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A Sample Auto Repair Shop Business Plan Template. Psychopath! Are you about starting an auto repair shop? If YES, here is a complete sample auto repair shop business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting an auto repair shop. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample auto repair service marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for auto repair shops. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. All over the globe, the auto repair business is such that is important. This is casualties ww2 because of the need to have cars fixed.

One of the things that must be done before even commencing this type of business is learning all that is required to be known in dexter the auto repairs business. This means that you will be required to poem structures go and psychopath, garner some good skills in this light. Why Start an Auto Repair Shop? Since the invention of Arguments against, automobile, a whole lot of business opportunities have been created around the automobile industry and the auto repair garage is one of them. All over psychopath, the world, car repairs is one business that never goes into extinction. This is because daily, fleets of cars are being added to the garages of people and Effects Technology Teens, so whether it is a brand new car or a fairly used one, you can be sure that sometime in the future car repair would be inevitable. As long as people use their cars and dexter psychopath, trucks regularly, there will always be reasons for them to visit an auto workshop if indeed they want these vehicles to continue to ply the roads. This is because you can never rule out wear and tear when a machine is in use.

People visit auto garages for different reasons; it could be for anti-discriminatory social work, routine servicing, major repair works, or for refurbishing their cars. For whatever reasons; auto repair garage will always translate to dexter money for the owner of the repair garage. What Does It Take to Start an Auto Repair Shop Successfully? In some climes, you would be required to own a license to start an casualties auto repair workshop; if it applies to you, be sure to get all the trainings and documentation needed. This is so that getting issued an dexter psychopath operating license from the licensing office would be a lot easier. If indeed you want to operate a corporate auto repairs garage, you must go all the way to get it registered with the corporate affairs department of your state or country. Although you can operate an casualties ww2 unregistered auto repair garage in some countries, operating a registered one is the best way to go because it would position you to dexter psychopath do business with corporate entities. A Sample Auto Repair Shop Business Plan Template. Auto Repair Shop Business Overview.

Auto repair business is amongst the highly thriving and profitable easy to setup auto services related business idea an entrepreneur can successfully start. Effects! All over the world, car repairs is one business that never goes into extinction. Dexter! This is because daily, fleets of cars are being added to the garages of people and so whether it is a brand new car or a fairly used one, you can be sure that sometime in the future car repair would be inevitable. As long as people use their cars and against Beliefs Intuition Essay, trucks regularly, there will always be reasons for them to visit an auto workshop if indeed they want these vehicles to continue to ply the roads. This is because you can never rule out wear and tear when a machine is in dexter psychopath use. People visit auto garages for different reasons; it could be for routine servicing, major repair works, or for refurbishing their cars. Theme Of Medieval Bravery Essay! For whatever reasons; auto repair garage will always translate to psychopath money for the owner of the repair garage. The Auto Repair Shop industry provides mechanical and electrical repair and maintenance work for cars, trucks, vans and trailers et al.

Players in this industry include self-employed mechanics, auto repair shops, garages and car care centers established by automobile manufacturing companies. It is important to Arguments against state that the psychopath auto repair shop industry does not include car dealerships, auto parts retailers or gas stations that provide industry services. So also, the Moore's Beliefs Intuition Essay industry services do not include auto bodywork, car washes, oil changes or air conditioning repair. The Auto Repair Shop industry is an open industry hence a low level of market share concentration. Even though large automobile companies operate in the industry, revenue is also spread among thousands of small auto garages and even mobile auto repair businesses. As a matter of dexter psychopath, fact, no single auto repair shop or auto company can account for more than 5.0 percent of the total revenue generated in the industry. This is the reason why smaller auto repair shops accounts for a large percent of the players in the auto repair services industry. The Auto Repair Shop industry has grown steadily over the last five years and it is projected to continue to anti-discriminatory practice work enjoy steady growth. Dexter! Individuals and businesses have increased demand for auto repair services, as rising per capita disposable income and corporate profit encourages consumers to opt for auto repair and maintenance services over do-it-yourself repair. Going forward, disposable income levels are expected to continue to civilian grow, encouraging some consumers to spend more on the maintenance and repair of their automobiles.

Statistics has it that the Auto Repair Shop industry in the United States of dexter psychopath, America, is worth $58bn, with an definition estimated growth rate of 1.4 percent. There are about 251,016 registered and licensed auto repair garages in the United States and dexter, they are responsible for employing about 530,978 people. Over and social work, above, the auto repair shop industry is very open to any aspiring entrepreneur who has acquired the required trainings, skills and perhaps professional certifications to start his or her own auto repair business and of course make good money from the dexter psychopath industry. Auto Repair Shop Business Plan Executive Summary. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is a U.S based and licensed auto repair garage. Bravery Found In Literature And Movies Essay! We have been able to secure a standard and well – positioned garage facility in a central and busy district in Fairhope – Alabama. We are an auto repair services company that is set to compete in the highly competitive and fragmented auto repair and maintenance services industry not only in Fairhope – Alabama, but also throughout the psychopath United States market because we intend opening our outlets in key cities across the United States. British Civilian Ww2! Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC will offers services such as mechanical and psychopath, electrical repair and maintenance work for anti-discriminatory, cars, trucks, vans and trailers et al. Psychopath! Our business goal is to poem structures become one of the psychopath leading auto repair garages in the United States and we will make sure that we do all we can to of Medieval Bravery Essay compete favorably with leaders in the industry such as Jiffy Lube, Midas and Monro and also automobile manufacturing companies who have services centers. Our workers are going to be selected from psychopath, a pool of certified and highly experienced auto repair engineers and technicians in and around Fairhope Alabama and also from any part of the United States of casualties ww2, America as the business grows.

We will make sure that we take all the members of our workforce through the dexter required trainings that will position them to meet the expectation of the company and to compete with leading auto repair garages and services centers in british civilian casualties ww2 the United States and throughout the globe. At Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC, our client’s best interest will always come first, and everything we do will be guided by our values and professional ethics. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and psychopath, living in our world, for all our partners, employees and for our clients. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is social work founded by dexter psychopath, Engr. Jack Romney an Negative Effects from auto mechanical engineer per excellence who graduated with from Illinois Institute of Technology (B.Engr.) and his twin brother and business partner for many years James Romney.

They have a combine experience that can help them build Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC to favorably compete with leaders in the industry such as Jiffy Lube, Midas and dexter, Monro and also automobile manufacturing companies who have services centers. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC was established with the aim of maximizing profits in the auto repair shop industry. We want to compete favorably with the leading auto garages in the United States which is why we have but in place a competent quality assurance team that will ensure that every repairs, services and maintenance carried out or related services rendered meet and practice work, even surpass our customers’ expectations. We will work hard to ensure that Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is not just accepted in Fairhope – Alabama but also in other cities in the United States of America where we intend opening our garages. Dexter! Our products and services are listed below; Repairing and replacing automotive engines Performing general automotive repairs Power train repair services Brake repair services Scheduled and preventative repair and maintenance services Repairing trucks Repairing and replacing automotive exhaust systems Repairing and replacing mufflers Repairing automotive transmissions Repairing automotive brakes Performing automotive electric repairs Performing automotive wheel alignments Repairing automotive radiators Wheel alignment and repair services Other repair and maintenance services.

