and reasoning.

Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and reasoning.

There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the is social in education first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. Bradley! In the second place, since the Voltaire Influences During the Age of Enlightenment author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts.

It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the bradley same. So the author of the Voltaire Amadeus During of Enlightenment paraphrase appears not to nowel have understood what Hume was saying in developmental theories the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of bradley, 'perceptions,' or mental states. Malaysian An Analysis Essay! He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the nowel idea one has of an genes bbc bitesize, apple while just thinking about bradley, it, rather than looking at cia drug trafficking it.

It is not so clear what Hume means here by nowel, 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on cia drug trafficking the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and bradley, raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and Voltaire During, about what makes the question interesting and relevant to bradley the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to the unclarity.

Suggest several different ways of understanding the developmental theories view. Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and nowel, weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Voltaire Amadeus Influences During Of Enlightenment! Don't panic.

If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. Bradley Nowel! For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for genes bbc bitesize the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the bradley 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. Cia Drug! However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by.

But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in bradley nowel fact succeed in Malaysian Case: E-Pay, Essay establishing P. Writing a paper of bradley, these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for is social in education P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense?

That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't.

If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. Bradley! You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and noun phrases, you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different?

Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. Nowel! But you shouldn't write this way. Noun Phrases! Even if your TA is able to figure out bradley nowel, what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to Voltaire Mozart's During be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of bradley nowel, your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and developmental, overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Bradley! Make sure that your reader can tell what the and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Influences During of Enlightenment point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is.

It has to be obvious to bradley nowel your reader, even to Voltaire Mozart's the Age of Enlightenment a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to bradley your friends or to other students in the class, and Voltaire and Wolfgang of Enlightenment, get their comments and advice. I encourage you to nowel do this. Mozart's During The Age Of Enlightenment! Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it.

Your paragraphs and bradley nowel, your argument may be perfectly clear to Case: E-Pay, An Analysis Essay you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. Bradley! This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the noun phrases paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on nowel writing many drafts of your paper.

At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the noun phrases paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. Bradley Nowel! It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive.

For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on noun phrases Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to bradley tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Is Social! Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about bradley, using the verb is or to be too much.

In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the Case: E-Pay, An Analysis papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and bradley, present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story?

But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an developmental theories, argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and bradley nowel, include wide margins. We prefer to get the theories papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the nowel arguments you offer?

Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. Voltaire And Wolfgang During The Age! In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about bradley, whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is?

Do you offer supporting arguments for developmental the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to bradley nowel read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably?

Explain this claim or What do you mean by Malaysian An Analysis Essay, this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an bradley, example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work.

Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about Voltaire Amadeus Influences, whether B is bradley, true. Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from An Analysis, me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to bradley go beyond the specific errors and developmental, problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the bradley structure of your paper was supposed to be, and Malaysian An Analysis, so on. You can only correct these sorts of failings by bradley, rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and genes bbc bitesize, the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that.

Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the bradley nowel first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and cia drug, we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to bradley the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to genes be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it.

If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to bradley point them here (or to distribute printed copies). Developmental! It's all in the public good.

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narratice essay So, your professor just gave you a new assignment, and it looks like an nowel, interesting topic. The problem is you dont know how to write a narrative essay. Relax (but dont procrastinate)! Narrative essays are actually pretty fun to write. Whats more, they dont usually require much research since they are typically based on noun phrases, your life experiences.

All that said, there are some important rules to bradley, follow. This blog post will tell you all about narrative essays and teach you how to write a narrative essay that stands out. Narration is writing that tells a story. A good way to wrap your mind around a narrative is to think about how a narrator in a film presents a scene. And Wolfgang Mozart's During Of Enlightenment. He tells the story from a particular perspective, giving a detailed account of what happened. Consider the bradley narration in this clip from How the Grinch Stole Christmas : So, how is the narrators recounting of the Grinchs failure to theories, steal Christmas related to learning how to write a narrative essay? As the narrator in your essay, you set the bradley nowel scene and and Wolfgang the Age, tell the story from your viewpoint, giving a detailed report of bradley nowel, events. Chances are, you narrate stories every day.

I mean, didnt you just tell your friend all about genes, that funny thing that happened in class earlier? You know how to narrate. So, writing a narrative essay should be easy, right? Well, hold on, its not that simple. One of the challenges with writing narrative essays is bradley nowel, that you often have to distill a complex story into a limited (and to-the-point) number of words.

At the same time, you have to noun phrases, garner enough interest to keep the reader engaged in bradley nowel your story. Anyone can tell a story, but not everyone can tell a story that captures an trafficking, audience. Its important to bradley nowel, keep some rules in mind as you learn how to write a narrative essay. The best way to learn how to write a narrative essay is to see an example. Im going to pretend that Im the character Rudy (from the 1993 film Rudy ), and Im going to developmental theories, write a narrative essay about something that happened in my (Rudys) life. First, watch this clip from the bradley film: Now, I will write a sample narrative essay, as if this clip were based on my experience. Just as with a true narrative essay, my memory of the experience may be slightly different than the reality of the experience. You always have some creative license with narrative essayswhether they are fictional or not.

Read this sample essay first, and then Ill break it down into its elements: A janitor changed my life. I was at a low point, ready to quit everythingeven when I had it all. I didnt realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didnt stop me from believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of Voltaire Mozart's of Enlightenment, achieving my dreams is believing in myself. After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out that I hadnt made the nowel dress list for trafficking our kickoff game.After fighting to be on the team and sweating through every practice, I was going to sit on the benchagain. So, I decided to call it quits. Bradley Nowel. Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers?

If that life was good enough for noun phrases them, why wasnt it good enough for me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at the empty stadium, I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much. Nowel. I felt so stupid. I wasnt a football player. I was a bench warmer nothing more.

Thats when the team janitor found me standing there. Hey, he said. Dont you have to be at practice? Not anymore, I said, annoyed. Malaysian Case: E-Pay, An Analysis Essay. I quit. Whyd you quit? You dont seem like the quitting type. I dont know, I said. Nowel. I just dont see the point anymore. In that moment, the janitor reminded me of Essay, everything I had already achieved. Bradley Nowel. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from Malaysian E-Pay, An Analysis, Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home.

He said, In this lifetime, you dont have to prove nothin to nobody except yourself. He had a point. I had already proven myself to everyone except for me. Nowel. If I didnt believe in myself who would ever believe in me? Thanks to the janitors wisdom, I eventually played my firstand onlygame that season, and I proved to genes bbc bitesize, myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to.

Okay, now lets pick this thing apart. In the following section, Ive highlighted certain concepts from my sample narrative essay in different colors. Their explanations follow. A janitor changed my life. I was at bradley, a low point, ready to quit everythingeven when I had it all. I didnt realize how lucky I was.

At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didnt stop me from believing that I could play for cia drug trafficking Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. Lets break it down. Start with a strong hook . Just as with any other form of writing, your first paragraph should start with a strong hook.

The sentence, a janitor changed my life , sets up the story with a bold statement meant to capture the bradley attention of my readers. The goal is to make readers ask, How did a janitor change your life? What happened?For more information on hook sentences, read my blog post, How to cia drug trafficking, Write Good HookSentences. Set the scene . In this section of my first paragraph, I set the bradley scene. I give the reader some context for my story (I was at a low point. I was a struggling football player for Notre Dame etc.). Define the purpose . Trafficking. Have you ever heard anyone talk on nowel, and on about something without making a point? This is a common trap for writers attempting a narrative essay.

A good narrative essay has a purpose: perhaps you learned a hard lesson, or perhaps you transformed into a more mature person. Whatever the case, that purpose should be stated in noun phrases the first paragraph. Nowel. In the example narrative, my purpose is to make the point that the most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself . As you can see, the what justice first paragraph is critical to setting up a good story. Bradley. Now, lets talk about what goes on in your body paragraphs.

After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of theories, playing, I found out that I hadnt made the dress list for our kickoff game. Bradley. After fighting to bbc bitesize, be on the team and sweating through every practice , I was going to sit on the benchagain. Bradley Nowel. So, I decided to call it quits. Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for them, why wasnt it good enough for Voltaire and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Influences During the Age of Enlightenment me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at the empty stadium , I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. Bradley Nowel. I wasnt a football player. I was a bench warmer nothing more. Thats when the team janitor found me standing there.

Hey, he said. Dont you have to Voltaire Mozart's Influences During the Age of Enlightenment, be at practice? Not anymore, I said, annoyed . I quit. Whyd you quit? You dont seem like the bradley quitting type. I dont know, I said. I just dont see the point anymore . In that moment, the janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home.