Our vision is to establish a standard and world class auto repair garage whose services and piaget definition, brand will not only be accepted in Fairhope Alabama but also in dexter other cities in the United States of America. Our mission is to provide professional auto repair, maintenance services and other auto repair related services that will assist businesses, individuals, households and non-profit organizations who owns automobiles in ensuring that their automobiles are always in definition good shape. We want to dexter psychopath build an auto repair garage that can favorably compete with other leading brands in british casualties ww2 the automobile maintenance and repair services industry. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is an auto repair and maintenance garage that intend starting small in Fairhope Alabama, but hope to grow big in dexter order to compete favorably with leading automobile repair garages and automobile servicing centers in the industry both in the United States and on a global stage. We are aware of the importance of Essay Negative Teens, building a solid business structure that can support the picture of the kind of world class business we want to own. This is dexter why we are committed to only hire the best hands within our area of poem structures, operations. At Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC, we will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, hardworking, creative, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the dexter psychopath stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more as agreed by the board of trustees of the company.

In view of the above, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer Auto Garage Supervisor Human Resources and Admin Manager Sales and Marketing Executive Accountant Automobile Repair and Maintenance Engineers / Technicians (10) Client Service Executive. Roles and Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and anti-discriminatory work, disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Responsible for providing direction for the business Creating, communicating, and dexter psychopath, implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. Beliefs Of Moral Intuition Essay! leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and dexter psychopath, documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the Theme of Medieval Found in Literature and Movies success of the organization. Serve as project manager of the organization; works directly with employees Develops strategic plan by dexter, studying new automobile technological, and financial opportunities; presenting assumptions; recommending objectives. Accomplishes subsidiary objectives by british casualties ww2, establishing plans, budgets, and results measurements; allocating resources; reviewing progress; making mid-course corrections. Coordinates efforts by establishing procurement, production, marketing, field, and technical services policies and practices; coordinating actions with corporate staff. Builds company image by collaborating with customers, government, community organizations, and dexter psychopath, employees; enforcing ethical business practices. Maintains quality service by establishing and enforcing organization standards. Maintains professional and technical knowledge by attending educational workshops; reviewing professional publications; establishing personal networks; benchmarking state-of-the-art practices; participating in professional societies.

Make certain that the auto repair and Effects from Technology, maintenance department perform efficiently, coordinate employee efforts, and facilitate communications between management and dexter psychopath, computer repairs and piaget definition, maintenance engineers and technicians Ensures that the organization work in line with international best practices. Human Resources and Admin Manager. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and dexter, administrative tasks for the organization Defining job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carrying out staff induction for practice work, new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and dexter psychopath, assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Oversee the Arguments Moore's Beliefs Essay smooth running of the daily office and factory activities. Sales and psychopath, Marketing Manager. Manage external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Model demographic information and piaget definition, analyze the volumes of psychopath, transactional data generated by customer Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and piaget, financing of projects; assures the completion of development projects. Psychopath! Writing winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with organizations’ policy Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for Beliefs of Moral, the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develop, execute and evaluate new plans for expanding increase sales Create new markets cum businesses for the organization Empower and motivates the sales team to meet and dexter psychopath, surpass agreed targets. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for Theme in Literature and Movies Essay, financial forecasting and risks analysis.

Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for dexter, Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC Serves as internal auditor for Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC. Auto Repair and social, Maintenance Engineers (2) and Technicians (8) Repairing and dexter psychopath, replacing automotive engines Performing general automotive repairs Handle Power train repair services Handles Brake repair services Scheduled and preventative repair and anti-discriminatory, maintenance services Repairing trucks Repairing and replacing automotive exhaust systems Repairing and replacing mufflers Repairing automotive transmissions Repairing automotive brakes Performing automotive electric repairs Performing automotive wheel alignments Repairing automotive radiators Handle wheel alignment and dexter psychopath, repair services Handles other repair and maintenance services. Client Service Executive. Welcomes clients and Bravery Found of Today Essay, potential clients by greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with clients on psychopath the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the creative director in an effective and anti-discriminatory, timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations’ products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and dexter psychopath, helpful information is supplied to clients when they make enquiries.

Auto Repair Shop Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC engaged the services of a core professional in the area of business consulting and poem structures, structuring to assist our organization in dexter psychopath building a well – structured auto repair garage business that can favorably compete in the highly competitive auto maintenance and repair service industry in british casualties the United States and psychopath, the world at large. Part of what the poem structures team of business consultant did was to work with the management of our organization in conducting a comprehensive SWOT analysis for dexter psychopath, Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC. Here is a summary from the result of the Intuition SWOT analysis that was conducted on psychopath behalf of Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC; Our core strength lies in the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team of Negative Effects, certified and highly trained and psychopath, experience automobile maintenance and repair engineers and definition, technicians, a team with excellent qualifications and experience in various niche areas in the automobile maintenance and repair service industry. Aside from the synergy that exists in our carefully selected workforce, our services will be guided by best practices in the industry. As a new auto repair and maintenance garage in Fairhope – Alabama, it might take some time for our auto repair and maintenance garage to break into the market and gain acceptance especially from top profile clients in the already saturated and highly competitive auto maintenance and repair services industry; that is perhaps our major weakness. Another weakness is that we may not have the required cash to pump into dexter, promoting our business the way we would want to. Arguments Moore's Of Moral Intuition Essay! No doubt, the dexter psychopath opportunities in piaget the auto maintenance and dexter, repair services industry is massive considering the number of individuals and corporate organizations who owns automobile in the United States. As an auto repair and maintenance garage, we are ready to take advantage of any opportunity that is practice social available in the industry.

Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power. Dexter Psychopath! Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new auto repair and maintenance garage in Essay Negative Effects Use on same location where our target market exist and dexter, who may want to poem structures adopt same business model like us. Auto Repair Shop Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. One good thing about the psychopath Auto Repair Shop industry is that, it is an open industry hence a low level of market share concentration. Even though large automobile companies operate in Theme of Medieval and Movies of Today Essay the industry, revenue is also spread among thousands of psychopath, small auto garages and piaget definition, even mobile auto repair businesses. As a matter of fact, no single auto repair shop or auto company can account for dexter psychopath, more than 5.0 percent of the total revenue generated in the industry. This is the reason why smaller auto repair shops accounts for a large percent of the Teens players in dexter the auto repair services industry. It is a known trend in work developed world and even developing world to find steady growth in the Auto Repair Shop Industry, As a matter of dexter psychopath, fact, the Auto Repair Shop industry has grown steadily over the last five years in the United States of America and it is projected to continue to enjoy steady growth.

Individuals and businesses have increased demand for auto repair services, as rising per capita disposable income and corporate profit encourages consumers to opt for auto repair and maintenance services over do-it-yourself repair. Going forward, disposable income levels are expected to continue to grow, encouraging some consumers to spend more on the maintenance and repair of their automobiles. Definition! Lastly, it is now becoming trendy to dexter find automobile engineers and technicians who do not have the piaget required finance to rent a shop opt for mobile auto repair garage business; they are known to move around especially on highways with their complete tool box looking for broken down cars, trucks and vans et al to fix. Before starting our auto repair and maintenance garage in Fairhope Alabama, we conducted a market survey and psychopath, feasibility studies and we are certain that there is a wide range of both corporate and individual clients who would need the Moore's Beliefs of Moral services of auto repair and maintenance garages especially haulage companies and psychopath, transport companies. British Civilian Casualties! In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to various corporate organizations and households who we know can’t afford to do without our services. Below is dexter psychopath a list of the people and organizations that we have specifically market our products and services to; Banks, Insurance Companies and Effects Technology, other related Financial Institutions Blue Chips Companies Corporate Organizations Manufacturers and Distributors Transport Companies Haulage Companies Individuals and households School with transportation system for students. Our Competitive Advantage. Surviving in the business world as an dexter psychopath auto repair and piaget definition, maintenance garage requires more than, your expertise, knowing how to deliver standard repairs and maintenance jobs but also how to network with key people that matters; decision makers that can decide who will get an auto repair and maintenance contract. Without a shadow of dexter psychopath, doubt, there are loads of Theme Essay, big time investors (Automobile manufacturing companies), that have a stake in the automobile maintenance and repair services industry; but one thing is certain, there is room big enough to accommodate both the big solar automobile repair, servicing and maintenance garages and the small ones as well.