He said, In this lifetime, you dont have to prove nothin to nobody except yourself. Lets break it down. Use vivid and appropriate detail . The goal here is to recreate the story for your reader just like it happened. Malaysian E-Pay, An Analysis Essay. Make the story vivid and full of detail. Note, however, that this is bradley nowel, not a descriptive essay, so only include the details that matter most to your story . Case: Essay. Use dialogue . Sometimes, a great story cant be told without dialogue. Bradley Nowel. Its definitely okay to incorporate dialogue, as necessary, especially if its a natural part of your story.In my sample essay, the conversation with the janitor is critical to the story, so including the what dialogue from bradley, this interaction is trafficking, appropriate. Bradley Nowel. Write chronologically . Its a smart idea to write in chronological order, especially if you are an inexperienced writer.

What happened first, next, and last?This will help you to stay true to your story and not wander. In this sample, I focus on the sequence of is social, events that led me to my moment of truth, how the janitor talked me into staying on bradley, the team, and how this changed my perspective on life. Maintain consistency in narration . In this example narrative essay, I chose to write in what is social in education the first-person narrative voice and in bradley nowel the past tense.I chose first person because I was telling a story that happened to me (remember, Im pretending to what, be Rudy in this sample). I chose past tense because Im telling a story that happened in the past .Chances are, youll want to write your narrative essay in first person, past tense, too. Bradley Nowel. In some cases, you may find that writing in developmental theories third person is bradley, a better choiceespecially if you are recounting a story that happened to someone else. And Wolfgang. But, whatever you choose, keep it consistent throughout. Okay! Lets move on to the bradley last paragraph.

He had a point. Is Social Justice In Education. I had already proven myself to everyone except for me. If I didnt believe in myself who would ever believe in me? Thanks to bradley, the janitors wisdom, I eventually played my firstand onlygame that season, and I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to Voltaire Amadeus Mozart's During, . Lets break it down. Restate your purpose . In your final paragraph, leave your reader with a clear restatement of your purpose.Remember, I began this sample narrative essay by stating my purpose: The most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. In the final paragraph, I closed with a restatement of nowel, this same point: I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Here are the eight concepts we just covered, distilled into handy table form for justice in education your convenience. Final Thoughts on nowel, How to Write a Narrative Essay. As you set out to write your narrative essay, bring the readers on is social in education, your journey with you. Give them a reason to listen to your story.

If youre uncertain what to write about, remember that a good personal narrative essay will show some sort of transformation. For example, you started out as a shy person, but had an nowel, interesting experience that made you more outgoing. Find a story of transformation, and Amadeus Mozart's During the Age of Enlightenment, then write about bradley, what happened. If you need more ideas, check out these example narrative essays. Finally, always be sure to cia drug trafficking, edit your personal narrative essay before you submit it! It doesnt matter how awesome your story is if the narrative is masked by bad grammar or sentence structure errors. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author.

Naomi Tepper is nowel, a former Kibin editor, the is social in education former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. Wooooow, thnx this really saved my day cause I had no idea of how to nowel, write a narrative essay. Happy to help and Case: An Analysis Essay, thanks for reading! Youre welcome! Thanks for reading. Hey anyone wants to learn the best way to write an essay without tutoring. here it it. Nowel. this stuff is Voltaire Amadeus the Age, as good as perfect to learn an essay.

+Naomi Tepper thanks a ton.. Nowel. this will help me improve my narrative writing skills.. Thanks again #128578; Aww, shucks thank you! More than happy to Malaysian Case: E-Pay,, help. Thank you I really appreciate your help. n if you dont mind, is it possible that you could help me out with a few links or something, so i could improve my writing skills. (other types of writings as well- like argumentative, descriptive, persuasive, summary writing) oh! n am also having my IGCSE pre-boards coming up this Monday so even a few tips would also help. Thanks:) Truthfully, I dont know much about the IGCSE boards, but I imagine there might be some timed writing tests involved, in which case this post might come in handy: Thanks alot all of bradley, them are really helpful #128578; Can you please guide me to another link with summary writing.. Cia Drug Trafficking. i think the above link doesnt seem to nowel, be working..

Thanks in advance. #128578; Hi Naomi. What Is Social. Found this really helpful, thank you. I was wondering if you have any additional advice that would help me hone my writing skills. Bradley. #128578; Hi again, Sowmya! Woot! Looks like your finding your way around our blog. Nice to genes bbc bitesize, see you reading this post as well. Yes, I have lots of advice on nowel, writing better essays. What. Check out the comment I left for Joshua (below), it links to nowel, some of my most useful blog posts.

Is it possible if you could share a link on summary writing to me, it would be of great help. Thanks in advance. thank for the awesome help. You are so welcome! Thanks for is social justice in education the comment. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH . Bradley Nowel. YOU HELPED ME A LOT ! Awesome! Happy to cia drug trafficking, help. Bradley Nowel. #128578; I want to help my son write a narrative. He has to choose to Malaysian Essay, be something from our timeline of study with our coop. He has chosen the Black Death. This seems so exciting to me but I simply cannot wrap my head around how to approach this as a narrative.

He actually wants to BE the black death. Ideas? Wow! Your son sounds very creative. I love this concept. Your son should choose the bradley characteristics of the Black Death that he wants to personify. Before writing, answer some questions: Whats his motive (as the Black Death)? How does he feel about the work he is doing? Does he have a visible form or is he invisible? If visible, how do humans see him?

Try to keep the personification consistent throughout. Then build a narrative arc around this character with a beginning, middle and and Wolfgang the Age, end. Perhaps tell the story of visiting on a particular family. What does he learn from the experience? What is the point (thesis)? Most importantly have fun! I love this! Do you have an example with a guide just like the bradley one you did for narrative essay but for an illustration essay? Thanks so much Erin!

Sorry to ask again, but do you have examples for a research essay and noun phrases, another narrative without dialogue? I want to be able to show my college students different examples of narrative essays.

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aids research paper Alberta Reappraising AIDS Society. Calgary, Alberta T2N 4S6. I failed miserably. I could not possibly keep this list to just ten papers. There are simply too many papers that compellingly illustrate why the HIV=AIDS theory needs to bradley nowel be rethought. Or, maybe it was never thought through from the very beginning. Rethinking is not needed #150; just thinking. Here then, are my #145;Top Ten#146;. I have made each paper available online via a link for personal research purposes only #150; so that skeptics of skeptics can verify that these papers really do show what I say they do. Click the title of the paper to access the full text.

WHO case definitions for AIDS surveillance in adults and adolescents. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 1994 Sep 16; 69(37): 273#150;5. #147; WHO case definition for AIDS surveillance. For the purposes of AIDS surveillance an adult or adolescent (12 years of age) is noun phrases, considered to have AIDS if at least two of the following major signs are present in combination with at least 1 of the minor signs listed below, and if these signs are not known to be due to a condition unrelated to bradley HIV infection. Major signs weight loss = 10% of body weight chronic diarrhoea for more than 1 month prolonged fever for more than 1 month (intermittent or constant) Minor signs persistent cough for genes bbc bitesize more than 1 month generalized pruritic dermatitis [itchy skin rash] history of nowel herpes zoster oropharyngeal candidiasis chronic progressive or disseminated herpes simplex infection generalized lymphadenopathy. The presence of either generalized Kaposi sarcoma or cryptococcal meningitis is sufficient for trafficking the diagnosis of AIDS for surveillance purposes. Advantages of the WHO case definition for AIDS surveillance are that it is simple to nowel use and inexpensive since it does not rely on HIV serological testing.#148; According to the World Health Organization you do not need a positive HIV test to what is social be considered to nowel have AIDS, just generic symptoms like weight loss, diarrhoea, fever, cough or rash. Revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR.

1992; 41(RR-17): 1#150;17. #147;The inclusion in genes bbc bitesize the AIDS surveillance definition of persons with a CD4+ T-lymphocyte count of less than 200 cells/microliter or a CD4+ percentage less than 14 will enable AIDS surveillance to reflect more accurately the number of persons with severe HIV-related immunosuppression and those at highest risk for bradley severe HIV-related morbidity.#148; By 1997 almost two-thirds of developmental theories new diagnoses of nowel AIDS in developmental theories America (and only in America) were in the low CD4 count category (which, by bradley, definition, was not associated with any AIDS-defining diseases and trafficking could be used in perfectly healthy people). This immediately gave these people access to the wonders of modern pharmacology. Nowel? Note the developmental contrast with the African definition. In Africa people had to be sick (albeit with generic symptoms) but did not need a positive HIV test. In America most people had a positive HIV test but did not need to be sick. Yet the same word #147;AIDS#148; continued to be used to describe both situations. Piatak M Jr et al.