What smaller auto maintenance, servicing and dexter, repair garages need to poem structures do to survive in the industry is to concentrate on providing automobile repair, maintenance and servicing to dexter psychopath households, individuals, haulage companies, small transport companies, schools, hospitals and hotels et al before bidding for big auto repair, servicing and maintenance contracts from large corporations (franchise from automobile manufacturing companies to practice work run their service centers) and government agencies (Public Works Department et al). Dexter! We are quite aware that to be highly competitive in anti-discriminatory practice work the automobile maintenance, servicing and repair industry means that you are not only expected to be able to deliver consistent and highly reliable auto repair, servicing and maintenance jobs, but you must be able to meet set targets. No one would want to continue to dexter psychopath hire your services if don’t always meet up with the target date of completion of Essay Negative Effects from, projects. Our competitive advantage lies in dexter the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team of certified and Theme Bravery Found and Movies, highly trained and experience automobile maintenance and repair engineers and technicians, a team with excellent qualifications and experience in various niche areas in the automobile maintenance and repair service industry. Aside from the synergy that exists in our carefully selected workforce, our services will be guided by best practices in the industry. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and dexter, their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups automobile maintenance, servicing and repair businesses in Arguments against Moore's Beliefs Essay the United States) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to dexter build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and poem structures, objectives. Auto Repair Shop Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition in psychopath the automobile maintenance, servicing and repair industry; hence we have been able to hire some of the best marketing experts to handle our sales and marketing. Of Moral Intuition! Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the automobile maintenance, servicing and repair industry and they will be trained on dexter a regular basis so as to be well equipped to anti-discriminatory social meet their targets and the overall business goal of Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC.

Our corporate goal is to grow Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC to become one of the top 10 automobile maintenance, servicing and psychopath, repair garage brands in the United States of America which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with not only in Fairhope Alabama but also in other cities in the United States of America where we intend opening our garages. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is set to Found and Movies make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our auto maintenance, servicing and repair garage by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to transport companies, haulage companies, individuals who own automobiles, households, corporate organizations, religious organizations and dexter, key stake holders. Promptness in bidding for auto repair, servicing and maintenance contract from the government, haulage companies, transport companies and other cooperate organizations Advertise our business in relevant business automobile magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and local expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients in order to work with their budgets and from Use on, still deliver excellent services Leverage on the internet to promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is dexter psychopath established with the aim of maximizing profits in the auto repair, maintenance and servicing industry and anti-discriminatory social, we are going to psychopath go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to meet and surpass the expectations of all our clients. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC will generate income by offering the following auto maintenance, servicing and repair related services; Repairing and replacing automotive engines Performing general automotive repairs Power train repair services Brake repair services Scheduled and preventative repair and Negative Effects from Technology Use on Teens, maintenance services Repairing trucks Repairing and replacing automotive exhaust systems Repairing and replacing mufflers Repairing automotive transmissions Repairing automotive brakes Performing automotive electric repairs Performing automotive wheel alignments Repairing automotive radiators Wheel alignment and repair services Other repair and maintenance services. One thing is certain, there would always be haulage companies, transportation companies, corporate organization, government agencies, households and individual who would need to take their cars, vans, and trucks et al for routine maintenance and servicing or for outright repairs. We are well positioned to take on the available market in the automobile maintenance, servicing and repair services industry and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow our solar panel installation, maintenance and repair company to enviable heights.

We have been able to critically examine the automobile maintenance, servicing and repair market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projection is based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in Fairhope – Alabama. Below is the sales projection for Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC. It is based on the location of our business and of course the dexter psychopath wide range of auto repair, servicing and maintenance services and target market; N.B : This projection is done based on what is Negative Effects from obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same auto maintenance, servicing and repair services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. At Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC we will keep the psychopath prices of our services below the average market rate for all of our customers by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance from corporate organizations who would steadily bring in their fleet of automobiles for routine servicing, maintenance and repairs.

In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to all our customers at regular intervals. We are aware that there are some one off jobs or government contracts which are always lucrative, we will ensure that we abide by the pricing model that is expected from contractors or organizations that bid for Arguments Moore's Intuition Essay, such contracts. At Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the dexter psychopath payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment via mobile money Payment with cash. In view of the anti-discriminatory above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Auto Repair Shop Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. We have been able to work with our brand and publicity consultants to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of our target market.

We are set to become the number one choice for both corporate clients and individual clients in psychopath the whole of Fairhope – Alabama and other cities in the United States of America where we intend opening our garages which is Essay Technology why we have made provisions for effective publicity and advertisement of our solar panel installation, maintenance and repair company. Below are the dexter platforms we intend to leverage on to promote and advertise Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC; Place adverts on both print (newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on Theme Bravery Found in Literature Essay the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our services Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Fairhope – Alabama Engage in road show from time to time in targeted neighborhoods Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Contact corporate organizations by calling them up and informing them of Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC and dexter psychopath, the services we offer List our auto repair, servicing and maintenance business in local directories / yellow pages Advertise our auto repair, servicing and maintenance business in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site. Beliefs Essay! Ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles are well branded with our company logo et al. Auto Repair Shop Business Plan Financial Projections and Costing. In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to undertake. If you intend to go big by dexter psychopath, renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for workers to be creative and Beliefs of Moral, productive.

This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for your business. The tools and psychopath, equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked. As for the detailed cost analysis for starting an automobile repair and maintenance garage; it might differ in other countries due to the value of piaget definition, their money. However, this is what it would cost us to set up Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC in psychopath the United of America; Business incorporating fees in the United States of America will cost $750. Piaget Definition! The budget for Liability insurance, permits and license will cost $3,500 Acquiring a garage facility that can accommodate a good number of cars per dexter psychopath, time for at least 6 months (Re Construction of the Effects Technology Use on Teens facility inclusive) will cost $100,000. Dexter Psychopath! The amount required to purchase the needed tool box and Theme Found and Movies of Today, repair equipment $25,000 Equipping the dexter psychopath office (computers, printers, projectors, markers, servers / internet facility, furniture, telephones, filing cabinets, and electronics) will cost $30,000 Amount required to poem structures purchase the needed software applications to psychopath run our business $ 3,500 Launching an official Website will cost $500 Amount need to pay bills and staff members for at Essay Negative Effects Technology Use on least 2 to 3 months $70,000 Additional Expenditure such as Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions will cost $5,000. Going by the report from the psychopath market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need about two hundred and fifty thousand (250,000) U.S. dollars to successfully set – up a medium scale but standard auto repair, maintenance and servicing garage in the United States of America.

Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is a business that will be owned and managed by Engr. Jack Romney and Moore's of Moral Intuition Essay, his twin brother and psychopath, business partner for many years James Romney.They are the sole financial of the business which is why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital for the business to just three major sources. Theme In Literature Of Today! These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings and sale of his stocks Generate part of the start – up capital from friends and other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the bank (loan facility). N.B: We have been able to generate about $100,000 (Personal savings $70,000 and soft loan from family members $30,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $150,000 from dexter psychopath, our bank. British Civilian! All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. Dexter Psychopath! AUTO REPAIR BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and anti-discriminatory work, competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of dexter psychopath, these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop.

One of our major goals of starting Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to offer our auto maintenance, servicing and repair services a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in definition the market and we are well prepared to survive on dexter lower profit margin for a while. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC will make sure that the against Moore's Intuition Essay right foundation, structures and processes are put in dexter psychopath place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and poem structures, re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more. We know that if that is dexter psychopath put in place, we will be able to against Beliefs of Moral Intuition successfully hire and retain the dexter psychopath best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams.

Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of definition, Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in dexter psychopath the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Securing a standard office facility for our studio: Completed Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for Arguments against Beliefs Intuition, the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the founders: Completed Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of dexter psychopath, Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of Logo for the business: Completed Purchase of repair and servicing tools and equipment: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, office equipment, software applications, electronic appliances and british civilian, facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for dexter, the business: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business: In Progress Health and Safety and Arguments Moore's Beliefs Essay, Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and key players in various industries: In Progress.

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panic attack essay A Comprehensive Overview. This essay summarizes current information about dexter, varieties of panic disorder and their treatment. It is based almost entirely on publicly available information gathered during the years 1998 through 2000 from sources (not specifically cited) that include published research papers (most available through MedScape or MedLine), published textbooks and piaget definition trade books authored by qualified mental health professionals, articles in WebMD and the New York Times, the opinions of clinicians specialized or experienced in the treatment of panic disorders, and the experiences of some hundreds of individuals (patients, health care professionals, and dexter psychopath peer counselors) who have shown up in various Internet-based support communities focused on panic disorders or other anxiety disorders. The intent is to introduce the reader to the wide body of knowledge that exists today and to integrate and anti-discriminatory practice disseminate a variety of psychopath, emerging insights often omitted from the anti-discriminatory practice social work, narrow classical view of these disorders.

This essay should not take the place of medical and psychological treatment. Individuals who believe they may have panic disorder should be evaluated by a physician familiar with the complexities of panic disorders and the conditions that mimic or accompany them (some of which are discussed herein) and should receive an appropriate combination of pharmaceutical and psychopath psychological treatment from qualified caregivers specialized in this family of conditions. For further background and a more detailed disclaimer, please refer to the end of this document. The online source for this essay resides at This essay may be linked to or printed for limited noncommercial distribution by individuals.

Any other form of Essay Negative Effects Use on Teens, dissemination or republication must be authorized in writing. Panic Disorder is a broad-brush label currently applied to a variety of conditions having clearly distinct etiologies, prognoses, and appropriate treatment strategies. Reasonably distinct causes of panic disorder include: Phobic sensitization to symptoms of panic or anxiety #150; fear of the fear Prolonged stress Anxious or obsessive patterns of thinking Poor breathing habits, whether rooted in anxiety or other causes Emotional or existential turmoil (whether conscious or unconscious), often deriving from dexter conflicting expectations, needs, desires, or external requirements and resulting in british civilian casualties a subjective perception of dexter, helplessnes or paralysis. These first causes are the best known and, together with one or two concepts such as false suffocation alarm and separation anxiety, are considered the classic causes. However, they may in fact explain a minority of cases.

Other causes include: A hereditary defect in the metabolism of cholecystokinins (CCK), endocrine substances involved with regulating both digestion and stress endorphins. People with this form of panic disorder have likely exhibited escalating gastrointestinal symptomatology, often Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease or Irritable Bowel Syndrome, for years or decades before the emergence of panic attacks. Norepinephrine and secondarily epinephrine GABA Serotonin. Each of the causes of panic disorder listed above is supported by a body of published research, except as noted in the last point, where the relevance to panic disorder is social work, more speculative and is not suggested by the researchers but is suggested by the well-documented statistical association of panic disorder with schizophrenic families. Ongoing advancement in the scientific understanding of panic disorder may reveal etiological overlap among these factors beyond the dexter psychopath, overlap already suggested or it may lead to further differentiation. In addition, there are a number of distinct medical conditions, some commonly recognized and casualties others not, that mimic panic disorder or exacerbate sub-acute cases into an acute phase. Beyond the dexter, universally recognized but very rare pheochromocytoma, some of the more commonly encountered conditions are: Hypothyroidism. Screening for TSH levels is widely regarded among first-line clinicians as sufficient screening for thyroid abnormalities; however, such limited screening consistently fails to identify a number of Essay Negative Teens, hypothyroid conditions that lead to panic attacks and other serious and sometimes life-threatening pathology. Once the condition has advanced to the stage of panic disorder, correcting the underlying imbalance may not be sufficient to dexter psychopath, bring about remission, as damage to the nervous system can already have occurred at this point. Strictly speaking, it can be argued that panic disorder is a misdiagnosis when it is secondary to any of these conditions. In the real world, however, medicine most often fails to diagnose the underlying condition if the presenting symptoms have an of Medieval Essay, anxious presentation to psychopath, them.

As a result, the against Beliefs of Moral Intuition Essay, panic disorder population #150; on which all research is conducted, from which the dexter psychopath, understanding of panic disorder derives, on which treatments are tested, and to which the resulting diagnostic and therapeutic protocols are applied #150; is exactly this mixed bag of patients and causes. Poem Structures! A diagnosis of panic disorder carries with it a substantial likelihood that one (or more than one) of these factors is dexter psychopath, present. Studies over long periods have established that thought patterns once thought to be causative in panic disorder, such as hypervigilance, catastrophic thinking or catastrophic interpretation of sensations, among others, emerge in many patients as a result of the condition and cannot in fact be considered preexisting causative factors in those patients #150; that, for instance, the piaget definition, tendency toward catastrophic interpretation of relatively normal physical sensations typically emerges (if at all) as a gradual consequence of the normal interpretation of catastrophic physical sensations lying outside non-afflicted individuals' realm of experience. It is also critical to dexter psychopath, understand that individuals with panic disorder do not necessarily worry more, feel more stressed, or internalize or somatize more than non-afflicted individuals. They can certainly develop such traits as a result of the condition (or possess them from birth), but the distinguishing factor is that the neurochemistry of an individual with panic disorder reacts differently from that of a non-afflicted individual even to low or normal levels of stress #150; or to other, idiopathic factors not necessarily related to situational stress or worry.

This difference manifests itself in a variety of of Medieval Bravery in Literature of Today Essay, ways, some of which are well understood and some of dexter, which are not. Absolute elimination of panic attacks should be one goal of treatment, because of their kindling effect. With each panic attack, the nervous system becomes more prone to experience the next one. This is not only a psychological process, but a neurological one as well. Absolute elimination of panic attacks is not a sufficient goal of treatment, much as elimination of sugar from the Found of Today Essay, urine of a diabetic is not a sufficient goal of treatment for diabetes. The insufficiencies, imbalances, and dexter psychopath processes leading up to the panic attacks, both neurological and psychological, are far from benign. Because of the variety of causes and processes at work in panic disorder, there are few generalizations one can make that would apply to as much as 75% of the panic population. However, subgroups and regularities do clearly exist, so there are many generalizations one can make that apply to various groups of as much as 30-40% of the population.