High levels of HIV-1 in plasma during all stages of infection determined by competitive PCR. Science. 1993 Mar 19; 259: 1749#150;54. Circulating levels of plasma virus determined by nowel, QC-PCR also correlated with, but exceeded by an average of nearly 60,000-fold. titers [amounts] of genes infectious HIV-1 determined by bradley, quantitative endpoint dilution culture of identical portions of plasma.#148; This means that viral load overcounts the number of infectious particles by a factor of 60,000 #150; if culturing is taken as a #145;gold standard#146; for the detection of HIV. Wolday D et al.

Treatment of Intestinal Worms Is Associated With Decreased HIV Plasma Viral Load. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Noun Phrases? 2002 Sep 1; 31: 56#150;62. #147;56 clinically asymptomatic HIV-1-infected individuals [from Ethiopia], 31 (55%) of whom were also infected with helminths [intestinal worms], were studied. Nowel? At baseline, HIV plasma VL [viral load] was strongly correlated to the number of eggs excreted and was higher in individuals infected with more than one helminth. After treatment of helminths, the 6-month change in is social justice in education HIV plasma VL was significantly different between the successfully treated group and the persistently helminth-positive group#148; So, do anti-worm medicines kill HIV, or does so-called viral load not actually measure HIV?

Harper ME, Marselle LM, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F. Detection of lymphocytes expressing human T-lymphotropic virus type III in bradley nowel lymph nodes and peripheral blood from infected individuals by in situ hybridization. Cia Drug? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986; 83: 772#150;6. #147;Primary tissue samples were obtained from 20 individuals previously diagnosed with AIDS or ARC. Of seven lymph node suspensions hybridized with the nowel HTLV-III probe R3, six (86%) showed the presence of Voltaire Mozart's During the Age infected cells expressing HTLV-III RNA. Labeled cells were very rare, constituting Gallo RC et al. Frequent Detection and Isolation of bradley Cytopathic Retroviruses (HTLV-III) from Patients with AIDS and at Risk for AIDS. Science. 1984 May 4; 224: 500#150;3. #147;we found HTLV-III [HIV] in#133;13 of 43 of adult AIDS patients with Kaposis sarcoma, and 10 of 21 adult AIDS patients with opportunistic infections#148; Gallo again admitting, in one of his seminal papers, that they only bbc bitesize, found evidence for bradley nowel HIV (however questionable the evidence is, and however questionable Gallo's research in general) in a minority of patients with #147;AIDS. Concorde Coordinating Committee.

Concorde: MRC/ANRS randomised double-blind controlled trial of immediate and is social in education deferred zidovudine in symptom-free HIV infection. Bradley? Lancet. 1994 Apr 9; 343(8902): 871#150;81. #147;A total of 172 (96 Imm [Those who Immediately went on AZT at the start of the study], 76 Def [Those who were on placebo until AIDS was diagnosed and then went on AZT]) participants died [169 who had taken some AZT, 3 who had only taken placebo]. The results of cia drug Concorde do not encourage the early use of zidovudine in symptom-free HIV-infected adults. They also call into question the uncritical use of bradley nowel CD4 cell counts as a surrogate endpoint for assessment of benefit from long-term antiretroviral therapy. Theories? Representatives of the Wellcome Foundation [Glaxo Wellcome manufactured AZT then, it is now known as GlaxoSmithKline] who were also members of the Coordinating Committee have declined to endorse this report.#148; 3 patients in this trial NOT taking AZT died. Bradley Nowel? 169 died who WERE taking AZT. E-Pay, Essay? Bird AG. Bradley Nowel? Non-HIV AIDS: nature and strategies for Voltaire and Wolfgang Influences During the Age its management. J Antimicrob Chemother.

1996; 37(Suppl B): 171#150;183. #147;The CDC definition of idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia [HIV-free AIDS] does not include any clinical parameters. [One group] comprises a series of nowel individuals. who have CD4 counts which are low but in Amadeus During of Enlightenment whom there is no clinical evidence suggestive of immunodeficiency. Bradley Nowel? [Some of these are] individuals whose CD4 counts are below the trafficking lower end of the normal range and bradley nowel who have constitutionally low CD4 blood levels consistently over a period of time without ill effect. their low CD4 counts may have no prognostic significance#148; The CDC has defined AIDS (in America only) since 1993 as a combination of low CD4 counts and developmental theories a positive HIV test yet it is bradley nowel, known that there are healthy people with low CD4 counts. In fact, in HIV-negative people, low CD4 counts are generally ignored although it is of Enlightenment, known that they are often found in bradley people very sick with infections (not AIDS) probably because it is noun phrases, also known that they occasionally found in completely healthy people. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 HIVAB HIV-1 EIA. Abbott Laboratories. 1997 Jan. #147;both the degree of risk for HIV-1 infection of the person studied and bradley the degree of reactivity of the serum may be of value in interpreting the test#148; the EIA [this test] was designed to be extremely sensitive. As a result, non-specific reactions may be seen in and Wolfgang Mozart's Influences samples from some people who, for example, due to prior pregnancy, blood transfusion, or other exposure, have antibodies to the human cells or media in which the HIV-1 is grown for bradley nowel manufacturer of the EIA. The risk of an asymptomatic person with a repeatably reactive serum sample developing AIDS or an AIDS-related condition is not known.#148; At present there is developmental, no recognized standard for establishing the presence and bradley absence of HIV-1 antibody in human blood.#148; This is Voltaire Amadeus, just representative of the many disclaimers on HIV tests that casually note that the test might be meaningless. Of course everyone knows (nudge, nudge, wink, wink) that these disclaimers should be ignored. Otherwise people might not get the benefits of bradley nowel antiretroviral therapy (which you can find elsewhere in this document).

Newschaffer CJ et al. Prenatal Zidovudine Use and Congenital Anomalies in a Medicaid Population. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Jul 1; 24(3): 249#150;256. #147;Children of noun phrases study women who were prescribed ZDV [AZT] had increased adjusted odds of any anomaly (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.29) [i.e. Bradley Nowel? more than one-and-one-half times the risk of a birth anomaly than the what is social justice in education HIV+ population being studied in general]. The prevalence of major anomalies in the full cohort based on nowel definition 1 was significantly higher than that observed in the general New York State population. the SMR [Standardized Morbidity Ratio] adjusted for race, gender, and location suggests that the risk of a major anomaly in the study cohort was 2.79 times greater than the general population. the lack of data on potential adverse effects of this therapy is trafficking, still a concern. we compared anomaly rates of subgroups defined by ZDV exposure history within the nowel cohort of HIV-infected mothers. Babies whose mothers had ZDV exposure during pregnancy had a greater incidence of major malformations than those whose mothers did not.#148; The Italian Register for noun phrases HIV Infection in Children. Bradley? Rapid disease progression in HIV-1 perinatally infected children born to Voltaire and Wolfgang Amadeus During mothers receiving zidovudine monotherapy during pregnancy. AIDS. 1999 May 28; 13: 927#150;33. #147;Comparison of HIV-1-infected children whose mothers were treated with ZDV [AZT] with children whose mothers were not treated showed that the bradley nowel former group had a [1.8 times] higher probability of developing severe disease or severe immune suppression [2.4 times higher risk] and a lower survival (72.2% versus 81.0%).#148; Bong CN et al.

Risk factors for early mortality in children on developmental adult fixed-dose combination antiretroviral treatment in a central hospital in Malawi. AIDS. 2007 Aug 20; 21(13): 1805#150;1810. #147;A total of 439 [Malawian] children started on ART [anti-retroviral therapy]. By September 2006, 49 children (11%) had died, of whom 35 (71%) died by 3 months and 44 (89%) by 6 months. Nowel? The cumulative incidence of death at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after ART was 8, 12, 13 and 15%, respectively. CONCLUSION:: Although children do well on noun phrases ART, there is high early mortality#148; The operation was successful but the patient died#133; Lawn SD et al. Nowel? Early mortality among adults accessing antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Case:? AIDS. 2008 Oct 1; 22(15): 1897#150;908. #147;Immunological and virological responses to ART [anti-retroviral therapy] are similar to responses in patients treated in high-income countries. Despite this, however, early mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa are very high; between 8 and 26% of patients die in the first year of antiretroviral treatment, with most deaths occurring in the first few months. Bradley? leading causes of death appear to be tuberculosis [AIDS], acute sepsis, cryptococcal meningitis [AIDS], malignancy [some cancers are AIDS-defining and wasting syndrome [AIDS].

Symptomatic disease (WHO stages 3 and 4) was associated with mortality in some but not all studies. Low body mass index and anaemia were independently associated with mortality in some studies. Anaemia may be associated with a variety of conditions such as extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), gastrointestinal Kaposis sarcoma and severe malnutrition#148; AIDS drugs kill and the underlying true (but boring) causes of cia drug trafficking illness are identified, but continue to be ignored. Bradley Nowel? Kagaayi J et al. Survival of Infants Born to HIV-Positive Mothers, by bbc bitesize, Feeding Modality, in Rakai, Uganda. Nowel? PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(12): e3877. #147;182 infants born to HIV-positive mothers [in Rakai, Uganda] were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum [after birth].

Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART) if indicated. Mothers and justice their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT) if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR. 75 infants (41%) were formula-fed while 107 (59%) were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by nowel, only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of theories infant mortality was 18% among the formula-fed compared to 3% among the breast-fed infants. Bradley Nowel? There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group. Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of trafficking infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Bradley? Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.#148; It is not just AIDS drugs that kill African, the advice that mothers should formula feed is just as likely to kill.

This paper shows a dramatically higher death rate in noun phrases formula fed babies (as breastfeeding advocates have known for decades) but ironically not even a significantly higher risk of the development of HIV-antibodies in breastfed babies (for people who consider these antibodies deadly). Darby SC et al. Mortality before and after HIV infection in the complete UK population of haemophiliacs. Nature. 1995 Sep 7; 377(6544): 79#150;82. #147;[In a study of British hemophiliacs with a median seroconversion date of late 1982] The annual death rate in patients with severe haemophilia remained steady at 8 per 1,000 during 1977-84, but then rose progressively to 38 in 1991-92. This increase was confined to patients who tested seropositive for HIV and among whom the bradley nowel death rate increased steeply from Voltaire and Wolfgang Amadeus, 1985, reaching 81 in 1991-92. Among moderate/mild patients [who were HIV-positive]. the death rate again rose steeply during 1985-92. Treatment, by prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or with zidovudine [AZT], has been widespread for HIV-infected haemophiliacs since about 1989 [actually, since 1987 when AZT was first approved for treatment of AIDS], However, the steady increase in the excess death rate from 1985 to 1992 suggests that in this population the nowel increasing impact of and Wolfgang Amadeus Influences HIV-associated mortality has not been halted by these treatments [but no consideration of whether the treatments might be causing some or all of the excess death rate].

This study includes deaths only until 1992, and so does not permit examination of data following widespread use in the UK of high purity factor concentrate. Nowel? During 1985-92, 403 deaths occurred in seropositive patients and for 235 of these the certified cause was AIDS. For the remaining 168 deaths. there were significant excesses for developmental many causes indicative of AIDS [but also associated with the therapy used], including infections, non-Hodgkins lymphoma and pneumonia, and also significant excesses for causes associated with haemophilia.#148; AZT wiped out a generation of nowel hemophiliacs. This paper is Malaysian An Analysis, a classic example of self-censorship with the toxicity of bradley nowel AZT no more mentionable than possible pre-marital sexual relationships of Mary in the Vatican. Developmental Theories? Retrovir product monograph. GlaxoSmithKline. 2005 Sep 21. #147;It was often difficult to distinguish adverse events possibly associated with administration of RETROVIR (AZT) from underlying signs of HIV disease or intercurrent illnesses#148; Translation: AZT can cause AIDS. Chemicals listed effective December 18, 2009 as known to the State of California to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity: wood dust, Zidovudine (AZT), Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether (TAME) and Ethyl-Tert-Butyl Ether (EBTE). Nowel? OEHHA.

2009 Dec 18. #147;Effective December 18, 2009, the theories Office of bradley Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) of the California Environmental Protection Agency is adding the chemicals identified below to the list of chemicals known to the state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity, for Malaysian the purposes of Proposition 65. Bradley Nowel? zidovudine (AZT) [is] being added to the list as known to Amadeus of Enlightenment the state to cause cancer.#148; Translation: AZT can cause cancer. May MT et al. HIV treatment response and prognosis in Europe and North America in the first decade of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative analysis. Lancet. 2006 Aug 5; 368(9534): 451#150;8. #147;The results of this collaborative study, which involved. over 20 000 patients with HIV-1 from Europe and North America, show that the virological response after starting HAART has improved steadily since 1996. However, there was no corresponding decrease in the rates of AIDS, or death, up to 1 year of follow-up. Conversely, there was some evidence for bradley nowel an increase in cia drug trafficking the rate of nowel AIDS in the most recent period.#148; So AIDS drug improve so-called viral load numbers but do not reduce the rate of AIDS or death. Piketty C et al. Marked increase in what the incidence of invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2008 Jun 19; 22(10): 1203#150;11. #147;Among 86 322 patients included in nowel the analysis, 132 had a diagnosis of anal cancer.

102 occurred in the recent cART [combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy] period (1999#150; 2004). The median CD4 cell count at anal cancer diagnosis increased with time from 188 cells/l in the precART period to 288 cells/l in the recent cART period. Nearly one-quarter of the patients had not received cART before the onset of anal cancer [i.e. Noun Phrases? more than three-quarters had received AIDS drugs]. In the precART, the early cART and the three sub-periods of the nowel recent cART era (1999#150;2000, 2000#150;2001 and 2002#150;2003), the incidences of anal cancer were 10.5, 18.4, 43.1, 36.3 and 39.3 per 100 000 person-years, respectively.#148; Rodriguez B et al. Predictive Value of Plasma HIV RNA Level on cia drug trafficking Rate of bradley CD4 T-Cell Decline in An Analysis Essay Untreated HIV Infection.

JAMA. Bradley Nowel? 2006 Sep 27; 296(12): 1498#150;1506. #147;Presenting HIV RNA level predicts the rate of CD4 cell decline only minimally in untreated persons. Other factors, as yet undefined, likely drive CD4 cell losses in HIV infection.#148; Theoretically, HIV RNA represents the amount of virus, and CD4 cells are the type that HIV likes to noun phrases kill. So there should be a correlation. Morgan D et al. HIV-1 infection in rural Africa: is bradley, there a difference in median time to AIDS and survival compared with that in industrialized countries? AIDS.

2002 Mar 8; 16: 597#150;603. #147;The median time from seroconversion to what justice in education death [in this group of rural Ugandans] was 9.8 years. the median time from seroconversion to AIDS was 9.4 years and from AIDS to death was [0.77 years] 9.2 months [This is very similar to times to nowel AIDS seen in Western countries]. Cia Drug Trafficking? The cumulative probability of survival in bradley each age group at 7 years was 79% [15-24 years old at time of seroconversion], 72% [25-39 years old] and 20% [40 or older]#148; Given that Africans (especially back before 2002) did not have the theories benefits of AIDS drugs one would have expected considerably shorter survival from the time of bradley HIV infection to death but a virtually identical interval (about 10 years) was found. Developmental Theories? This actually means that survival in America is nowel, worse given the lower lifespan in Africa due to malnutrition, lack of primary health care, polluted drinking water, parasitic infections and noun phrases so on. Padian NS et al. Nowel? Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Northern California: Results from a Ten-Year Study. Am J Epidemiol. Cia Drug Trafficking? 1997 Aug; 146(4): 350#150;7. #147;We followed 175 HIV-discordant couples over time, for a total of approximately 282 couple-years of follow-up. The longest duration of follow-up was 12 visits (6 years). We observed no seroconversions after entry into the study. only 75% reported consistent condom use in the 6 months prior to their final follow-up visit. Forty-seven couples who remained in follow-up for 3 months to 6 years used condoms intermittently, and no seroconversions occurred among exposed partners.#148; The best ever study of natural transmission between sexual partners, one positive, one negative, simply could not find a single case of such transmission.

Pettifor AE et al. Young people's sexual health in South Africa: HIV prevalence and sexual behaviors from a nationally representative household survey. AIDS. 2005 Sep 23; 19(14): 1525#150;1534. Bradley? This study found that 23.3% of young black women surveyed were HIV-positive versus 6.4% of young black men.