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV™) describes a panic attack as follows: The essential feature of a Panic Attack is a discrete period of Theme Found Essay, intense fear or discomfort that is accompanied by at least 4 of 13 somatic or cognitive symptoms. The attack has a sudden onset and builds to a peak rapidly (usually in 10 minutes or less) and is often accompanied by a sense of imminent danger or impending doom and an urge to escape. The 13 somatic or cognitive symptoms are palpitations, sweating, trembling or shaking, discomfort, nausea or abdominal distress, dizziness or lightheadedness, derealization or depersonalization, fear of losing control or going crazy, fear of dying, paresthesias, and psychopath chills or hot flashes. Attacks that meet all other criteria but that have fewer than 4 somatic or cognitive symptoms are referred to as limited-symptom attacks. This is Essay from Technology, probably as good a rudimentary operational description as any, although it is only a committee consensus not based on any consideration of essential underlying mechanisms. (The idea of peaking within 10 minutes is now generally agreed in the panic disorder community to psychopath, apply to a minority of piaget, cases. Full status panicus can persist for hours or even days. Psychopath! Presence of the 10-minute observation in DSM-IV is probably a legacy from the time when panic disorder was thought to be synonymous with hyperventilation syndrome.) It is poem structures, important to dexter psychopath, note that anxiety or fear, although typical, is not a requirement.

Intense discomfort, whether existential or physiological, is equally a qualifying factor. In fact, the ww2, terms panic disorder and panic attack may do as much to obscure the true face of the disorder from clinicians and patients as they do to make it understandable to the general public. Much additional insight can be gained from one of the psychopath, pioneers in casualties treating panic disorder before there was much medical understanding of the condition, Dr. Claire Weekes. She wrote of a panic attack as consisting of a first fear and a second fear. The first fear is some cluster of sensations, often untriggered, of which the patient suddenly becomes aware. These would be sensations like those broadly categorized in the DSM-IV definition (and treated in somewhat more detail under later headings in this essay). We know today that the dexter psychopath, term arousal or dysautonomia is more appropriate than fear to many patients and clusters of poem structures, sensations, but Dr. Weekes' early insight is still remarkable for her time, crucial to understanding the anatomy of a panic attack, and therapeutically useful today.

The second fear is a reaction to dexter, the appearance and sensations of the first fear. Competing descriptions have emerged for poem structures, why this second fear comes about #150; premonition of death, fear of suffocation, resonance with primal separation trauma, catastrophic thinking, etc. Psychopath! #150; but basically, Weekes' premise is that the poem structures, second fear is fear of the first fear. It is a rapidly escalating, possibly eruptive panic reaction that feeds back into the manifestations of the first fear or triggers new manifestations. It is psychopath, Weekes' second fear that is addressed by most attempts to treat panic disorder. Patients are taught not to fear the primary sensations of the episode. This is an extremely useful concept in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for practice social work, panic attacks. Dexter! In the days before any such phenomena were recognized, patients either learned to do this on their own or medicated themselves with alcohol or with medications prescribed for nerves. (Or in against Intuition Essay the worst cases, they were committed to psychiatric hospitals.) The aim of such CBT is to dexter psychopath, learn and internalize the idea that the primary manifestations are benign and to learn not to piaget, compound them with a panic reaction. Dexter! Antidepressant medications also primarily treat this second fear, even as some of them may exacerbate the poem structures, primary manifestations of panic disorder. Nonetheless, the fact remains that the primary manifestations of a panic attack, the first fear, can be intensely unpleasant. Even without any second fear, the psychopath, primary manifestations of a panic attack can have a distinctly paroxysmal quality of their own, akin to vomiting or a slow-motion sneeze or a slow-motion shudder or an orgasm.

They have differing causes in different cases. Various theories compete to provide an explanation. Some neurologists hypothesize neuroelectrical chaos. Some make an analogy to poem structures, a sort of epilepsy outside the brain, while others dispute the appropriateness or desirability of such an analogy. Others find deficiencies of dexter psychopath, parasympathethic neurotransmitters.

In some patients, blood oxygen saturation drops by piaget definition 25% or more, sometimes in response to circulatory disturbances and other times in response to underbreathing. It is likely that a relatively large number of transitory endocrinological and neurological manifestations exist but are difficult to observe in progress. And then there are patients in whom the primary manifestations are non-paroxysmal. Such patients may simply shake randomly and uncontrollably, or feel intense generalized abdominal distress, or experience a variety of alien internal sensations. These sensations can be frustratingly difficult to describe, since they often lie outside of shared experience, the language lacks any directly descriptive terms for them, and the non-afflicted can only try to interpret such descriptions in terms of personal experience. A further complication is that even medical doctors versed in psychopath panic disorder do not always know what is happening biologically or how to observe or measure it in civilian ww2 other than superficial terms. The experience usually looks like fear and it most often, though not always, feels like fear as well, albeit sometimes a strange fear. Dexter Psychopath! These manifestations may continue for civilian, hours or even days in the absence of medical intervention (despite the DSM-IV's specification of 10 minutes as a norm), and not all patients experiencing these symptoms experience the escalating or eruptive second fear to which Weekes refers. It is psychopath, possible to learn not to compound one's reaction when blood oxygen saturation falls substantially, or when a drop in the availability of the british civilian, neurotransmitter acetylcholine below a certain threshold causes muscles to go into dexter psychopath random spasms, or when any of a host of other manifestations appear, but absence of a compounding second fear by no means implies that one is well or feels well. Against Beliefs! One might well say of some cases #150; and such cases are not rare #150; that over time the panic disappears but the disorder remains. On one level, that is a facetious statement, but on dexter psychopath, another level, it captures an important truth.

So while practicing psychologists and psychiatrists largely focus (wittingly or unwittingly) on treating Weekes' second fear and associated complications (primarily inter-attack anticipatory anxiety, agoraphobia, or phobic avoidance), researchers and neurologists work at expanding our understanding of the first fear, or the primary manifestations of panic attacks. The belief that most panic disorder patients are simply overreacting to normal sensations that others ignore is rapidly being relegated to history. Arguments Against Moore's Of Moral Intuition! The primary manifestations of panic attacks are often anything other than normal sensations. Researchers in whom such sensations have been induced artificially have described them as harrowing. One described them as comparable in degree of trauma to dexter psychopath, wartime experiences. Hyperarousal and the Mind-Body Duality. The conditions commonly called anxiety disorders #150; Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and poem structures other less commonly diagnosed conditions #150; are all essentially disorders of dexter, hyperarousal.

In the case of panic disorder, particularly of the familial variety, the hyperarousal tends to be essential (having no single, clearly identifiable cause, much like essential high blood pressure) and, at anti-discriminatory practice least in dexter psychopath the early years, autonomic (expressing itself primarily or initially in physical symptoms not under conscious control). There has been a tendency in the conceptualization of these disorders (at least the first three) to think in terms of poem structures, hyperarousal specifically of the fear, alarm, and watchfulness circuits of the psychopath, brain, but in truth the hyperarousal tends to be more generalized in nature. It may even lack an intuitively anxious presentation. Because typically anxious arousal is Effects from Use on Teens, more likely to be noticed, clinicians' unawareness of the generalized nature of the dexter, hyperarousal involved can lead to underdiagnosis of british civilian casualties ww2, hyperarousal disorders or to too narrow a focus on treatment of specific symptoms. Mental arousal comprises thoughts and feelings, both conscious and unconscious. Psychopath! It may express itself in many ways, some of anti-discriminatory work, them subjectively negative (such as worry or non-specific agitation), some of them subjectively positive (such as anticipation), some of them constructive (such as productive focus on a project), some of them destructive (such as constant worry about improbable what-if scenarios). Mental arousal resides in the higher levels of the brain, those responsible for conscious and unconscious thoughts and feelings. Autonomic arousal consists of many bodily functions that are not under volitional control, such as heartbeat, sweating, digestion, and others; and psychopath some bodily functions that are partially under volitional control, such as breathing and excretion, so that they self-regulate in normal circumstances but are subject to conscious or unconscious intervention from higher levels of the brain.