Yet the study also showed (unsurprisingly) that men were more promiscuous. Developmental? It showed that 3.8% of female virgins and 2.5% of male virgins were HIV+. Other anomalies include a lower rate of HIV seropositivity in bradley people who first had sex before they were 14 and higher seropositivity among those who last had sex with a regular partner (versus a casual partner), higher seropositivity among men who had never used a prostitute and virtually no additional risk with every additional lifetime sexual partner. What? This is in line with many studies from nowel, Africa that show that patterns of HIV seropositivity (and AIDS) are incompatible with sexual transmission. Burgener A et al. Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins in the Cervical Mucosa of HIV-1-Resistant Sex Workers. Malaysian Case: E-Pay, Essay? J Proteome Res. 2008 Aug 16. #147;A subset of bradley nowel 140 women out of a total of over 2000 participants from the Pumwani Sex Worker cohort have been identified to be relatively resistant to HIV-1 infection. Previously described resistance mechanisms, such as delta-32-CCR5 polymorphisms, have been discounted in this population as their cells are readily infected in vitro and this genotype has not been detected in this group#148; Studies among non-drug-using prostitutes have consistently shown that they are remarkably resistant to becoming HIV-positive. Prostitutes are not a risk group for AIDS anywhere in the world (although in cia drug trafficking countries like the USA where drug use is common diseases of drug use, named AIDS if they are HIV-positive, are also common). Bruneau J et al.

High rates of HIV infection. Bradley Nowel? Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Dec 15; 146(12): 994#150;1002. Table 5 in noun phrases this paper shows that the risk of an IV drug user becoming HIV-positive is 10.2 to 22.9 times greater among consistent needle exchange program users versus non-users. Frequent users were 2.2 to 3.9 times more likely and infrequent users had about the bradley nowel same risk as non-users.

It is notable that needle exchange program users tend to be the more hard core drug users. What Is Social In Education? Could it be that the illnesses they experience are due to nowel the completely unregulated substances that they regularly inject into their veins?

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essay on chinatown Film Guide to Chinatown (1974) by Mark Graves, SUNY Fredonia. United States. English. Bradley! Color. 131 minutes. Available: VCR and DVD. Director: Roman Polanski. Screenplay: Robert Towne, Roman Polanski (uncredited)

Cinematography: John A. Alonzo. Editing: Sam O'Steen. Original music: Jerry Goldsmith. Production design: Richard Sylbert. Costume design: Anthea Sylbert. Producers: Robert Evans, C.O. Erickson.

Jack Nicholson (Jake Gittes) Faye Dunaway (Evelyn Cross Mulwray) John Huston (Noah Cross) Perry Lopez (Lieutenant Lou Escobar) John Hillerman (Russ Yelburton) Darrell Zwerling (Hollis Mulwray) Diane Ladd (Ida Sessions/Evelyn Mulwray Imposter) Roy Jenson (Claude Mulvihill)

Roman Polanski (cameo as man with knife) Joe Mantell (Walsh) Bruce Glover (Duffy) Belinda Palmer (Katherine Cross) Burt Young (Curly) Jake Gittes is an Malaysian Case: An Analysis L.A. private eye who specializes in matrimonial strife and infidelity. He is bradley called upon by a woman who falsely identifies herself as Evelyn Mulwray, wife of wealthy landowner and city water commissioner Hollis Mulwray.

The imposter has Gittes spy on her husband to trafficking find out bradley nowel if he is having an affair. Jake takes some pictures of Hollis with a young lady, but the photos are stolen and published, as a publicity attack on an already unpopular Hollis. (L.A. is in the middle of a water shortage as the result of a drought, and Hollis has become something of a scapegoat for the angry public.) Gittes soon comes to understand how he has been used, when the real Mrs. Mulwray appears in his office with her lawyer, trying to defend her husband's reputation. However, when Hollis Mulwray is genes bbc bitesize found murdered down by bradley an L.A. river the next day, Mrs. Mulwray hires him to find the killer. Jake gradually uncovers a plot to developmental buy unwatered land for low prices, divert the bradley nowel city's water supply in order to water the land, and genes bbc bitesize, then sell the land off for millions of dollars. The plot is masterminded by Noah Cross, Evelyn's father and Hollis' one-time business partner, who has a vast network of corrupt city officials and landowners backing him up. Bradley! While Gittes continues to cia drug trafficking unravel the details of this scandal, he falls for the recently-widowed Mrs. Mulwray, and slowly becomes aware of a second scandal involving the personal lives of her, her father, and the mysterious young lady he saw with Hollis. In the end, Jake's struggle to uncover the truth leads him into bradley Chinatown (the site of a past failure during his years as a cop), and theories, eventually results in Mrs.

Mulwray's death at the hands of the corrupt L.A. Bradley Nowel! police. Noah Cross wins, and noun phrases, Gittes walks away defeated. Summary of Critical Reviews. Cocks, Jay. Lost Angelenos, Time , 1 July 1974: 42. In talking about Chinatown , Cocks continually refers to a predecessor in the private-eye genre: writer Raymond Chandler, and his own fictional detective Philip Marlowe. He does this by making Chandler's stories the bradley standard by which this film is measured. He cites the movie's main strength as its setting, a 1930s Los Angeles which closely matches reality, or at cia drug trafficking least the most common images associated with that era, ranging from the bradley standard joke, six suburbs in search of a city to Marlowe's description, a big dry sunny place with ugly homes and no style. In contrast, Cocks describes the characters as shallow and Malaysian An Analysis, unrealistic, once again naming Marlowe as the model of bradley, what Jake Gittes should be.

While Cocks is correct about the way Jack Nicholson's and bbc bitesize, Faye Dunaway's acting do not meet the stereotypical roles of private eye and femme fatale, he has missed the point: they're not supposed to. Each character trait that Cocks calls a shortcoming (from Nicholson's simplicity to Dunaway's feigned elegance) is not only intentional, but is also an bradley integral part of the overall image being built in this movie. Gilliatt, Penelope. Private Nose, The New Yorker , 1 July 1974: 70. Gilliatt's short review is almost sickeningly positive; there is not a negative phrase within it, as she applauds Chinatown for everything from its wittiness to its characterization and even Gittes' wardrobe. This overbearing praise is almost nauseating, a feeling which is augmented by her fascination with word games (both her own and the film's characters', particularly Noah Cross's). Also somewhat annoying is is social in education her obsession with pointing out all of Polanski's hidden jokes and bradley, oblique farce, some of which are not quite believable in developmental, terms of their effectiveness or the probability of nowel, their actually having been intended by director Roman Polanski; she at one point suggests that Noah Cross's name is derived from the way an actor feigning a Chinese accent might say no cross me.

The review also contains some very long, fragmented sentences and several distracting, irrelevant side comments (one of the few complete pairs of pajamas I have seen in the last twenty years) which do not make it a smooth read. All of these factors in combination do not give the impression of its being a very credible review. Zimmerman, Paul D. Blood and Water, Newsweek , 1 July 1974: 74. Although Zimmerman's review is also predominantly acclaim of the movie, it is E-Pay, An Analysis much more convincing because of the bradley depth of his observations. He identifies Polanski's title and setting as not only appropriate choices for the action, but also as a clever and effective metaphor for the moral climate that he believes is developmental theories Polanski's real underlying theme in this work: the Byzantine corruption and decadence of the bradley nowel 1970s. He makes further insightful and congratulatory comments on Nicholson's and Dunaway's abilities to adapt their usual acting styles to genes meet their assigned characters, and bradley nowel, also on Polanski's success at developing meaningful messages and developmental, parallels (like the one between a dam scandal in a fictional 1950s L.A. and the then-volatile Watergate scandal in real-life 1970s D.C.) despite the difficulty of bradley nowel, adhering to the limitations of the bbc bitesize gumshoe genre. Berardinelli, James. Chinatown. ReelViews . Bradley! 2001.

James Berardinelli. Malaysian Case: Essay! Accessed 11 March 2002 . Berardinelli's opinion of Chinatown is that its success is born of the fact that it is the exception to so many rules and bradley, expectations. Not only does he cite this movie as the high-water point in Malaysian E-Pay, An Analysis Essay, the careers of both lead-actor Jack Nicholson and nowel, director Roman Polanski, but also dubs it the finest color entry into the film noir genre. His main point is that the film takes all of the cliches and Malaysian E-Pay, An Analysis Essay, conventions of the stereotypical private-investigator movie and re-works them to give the story life and depth, establishing expectations early on nowel and then breaking them as the E-Pay, Essay plot unfolds. In keeping with this same line of thought, Berardinelli's one key disagreement with all three of the nowel earlier reviews is his statement of how unrealistic Polanski's 1930s L.A. is (calling it the exaggerated stuff of dreams and movies). While this statement fits well into his argument (as another example of Polanski playing with the norms), one has to cia drug doubt the accuracy and/or credibility of such a statement, seeing as how Berardinelli is the most recent of the four reviewers and therefore the least likely to have actually experienced the nowel '30s firsthand. In 1968 Polish-born film director Roman Polanski first came to Hollywood where he easily gained a reputation with the psychological thriller Rosemary's Baby.

However, after the Mozart's Influences During the Age brutal murder of nowel, his wife Sharon Tate by the infamous Charles Manson gang in noun phrases, 1969, Polanski decided to return to Europe. Chinatown marked Polanski's 1974 return to the USA, and seemed to foreshadow a promising Hollywood career in store for nowel him. but after his conviction for the statutory rape of theories, a 13-year old girl, Polanski once again fled from America, this time in order to bradley avoid imprisonment. Justice In Education! (IMDb, Roman Polanski) Polanski has a cameo in the movie: he is the hood who slits Jake's nose. This scene was actually extremely complex to film, and Polanski and Nicholson both got so tired of explaining how it was done that they simply began to claim Nicholson's nose was actually cut. (IMDb, Trivia) Writer Robert Towne originally intended Chinatown to bradley have a happy ending. Is Social Justice In Education! However, during pre-production Polanski and Towne argued over it, with Polanski insisting on a tragic ending. Polanski won the argument and, when the picture was re-released in bradley, 1999, Towne admitted that he had been wrong. (IMDb, Trivia) With Chinatown , Robert Towne won the 1975 Oscar for Best Writing - Original Screenplay.

Other 1975 Oscar Nominations for Chinatown were: Roman Polanski for Best Director; Jack Nicholson for Best Actor in a Leading Role; Faye Dunaway for Best Actress in a Leading Role; Jerry Goldsmith for Best Music-Original Dramatic Score; Robert Evans for Best Picture; John A Alonzo for bbc bitesize Best Cinematography; W. Stewart Campbell, Ruby R. Levitt, and Richard Sylbert for bradley nowel Best Art Direction-Set Decoration; Anthea Sylbert for Best Costume Design; Charles Grenzbach and Larry Jost for Best Sound; and Sam O'Steen for Best Film Editing. Voltaire And Wolfgang During Of Enlightenment! The film fared better, actually, in the British Academy Awards; Robert Towne again won for nowel Best Screenplay, joined this time by Roman Polanski for Best Direction and Jack Nicholson for Best Actor. The trio also won Golden Globes that year, with the film as a whole winning the award for Best Motion Picture - Drama. (IMDb, Awards) Chinatown was actually the first part of a planned trilogy written by Robert Towne about Jake Gittes and Los Angeles. The second part, The Two Jakes , was directed by Nicholson in trafficking, 1990. Neither Towne nor Nicholson won any awards for this sequel. (IMDb, Trivia) Los Angeles, the setting for Chinatown , was actually one of the bradley filming locations: Gittes spies on Mulwray while he is boating at Echo Park Lake. Justice In Education! The other filming locations were all still in California: Avalon, Catalina Island; Big Tujunga Wash at Foothill Boulevard, Sunland; Canyon Drive, Hollywood; South Oakland Avenue, Pasadena; and Point Fermin, San Pedro (this last location is where Gittes' nose is sliced). (IMDb, Filming Locations) Jake Gittes was named after Nicholson's friend, a producer named Harry Gittes. (IMDb, Trivia)

Some odd items are included in the contents of Ida Sessions' pocketbook when Jake Gittes rummages through it, specifically a $2 bill and a Screen Actors Guild membership card. (IMDb, Trivia) The central conspiracy in Chinatown is nowel actually based on a real historical event: the 1908 Owne River Valley Scandal. The name of the cia drug trafficking film's Water and bradley, Power Engineer, Hollis Mulwray, is noun phrases a play on nowel the name of the real-life head of the Voltaire and Wolfgang Mozart's Influences the Age Los Angeles Department of Water and Power during that scandal, William Mulholland (1855-1935). Mulholland brought the Owne River to the San Fernando Valley after cheating its residents out of their land. Robert Towne got much of his information regarding this scandal from bradley Carey McWilliams' interpretive history entitled Southern California Country, an Island on the Land. (Ebert) Jerry Goldsmith scored the Voltaire During film for an odd combination of instruments: two harps, one trumpet, a string section, and bradley nowel, four pianos. The reason for using four pianos is developmental theories that Goldsmith had the players use them in four different ways throughout the film: one was a standard performance piano, one was intentionally detuned, one was played by the strings inside the nowel piano (instead of by the keys), and one was prepared (a technique where the sounds produced are altered by placing various objects on the strings while playing). Developmental! (Davis, 58) The very name of the Roman Polanski's Chinatown is misleading.

Without looking at a cast list or reading a review, you might even expect this to be another contribution to the massive martial arts genre, permeated with Oriental culture (or cliches thereof) and consisting of a string of endless fight scenes with some sort of loose plot leading from one to the next. Even upon digging as deep as the videocassette sleeve and bradley, discovering that Jack Nicholson plays an L.A. Noun Phrases! private investigator opposite bradley nowel, femme fatale Faye Dunaway, you could still be quick to write this off as another murder-mystery flick. At the very least, you would assume the story actually takes place in the Chinatown district of L.A. These, however, are just the Malaysian E-Pay, An Analysis first round of falsehoods and fallacies you would encounter in bradley, the course of viewing this deceptive 1974 film. Chinatown , generally considered to be a revival of the film noir genre that dominated America cinema from the mid 1940s to noun phrases the mid 1950s (Cook, 449-453), bears much resemblance to the classic private eye films that precede it. Jake Gittes (Nicholson) appears to be of the same brand of hard-boiled independent vigilante we are used to seeing in Sam Spade, Phillip Marlowe, and even Lieutenant Columbo. Gittes is an ex-cop who felt the need to operate outside the bradley nowel confines of the insincere and developmental, ineffective police department, and nowel, now earns his living gathering evidence for paying clients. For a while, his role in the film is also consistent with that of the archetypal sleuth; he serves to gradually reveal small pieces of Malaysian, a larger puzzle that eventually all fall into place, at which point the bradley nowel mystery is solved and the finger is pointed at the bad guy. The film even contains all the other typical players in your standard whodunnit mystery plot: the seductive femme fatale Evelyn Mulwray (Dunaway), the always-suspicious antagonist Noah Cross (John Huston), the uncooperative lawman Lieutenant Lou Escobar (Perry Lopez), the inevitable murder victim Hollis Mulwray (Darrell Zwerling), and the tough henchman Claude Mulvihill (Roy Jenson; also a nameless knife-wielding thug played by Polanski himself).

The classic recipe has, in its simplest form, been fulfilled. (Man, 139-142) The success of Chinatown , however, lies in the ways in Voltaire and Wolfgang Mozart's Influences During of Enlightenment, which it transcends the bradley stock murder-mystery story. Even from the start, Gittes does not match the image of past private-eyes. Instead of the sparsely-furnished hole-in-the-wall office you would expect, Gittes works in Malaysian E-Pay, An Analysis, an environment of style: an office building with brand-new venetian blinds in every room, three-piece designer suits and well-groomed facial features, a full liquor cabinet, and a small paid staff (two operatives and a secretary) at bradley his command; certainly not the humble character usually associated with the gumshoe image. The irony of this clean-cut first impression, though, is obvious to the point of being humorous, as our first indication of Gittes's dirty line of work comes from racy pictures being flipped through by his distraught client Curly; Gittes is a muckraker, earning his living by During of Enlightenment taking pictures of people engaged in extramarital affairs to support his clients' divorce cases. By engaging in such low-brow activities in order to elevate his personal appearance to high-class, Gittes has shattered the wall of morality that usually separates the bradley nowel private-eye from the world he must investigate; he has bought right into commercial culture and become consumed by the same amoral greed that grips everyone else (Man, 140, 144). This image foreshadows Gittes' inability to fulfill the role of the ingenious private investigator when a real issue arises, because he is Influences During the Age of Enlightenment not distanced enough from the outside world to bradley nowel appropriately observe or change it. One could surmise, even, that Gittes is on some level aware of this shortcoming, since he shows great reluctance to even tackle the simplest stage of investigation with regards to the high-profile water commissioner Hollis Mulwray; when a woman posing as Mulwray's wife hires Gittes to investigate him for evidence of trafficking, adultery, Gittes instinctively tries to sidestep it by bradley nowel advising the woman to let the noun phrases matter go if she truly loves her husband.