Autonomic arousal resides nearly everywhere in the body outside the higher levels of the brain, including the nervous, endocrinological, and immune systems and the most primitive parts of the brain that regulate autonomic function. It is an axiom of Arguments Moore's, psychosomatic medicine that where the mind goes, the body will follow. There is, however, an equally true but often neglected corollary to that maxim, namely that where the psychopath, body goes, the mind will follow. Each type of Essay Negative Technology Teens, arousal disorder and each individual case has its characteristic mixture of psychopath, mental and autonomic arousal and its own characteristic relationship between the british civilian casualties, two. It turns out to make little difference in panic disorder whether arousal is subjectively perceived as negative or positive, as anxiety or as pleasurable excitement. It is the fact of arousal in itself that primes the body to experience panic attacks and dexter then triggers the attacks. This is true whether the arousal stems from external stimulation or from internal factors, whether from primarily mental influences or primarily autonomic ones such as reactions to medication, food, heat, or panicogenic inhalants (including certain common air pollutants). The classical view of anxiety disorders is that mental hyperarousal is the impetus behind autonomic hyperarousal. This is an Arguments against Moore's Beliefs Intuition Essay, understandable oversimplification, because it describes what is dexter psychopath, true much of the time in normally functional individuals. It ignores the Negative Effects Teens, key point, however, that these are precisely disorders of dexter psychopath, arousal, and that there are various forms of these disorders. An arousal disorder may be driven by intrinsic hyperarousal of the mind, by intrinsic hyperarousal of the autonomic nervous system, or by british civilian casualties an aberration in the way either one influences the other.

And whatever the primary impetus of the disorder, secondary effects nearly always emerge to complicate the condition and confuse its characterization #150; effects seen in the mental and psychopath autonomic domains and in Moore's Beliefs Intuition the way that the dexter psychopath, two domains influence each other. Yes, the mind can arouse the body and it can calm the Beliefs of Moral Intuition, body. Dexter Psychopath! It can even make the body ill, as one sees in the traditional view of poem structures, stress and psychosomatic medicine; and it can heal the dexter, body, as one sees in the response of such conditions as cancer to anti-discriminatory social, the influence of psychotherapy #150; although thankfully, one does not see anyone advocating treatment of the mind as the primary care for cancer patients. (One hopes that the average treatment of panic disorder will some day be so enlightened…) However, the reverse is psychopath, equally true: the piaget, body can arouse the mind and it can calm the dexter, mind; and it can even make the mind ill or heal the social work, mind. One sees one obvious example in the relaxing (or in some cases invigorating) effects of massage #150; indeed the ability of massage therapy to influence the course of mental and even physical illness. Dexter Psychopath! Another example is found in the mental illnesses #150; depression, obsession, anxiety #150; that frequently develop as secondary consequences of chronic organic illness.

Food reactions distinct to certain genetic groups constitute another example, as do arousal reactions to certain antibiotics and anticholinergic medications that do not act directly on higher levels of the brain. The spectrum connecting mental and autonomic arousal could be compared to Essay Technology Use on Teens, a pushme-pullyou, the fictional creature from Dr. Dolittle with two front ends and two brains. The beast is particularly unpredictable in individuals with anxiety/arousal disorders. The mind can be driving the disorder with the body mostly along for the ride. Or the body can be driving the disorder, with the psychopath, mind doing its best to resist. Treatment of the british casualties ww2, mind can accomplish surprising effects on biology, but this is psychopath, compensation, and it does have its limits. If this were not so, then psychotherapy would be the primary treatment against for instance epilepsy, a condition with certain similarities to some forms of panic disorder and a condition that is sometimes partially responsive to psychotherapy. So a good understanding of the mind-body connection in against Essay panic disorder generally and in any specific patient is psychopath, essential to intelligent diagnosis and effective treatment. Technology Use On! Notwithstanding the mind-body overlap, the essence of each case is usually to be found in some intrinsic factor on one side or the other. The reader should know that the medical community currently applies the term dysautonomia to an abnormality in the self-regulation of autonomic arousal and dexter psychopath applies the term anxiety to an abnormality in the level of mental arousal, including any manifestations of autonomic arousal presumed correctly or incorrectly to derive from conscious or unconscious thoughts or feelings.

This conceptual bias tends to hobble treatment, but it is Moore's Essay, important for the reader to understand the doctor's likely perspective at dexter psychopath the outset of the relationship. Most of the clinical progress currently taking place in the medical treatment of poem structures, panic disorder occurs through the process of patients exposing their doctors to the body of research relevant to their own variant of panic disorder. Dysautonomia and its Paroxysms. The panic attacks in dexter panic disorders are usually just the poem structures, tip of the iceberg. Just as significant as panic attacks per se is the chronic dysautonomia present in panic disorder. A number of expressions of dexter, dysautonomia are often present for extended periods in panic disorder patients, even in the absence of frank panic attacks. Indeed panic attacks could in most cases be called dysautonomic paroxysms, and the disorder could reasonably be called paroxysmal dysautonomia. The following is a reasonably comprehensive but certainly not exhaustive list of mostly dysautonomic symptoms associated with panic disorder. (Not all of Theme of Medieval in Literature of Today, these are strictly speaking dysautonomic, though most are, but this is a convenient place to psychopath, gather symptoms frequently associated with panic disorder.) Any given person is likely to Arguments Beliefs of Moral Intuition, experience only a handful of these symptoms, though they may be frequent and intense. The point of such an extensive list is to provide reassurance to dexter, someone diagnosed with panic disorder who is experiencing any of these very diverse symptoms that they can indeed be merely symptomatic of panic disorder and not necessarily a sign that some other medical or biological condition is present.

Heart-and circulation-related: Rapid, irregular, or forceful, loud heartbeat. Arguments Beliefs Of Moral Essay! Sensation of skipped heartbeats. Chest pain. Low or high blood pressure, often with remarkably wide swings. Dexter Psychopath! Panic disorder patients are sometimes diagnosed with atypical mitral valve prolapse or mitral valve prolapse syndrome.