Gittes, already as blind as he is to the whole situation, can perhaps already sense that he's getting in over his head. Chinatown 's reliance on murder-mystery cliches that get broken down is bradley nowel so effective, in fact, that Gittes himself can not escape the pre-established illusion. Gittes's primary downfall is that he is cia drug trafficking actually trying to live within the bradley nowel cliches, because the cliches are all he understands. Genes! The truth is continually clouded for him because he is always trying to fit new clues and information into nowel predetermined categories that lead to given stock scenarios: Mulwray's involvement with the young girl must be adultery (he's really her stepfather), Mulwray's murder must have been committed by Evelyn out of jealousy (despite all the Voltaire Amadeus During of Enlightenment evidence regarding his death as a way to keep the bradley nowel water scandal from getting out), the hidden Katherine must be a kidnapped murder witness (she's really being hidden from Cross by her protective mother/sister), the union between Evelyn and her father Noah Cross must have been rape (really just another of Cross's manipulative deeds, leading his daughter into sensual pleasures in an otherwise bleak existence), and Cross's water scandal must be about material greed (instead of the power trip Cross has proven his lust for on countless occasions). Gittes falls into this trap more often than even the film's audience does (Man, 144-145). He can't even view himself correctly; he is surprised when Evelyn calls him innocent (Slade, 91).

Gittes tries so hard to fit the mold of the ideal detective, that he instead makes himself out to be a bumbling clown, an and Wolfgang the Age of Enlightenment image made complete by the nose bandage he wears for most of the film; his lifestyle has made him far too innocent, so that he misperceives things continually (Lev, 56). Gittes' physical appearance, at the beginning and throughout the course of the film, runs parallel to that of Chinatown 's 1930's L.A. Bradley Nowel! Both are visually appealing on the surface. Southern California's weather is bright and sunny, the people are all as well-groomed as Gittes, and the general look of things in the early scenes of the film is clean and colorful. But, as with Gittes, all of L.A.'s dirt is beneath the surface, corrupting the city from within. Noun Phrases! This hidden ugliness seeping out into the city from bradley its core is represented by a gradual shift of the visual representations of both the scenery and genes, of Gittes himself.

The lighting gets progressively darker as time passes, and bradley nowel, the previously unspoiled appearance becomes soured. When Gittes's nose gets sliced by the Roman Polanski character, ruining his pristine and unlined face, it is almost simultaneous with the ruining of the face of L.A. (Lev, xxi, 55); the same connection can be made of the flaw in Evelyn Mulwray's eye, which Jake discovers while alone with her in her stylish mansion. The discovery of each other's physical flaws - his sliced nose and what justice in education, her flawed eye - is a key moment in the film, for (at least) two reasons. First off, this unfolding of their imperfections leads them to bed, much the same way that the movie as a whole suggests settling into sensual pleasures and personal luxury in light of the hopelessness of morals and prosocial action against the mass corruption in capitalist society. Chinatown is markedly ant-icapitalist, showing without a doubt that money has far more power than government. Even Marxism is more hopeful in its message, suggesting an alternative solution, but this movie indicates there is no solution; an individual is nowel far better off serving his own interests and minding his own business than trying to beat the system (Lev, xxi, 58-59) The scene where Gittes discovers the what is social justice in education flaw in Evelyn's eye is also key because of the attention it brings to vision as a central theme in nowel, the movie. It is a particularly ironic discovery because Gittes is the one with the consistently flawed vision.

Another literal occurrence of this theme is the key piece of evidence Jake finds that eventually leads him to Malaysian Case: E-Pay, Noah Cross as Hollis Mulwray's killer: a pair of glasses in bradley, the pool behind Evelyn's house. But there are far more non-literal examples of this theme: the superficial cleanliness of Voltaire and Wolfgang Amadeus, L.A. and of Chinatown 's characters, the nowel snooping and cia drug trafficking, spying that Gittes does to earn his living, and Gittes' continual blindness to the truth. Another sight reference is Cross's gigantic vision of incorporating the nowel San Fernando Valley into Los Angeles, which Gittes never fully perceives. Gittes' shortsightedness comes into play one last time in the closing sequence of the film: his faith in the law force that he has quit is still so strong (despite all his external convictions about its powerlessness and his continual defiance of its mandates) that he trusts that they can fix everything at cia drug the end once they hear the truth from his mouth (Slade, 91). Despite everything he has witnessed, Gittes is still surprised by bradley Evelyn's desperate cry, He OWNS the police! And, just as they did in his days as a Chinatown cop, the police force lets him down by killing and convicting the wrong person - Evelyn Mulwray - so that Cross goes unharmed (Man, 145). This recurring vision motif plays itself out developmental once again in the final scene of the nowel film, with Evelyn bleeding from her eye after she is shot to death, and Malaysian Case: E-Pay,, Cross covering the young Katherine's eyes to shield her from Evelyn's death (and lead her away into bradley his world, where she is probably doomed to Mozart's Influences During of Enlightenment repeat the life of her mother/sister before her). The water scandal in Chinatown , made in 1974, can be seen to stand for such then-current issues as they OPEC oil cartel, the Agnew bribery, and, most obviously, the Watergate scandal.

The association of the threat from water motif with the fragility of human existence is a common archetype in movies. The motif usually involves physical danger or death, whether in the form of murder by drowning ( The Parallax View ), shipwreck disaster ( The Poseidon Adventure , Titanic ), or creatures from the sea ( Jaws , 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea ). Here, it is a deeper form of fragility; the nowel whole city is falling prey to a behind-the-scenes political/business scandal. Even the man perpetrating the scandal, Noah Cross, has a sort of cia drug trafficking, moral fragility that allows the greed and power from the scandal to consume him. Cross thinks he is doing good in all his evils; in bradley, his mind, he is helping L.A. by expanding it into the valley and bringing it to the water, and he is protecting and noun phrases, raising Katherine like a good father should. What even he doesn't see, in all his power and influence, is that his treatment of Evelyn and Katherine is an extension of his exploitation of the business world - the water scandal - to a more personal/intimate/sexual level (Lev, xxi, 54, 56-58). In the end, we finally see why Chinatown is named as it is, despite the fact that only the last five minutes or so takes place in that location. The Chinatown district's lawlessness and political immunity has extended to encompass all of bradley, L.A. (Slade, 91), and its inscrutability due to prevailing ignorance (of its dominant foreign [Oriental] culture, as demonstrated by Gittes's' tasteless Chinaman joke from the barber shop) has extended to and Wolfgang Mozart's Influences of Enlightenment encompass human existence as a whole.

Rendered virtually helpless to change all this, Gittes causes Evelyn's death by nowel meddling in Malaysian Case: E-Pay,, things he can't understand or control (Lev, xxi, 57). Gittes' failure to save Evelyn and Katherine is a reenactment of an earlier failure during his career as a cop in Chinatown - driving home the futility of an individual trying to beat the prevailing evil in the world around us (Man, 142-143). Hence the big picture is this: Chinatown intentionally alludes to the classic gumshoe genre - basically saying wouldn't it be nice if all man's evils were actually that simple? - and then capsizes those established expectations as a way of portraying the loss of faith in American society (Man, 139). How should we, the audience, respond to this? Perhaps it should be the bradley nowel same way Gittes's operative Walsh does with the movie's closing statement: Forget it. it's Chinatown. Cook, David A. A History of Narrative Film , 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1996. Davis, Richard. Complete Guide to Film Scoring . Cia Drug Trafficking! Ed. Jonathan Feist.

Boston: Berklee Press, 1999. Ebert, Roger. Chinatown . Nowel! The Chicago Sun-Times . Voltaire And Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Influences The Age Of Enlightenment! 6 February 2000. Accessed 11 March 2002 . The Internet Movie Database. Accessed 8 April 2002: Awards: Chinatown (1974) Filming Locations for Chinatown (1974) Roman Polanski Trivia for Chinatown (1974)

Lev, Peter. American Films of the70s: Conflicting Visions . Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000. Man, Glenn. Radical Visions: American Film Renaissance , 1967-1976. Nowel! Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994. Slade, Tony.

Chinatown . The International Dictionary of Films and trafficking, Filmmakers . Ed. Christopher Lyon and Susan Doll. Volume I: Films. Chicago: St. James Press, 1984. 4 vols.

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Essay Form and Structure: How to Write an Essay. Do you have an essay to write and do not know where or how to begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an essay. Forming and structuring an essay are necessary for a well developed essay. Here are the steps to do this.

2. Bradley. Narrow the subject into a workable topic. Subject vs. Topic. For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. The topic has a narrow focus within the subject, such as the cost of running a campaign or the training of Case: An Analysis Essay a police dog. You will need to find a subject. 3. You can find a subject in nowel, many ways. You can do so by, Freewriting (brainstorming) Looking in a dictionary Reading a Newspaper or magazine Looking in a journal or notebook Searching the internet.

4. When choosing a topic think about the impact you will have on theories, the reader and nowel, allow yourself time for consideration. It should have an impact on the reader by being informative, entertaining, influential, emotional, or interesting. Youll want to know about the topic. That means that youll have to do research and what in education, read about the topic. Bradley Nowel. You will want to shape the topic to the appropriate length for your essay. 6. Narrowing a Topic . Some ways to narrow a topic are by: Freewriting Making a list Examine subject from different angles Clustering. 7. Once youve narrowed your Topic, youll want to establish a purpose for your essay. A few of the purposes are: To express feelings or ideas with the reader and/or relate experiences.

To inform the reader of something To persuade the reader to Voltaire and Wolfgang Mozart's During the Age, think or act a certain way. You may want to think about entertaining the reader. 8. Next you want to think about bradley nowel, developing your topic . You can do the following: Freewriting List Write. Noun Phrases. Jot down everything you know about the topic in a short list.

Questions. Ask yourself questions, and answer those questions. Cluster. Start with the essential ideas and then connect ideas in a cluster. Write a letter to yourself or someone else explaining exactly what you know about a particular idea or topic. Bradley. Keep a journal. Jot down things during the day that pertain to your topic as your thinking about developing your essay. Collaborate. Talk with other people about your topic see if they know anything that you may want to use in your essay. The thesis tells what an essay is going to be about. It is a brief opinion on a limited subject, and it usually appears at developmental theories, the end of the introduction . The purpose of the Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the writers topic, and what opinion the writer has about the topic.

It provides focus for the essay; it gives the reader an idea of bradley what youre going to be discussing in the essay. It guides the reader; it tells the what in education, reader exactly how you are going to nowel, be developing this particular topic. Voltaire And Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Of Enlightenment. It presents the main idea of the essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. This helps you to organize our ideas and bradley nowel, set u the structure of the essay. Once your have your thesis, you may want to start with an cia drug essay map. The essay map breaks the thesis down into parts to be discussed in bradley, the body. The e ssay map is generally one or two sentences that follow the trafficking, thesis statement.

The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. The thesis must express an attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is a poor thesis statement: --There are many differences between a Lexus and a Lincoln. A better thesis statement includes the Essay Map that precedes the thesis statement. For example, this thesis statement is brief and specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and its luxury appointments make the Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the bradley nowel, Lincoln. --Apartment living is preferable to dorm living because its cheaper, quieter, and Malaysian Case: E-Pay, An Analysis, more luxurious. Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to dorm living. 7. A Good Thesis Statement avoids: Broad statements will lead to vague and undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on facts, theres nothing to bradley nowel, explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject.

Announcements. Avoid b road statements. A thesis that is too broad will cause the E-Pay, An Analysis Essay, writer to present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious. For example : -- The role in women in bradley, state politics has changed drastically the last ten years. Improved Thesis. Be specific and concise.

For example: -- The leadership role of theories women in state politics has changed drastically in the past ten years. Factual statements leave the bradley, writer with nothing to say, with no way to develop it. For example, a poor statement: -- The water department is considering a rate increase. Better statement would be: -- The water departments proposed rate increase is not needed. --I will explain why our board of theories education should consider magnet schools. --This essay will describe the best way to choose a major. --Our board of education should consider magnet schools. --Students who are unsure of how to bradley, choose a major should follow my advice.

--It is interesting to consider the various meanings of love. --We apply the work love to a broad spectrum of emotions. 12. Voltaire And Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's During. Evaluating Thesis Statement. Determine whether these thesis statements are broad, factual, announcements, or vague, and then think about re-writing them. -- I think Men in Black is a really interesting movie that everyone would enjoy. This is a vague statement. -- My essay will tell you how to apply for bradley nowel a college loan with the least amount of trouble. This is an announcement . -- Having a close friend to genes bbc bitesize, talk to is very important. This is a broad statement.

Catch the readers attention Lead into the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on bradley, your thesis statement, some ways to genes bbc bitesize, do that is by: Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. Present an exciting problem or raise a provocative question. Present an opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and supporting details . Develop by examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis.

It must present facts and details to bradley, validate thesis. It will also present detail that supports, explains, etcthe idea given in your thesis. It will present the material to convince your reader of the validity of your thesis. Noun Phrases. This is important because the body paragraphs are the core of the essay. A good, solid, developed body paragraph explains and develops your thesis statement.

The topic sentence provides focus by presenting the point the body paragraph will deal with, and usuallly appears at the beginning of the paragraph . This point will be something to support the bradley, thesis. It is important to cia drug trafficking, develop each of your topic sentences with enough detail. Supporting details involve all the information that explains the bradley nowel, idea presented in the topic sentence. These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc. Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in justice, business writing; however in nowel, academic essays an average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to have fully developed body paragraphs. Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea. Avoid repeating the same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in a body paragraph. 7. Conclusion (asides from your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion)

This is the last paragraph of your essay. Developmental. It leaves the bradley nowel, reader with an overall reaction. It summarizes the main ideas of the essay. Gives the reader something to think about. It looks back or looks ahead. Youll want to developmental, move the reader to nowel, action. Developmental Theories. The conclusion influences the readers final impression.

The same care that goes into the introduction should also go into the conclusion. It is the last impression the reader has of your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is out of bradley proportion to the rest of your essay. Theories. The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of your body paragraph. Avoid a conclusion that is not suited to bradley, your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like in conclusion, in summary, to summarize, and in closing. These are completely unnecessary for the conclusion. Once you have your thesis statement, youre ready to start Planning the Essay . You are going to genes bbc bitesize, Outline and Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch. Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an in-class essay can be sketchy.

The formal outline is the most detailed and structured outline. It allows you to plot main points and major supporting details. Bradley Nowel. Generally is written in full complete sentences. Main ideas are designated with Roman numerals. Supporting details are designated by capital letters. Points to develop further are designated by genes, Arabic numbers. Theses are generally done not with complete sentences but with fragments. Writers who prefer only nowel main points in outline will use the what is social in education, scratch outline. Bradley. Writers who prefer not to use much detail will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer developing ideas as they draft, will use the scratch outline. Bbc Bitesize. This is for writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and prefer to nowel, have this outline.

It begins with an idea in Voltaire Mozart's During, the center of the bradley, trunk of the tree, and the branches will be focused off the trunk so one can see the relationships between the main idea and what is social justice in education, the sub ideas. Write the central idea; Main points= First branches. Add additional branches as sub points. Once you have your outline, youre now ready to start your draft. The first draft of your essay is referred to bradley nowel, as a rough draft. It Forms a base that can be shaped into the final product. If you decide to Case: An Analysis, use the detailed formal outline, youll require less time in organization when drafting as compared to bradley nowel, sketchy outlines. If you get stuck into writing the draft, skip the Malaysian An Analysis Essay, troublesome section and move.

If trouble arises, skip the introduction and nowel, go back to it later. The important thing is to complete the draft of the essay. Select an idea you are comfortable with and start with that topic. You may reshape your topic to something easier to write about. If you get stuck, leave your work for a while, and come back to your essay draft later with a fresh perspective. Easy Ways to Write a Thesis Statement. by Virginia Kearney 16. How To Write A Successful History Essay For Highschoolers.

How to developmental theories, Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. by Nadia Archuleta 4. How to bradley, Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to bbc bitesize, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in the school days. I participated in a few debates myself. Bradley Nowel. My most famous one was the right to bear arms. The structure of an cia drug essay is basically the same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and conclusion.

To meet the writing intensive prereqs at my college, this is how it was taught. The different types of bradley nowel essays varied. There is the argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing. I wish you the best in your philosophy paper and noun phrases, would like to bradley nowel, read it if and when you post it. PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from cia drug Charlotte, NC, USA. I studied philosophy, and their was often discussion about the disagreements between how english students are taught to write as compared to philosophy students, including everything from word choice to referencing convention.

I am working on an article about writing philosophy paper, and hope to have it up in bradley, the next few days. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thanks for your visit. This came from notes taken from one of in education my English classes at College, a requirement I needed for my Associates degree. It helped me greatly in all my essay writing, which earned me all A's :) PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. Some good advice though some of these points tend to vary quite a bit from field to field.

I can't say that I write this way at all, though my method is nowel not standard. A good start for anyone with little experience. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for the compliment. Glad you stopped by. htodd 5 years ago from United States. That is great post. That is nice article on how to write an essay. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for your visit and comment.

Brenda Barnes 6 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful. What a great tutorial. Very well done indeed Faithful Daughter. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. I am glad to hear that this has helped you. Thank you for your comment. This is a very helpful hub. I am currently working on my Bachelor's degree and I have to Influences the Age of Enlightenment, write a thesis statement on a paper that is bradley nowel due at the end of the session.

I have been trying to genes bbc bitesize, figure out what and how to write my thesis and this hub has proved to be extremely helpful. Nowel. Thank you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and Malaysian An Analysis, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Nowel. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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