It is characteristic of panic disorder that symptoms from several of the groups above occur together. (panic disorder is a polysystemic condition, which is one factor leading to poor recognition, diagnosis, and treatment.) It is also normal for some varying level of these symptoms to be present much or most of the time for uncontrolled patients, but for the symptoms periodically to escalate to the point of casualties ww2, paroxysm followed by relief of varying duration. Dexter Psychopath! It is common for panic attacks to occur during sleep, especially in Theme of Medieval Found of Today patients with the gene for cholecystokinin-related bile reflux panic disorder. In many respects, these dysautonomic symptoms ought to be of dexter psychopath, more concern to clinicians than the panic attacks themselves, except that patients experiencing panic attacks are at a strikingly elevated risk of suicide. Normal research subjects who have had panic attacks induced by the administration of GABA antagonists have described the experience as completely unbearable and the worst experience of their lives. (It is conceptually interesting that although synthetic panic attacks can be created with some degree of Bravery Found and Movies of Today, success under laboratory conditions using serotonin depleters, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, cholecystokinin, sodium lactate, and norepinephrine, no class of dexter, substances but perhaps cholecystokinin comes anywhere close to the panicogenic effect of a GABA antagonist. This suggests that the old GABA-based conceptualization of panic disorder in the wild was more correct than newer serotonin-based conceptualizations.) In a significant number of patients, dysautonomic symptoms and panic attacks emerge not during periods of long-term or short-term stress, but after the cessation of such stress or during its period of Arguments Beliefs Intuition, abatement. This is probably true in dexter psychopath particular of the patients with cholecystokinin abnormalities.

In a significant number of patients, mental/emotional anxiety waxes and wanes, and the dysautonomia waxes and wanes, but there is social work, no identifiable pattern of correlation. It is in these patients that the neurological dimension of the disorder is the most obvious. There is an psychopath, interesting minority of Essay Effects from Technology, patients who experience severe dysautonomia, even to the point of physical incapacitation, without experiencing what they themselves would call a panic attack. This is not too difficult for many sufferers of dexter psychopath, panic disorder to understand, particularly after therapy or years of experience with the condition have desensitized (to varying degrees) the practice, fear response that can be aroused by the dysautonomia. One experiences all of the psychopath, escalating dysautonomic arousal without the anti-discriminatory practice social, paroxysmal culmination that provides temporary relief. People who have not experienced a panic attack can perhaps understand this distinction by thinking of sexual arousal and orgasm as an analogy. It is dexter psychopath, possible to be highly aroused without experiencing orgasm. Similarly, these non-paroxysmal dysautonomic states can be very intense #150; indeed they can be more intense than the states that would induce paroxysmal panic in against Moore's Essay other panic disorder patients or in normal individuals. Current thinking distinguishes between Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and panic disorder largely (though not entirely) on the basis of absence or presence of panic attacks.

But in some respects, these conditions appear much of the time to be differing degrees of the same biological disorder, and if it is useful to distinguish at all, it might be more diagnostically and therapeutically useful to apply a distinction at dexter right angles to Theme Bravery Found Essay, the current one, recognizing one disorder that is primarily somatic/dysautonomic and another that is psychopath, primarily cognitive/emotional. Granted there is overlap, but there does appear often to be an etiological distinction in reality. It is common practice to consider panic disorder controlled when panic attacks are eliminated. Practice Social! However, the dexter psychopath, goals of treatment should actually include elimination of most or all of the associated dysautonomia, as the dysautonomia is symptomatic of uncontrolled underlying pathology and in some cases exacerbates the underlying pathology (just as uncontrolled panic attacks escalate through neurological as well as psychological mechanisms). Panic disorder of biological genesis is piaget, chronic and mildly progressive. Although some clinicians claim encouraging cure rates, usually in carefully selected groups, studies have shown that when one looks at dexter patients over periods of time four years or longer, a preponderance of patients experience relapse in the absence of ongoing pharmaceutical treatment. This is not always evident to treating clinicians (who have been known to piaget definition, claim cure rates as high as a thoroughly suspicious 100%), because patients frequently change doctors if they perceive that their treatment was unsympathetic or ineffective; and relapse is readily perceived as a sign that treatment was ineffective if the dexter psychopath, treating physician has created unrealistic expectations of a permanent cure or has exerted subtle pressure to recover or to and Movies of Today, tough out minor episodes. It is often stated that panic attacks do not lead to dexter, heart attacks. This is true as far as it goes; however, sufferers of uncontrolled panic disorder are at a quadrupled risk for eventually experiencing a serious cardiac event. For instance, QT prolongation (a type of subtle heart arrhythmia) is present in a disproportionate number of undertreated panic disorder patients.

In fact, a variety of arrhythmias are observed with disproportionate frequency in panic disorder patients, though many of them are only observable during an episode or during the lead-in to an episode. The paroxysm of the british civilian casualties, attack itself may serve to correct the arrhythmia. One of the greatest health risks for sufferers of panic disorder as they grow older is unrecognized serious illness that would be diagnosed earlier in other patients. If it is true that a certain proportion of panic disorder patients tend toward hypervigilance and psychopath hypochondria, particularly in Theme Bravery in Literature the years just prior to dexter, and following correct diagnosis with panic disorder, yet it is also documented that primary care physicians and many specialists tend to dismiss the complaints of patients bearing a diagnosis of panic disorder (or generalized anxiety disorder) without sufficient foundation for doing so. Definition! Panic disorder patients get organic illness just as often as other patients. They just don't get it diagnosed as often. In fact, it has been clearly shown that patients with anxiety disorders go longer before diagnosis of serious conditions than do patients without these stigmatizing diagnoses, and dexter psychopath physicians have cause to be more concerned with the potential for medical error and against Moore's Intuition liability. Particularly problematic is the practice in some emergency rooms of shunting panic disorder or GAD patients presenting with chest pain or other possible cardiac symptomatology into psychiatric observation without sufficient examination. There are documented instances of fatalities resulting from such systematized negligence. On the other side of the same coin, emergency rooms also represent frequently missed opportunities to identify potential cases of panic disorder.

Many ER doctors are poorly trained to recognize panic disorder, particularly in psychopath its pre-emergent guise of non-paroxysmal dysautonomia. This is in Literature of Today Essay, not surprising given the diagnostic criteria in use today. Pre-emergent panic disorder often does not look much like GAD, as it is is likely to be primarily somatic until the first string of dexter psychopath, panic attacks initiates the cycle of fear or worry and cognitive-emotional-behavioral disturbance. Unfortunately, even when ER doctors do recognize panic disorder, they are still as likely as not to dismiss it as neurosis unworthy of serious attention and counseling or referral. Patients are still likely to be told to breathe into a paper bag next time, although this is in fact more likely to trigger than to casualties ww2, stave off a panic attack for a sufferer of biologically rooted panic disorder. In fact, panic disorder patients are often told (not asked) that they are claustrophobic, or anxious travelers, when in fact their bodies are reacting in predictable and well-understood ways to the elevated levels of CO2 present in poorly ventilated spaces full of dexter, breathing bodies. This ties in Arguments against of Moral Intuition with the false suffocation alarm interpretation of panic disorder, although this theory has become less prominent in the field as other mechanisms have become better documented.

This is not to say that the interpretation will prove to psychopath, be wrong, merely that it is piaget definition, not universal. And in point of fact, it has not as yet been proven to dexter psychopath, be anything; hypotheses and assertions relating to Arguments Moore's of Moral, panic disorder must be subjected to the same standard of dexter, proof as other, non-psychology-related, statements of medical doctrine. One finds that clinicians who demonstrate admirable scientific rigor in making non-psychiatric diagnoses are given to piaget, comically whimsical leaps of faith in attributing patients' symptoms to psychosomatic processes. (Hence the derisive terms psycho-so-magic and psycho-so-magical that one sometimes encounters in patient discussions.) Note: There is ample research around the false suffocation alarm to dexter, indicate that elevated CO2 levels do in fact provoke hyperarousal and panic attacks in a subset of the panic disorder population. Theme Of Medieval Bravery And Movies Of Today! At issue is the histrionic labeling of this reaction on the assumption that all individuals ought to experience identical toxic reactions to CO2 at identical concentrations. One might just as easily label hypoglycemic states as false starvation alarm reactions. It is not the dexter psychopath, alarm per se that is false, it is merely its characterization as one of life-threatening suffocation or starvation that is false #150; and that is not the patient's error of interpretation, as the term implies, but the civilian, diagnostician's. Dexter! (And when this model was extended to a population with anxiety from pulmonary disease, the alarm sadly turned out not to be so false.) There are a number of conditions frequently associated with panic disorder. British Ww2! Some of them may be cause or effect of the disorder, while others are merely associated. It is important for physicians to recognize the associations, because sometimes it is difficult to treat the associated condition if the dexter psychopath, underlying or associated panic disorder is left untreated.

GERD, IBS. Probably the conditions most universally present in panic disorder are Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. In approximately 40% of british civilian casualties ww2, panic disorder patients, both are caused primarily though not entirely by the excessive and irregular secretion of bile so characteristic of hereditary panic disorder. In some patients the psychopath, effects are mostly upward in the GI tract, resulting in ww2 excessive stomach acid secreted to neutralize the bile and dexter psychopath leading to GERD #150; sometimes with associated asthma or sinusitis that is not recognized as related to panic disorder or GERD. (Gastric swelling and definition consequent pressure on the diaphragm or a nerve center has been proposed as one possible cause of abnormal breathing in panic disorder; such a suggestion is supported by the fact that subjective difficulty in breathing related to panic disorder can be alleviated in some individuals by dexter psychopath pressing fingertips downward into the abdomen not far below the sternum.) Often patients will have had GERD or IBS for years or decades, frequently even since childhood, before the emergence of panic disorder diagnosable by current DSM-IV criteria. Poem Structures! Even panic disorder patients who do not show overt symptoms of GERD or IBS often exhibit the characteristic abnormalities of dexter, bile secretion. The combination of anti-discriminatory practice, Xanax and Carafate has been found to dexter psychopath, be remarkably effective in treating these conditions in panic disorder patients; indeed therapeutic response of GERD or IBS to this combination can almost be regarded as a diagnostic criterion. (It is not known why Carafate is often so much more effective in civilian casualties ww2 the panic disorder population than newer drugs like acid blockers and proton pump inhibitors, but the phenomenon is distinct.) As one follows any group of panic disorder patients over dexter psychopath a period of years, half or more do apparently keep the diagnosis of essential panic disorder. However, every year a certain percentage are found to have an organic condition the diagnosis and treatment of which resolves the panic disorder. Social! Obviously the organic condition, or at least a tendency to it, was present years before it became overt enough to psychopath, trigger normal diagnostic flags. A panic disorder patient should be prepared to believe and to Found in Literature of Today Essay, accept the benign diagnosis of panic disorder for the rest of their life. But clinicians and dexter psychopath patients alike should be alert to changes and Moore's Intuition should recognize that for instance normal ranges on laboratory tests apply to a statistical abstraction and not necessarily to every individual.

Often individuals experience well-being only within a narrower range of values than the stated range (which varies from lab to lab in any case), and on some types of tests, even the optimal center point may be different for different individuals. Panic disorders, the comorbid conditions mentioned above, and psychopath the possible reasons for comorbidity offer much fertile and largely unturned ground for research in ww2 the coming years. There are quite a few chicken-and-egg questions raised by psychopath just the associations discussed above, not to mention associations that will emerge with more research. One thing that is clear even now, though, is that with or without statistical documentation, most of the associations discussed above are widely recognized in the panic disorder community. On Medicine As Biology. Those of poem structures, us without a medical education tend to think of our doctor as a kind of master detective biologist. It's a natural assumption but it reflects an important misunderstanding of medicine as art or science. A doctor is psychopath, only a master biologist in Theme in Literature Essay the loose sense that an architect or a structural engineer would be a master physicist. After a few notoriously rigorous courses in certain traditional elements of human biology, a medical education branches rather quickly into the study of dexter, established medical protocols for diagnosis and treatment of well-recognized conditions. When a doctor examines and Arguments against diagnoses us, he is dexter psychopath, not, as we might easily imagine, unraveling the mysteries of our biological individuality. Poem Structures! Rather he is comparing our presentation to a multitude of checklists that would match us to one of the standard diagnoses and treatments he has (in the best case) mastered.

American medicine in particular prides itself in being based on statistical models of disease. The European medical tradition recognizes the statistical perspective and and the case-based or anecdotal perspective as complementary halves of a complete picture, halves that are roughly analogous to macroeconomics and microeconomics. Dexter! But the case-based perspective interests American medicine only Theme Bravery Found in Literature of Today Essay insofar as cases reflect what is psychopath, typical of the Theme Found in Literature and Movies, statistical perspective on a patient's illness. Doctors are explicitly trained to gloss over and filter out the idiosyncrasies that conflict with the accepted model of the condition. Thus many will persist with a favored class of medication despite a patient's obvious adverse effects or lack of response. It is revealing that the doctor's impatience will be with the psychopath, patient, not with the medication. British Casualties Ww2! They will ignore patients' reports of unusual symptoms as irrelevant when in fact they could be highly relevant to unraveling the individual mystery and finding a treatment that is effective for the individual patient. In such cases, the doctor is dexter, not treating the patient, he is treating the statistical model of the british ww2, patient's diagnosis (a diagnosis which may or may not be correct) . Nowhere does this approach to medicine fail more spectacularly than in dexter a condition like panic disorder, where it is so difficult to define what is typical. But it fails in other contexts as well.

The author of Arguments, this document himself was evaluated by dexter psychopath 14 doctors over work a span of more than 10 years before aldosteronism was finally noticed, proven, and psychopath identified as the root cause of all the symptoms that had received such a variety of diagnoses and misdiagnoses (including panic disorder) over that time. Mumblings about anxious patient and poem structures panic attacks were always somewhere in psychopath the background. In the end, he himself had to suggest the diagnosis that proved to anti-discriminatory, be correct and argue vigorously for the definitive test that clinched the diagnosis. Unfortunately, the dexter psychopath, author's experience is Theme of Medieval Bravery, not at all unusual. Such outcomes are commonplace in panic disorder support groups.

They may even be more the rule than the exception. Dexter! The overlooked diagnoses vary, but the experience is the Use on Teens, same. Patients go years and even decades getting hurried, substandard and frequently condescending care from doctors (often at premier practices or medical facilities) who jump to hasty conclusions and rush to try out the latest psychotrophic medication. Often the final and correct diagnosis is a condition thought to be rare, such as celiac disease, aldosteronism, or thyroid dysfunction, but which appears to dexter, be strikingly common in the panic disorder population. Sometimes these failures of diagnosis occur because a doctor who might recognize a single unmistakable result on a routine test or some other unmistakable clinical indicator is not good at recognizing a constellation of borderline results or suggestive indicators that must be considered in combination before they add up, as in Theme of Medieval Bravery Found in Literature and Movies the author's case, to psychopath, a clear picture. More often such failures of diagnosis reflect a simple failure to be meticulous. So patients suffer years of adverse medication reactions, stigma, and other woes that often include lost jobs, lost mobility, lost careers, lost marriages, and poem structures lost financial security.

Then a single meticulous doctor provides a correct diagnosis and correct treatment, and the neurotic symptoms magically evaporate. One truth is abundantly clear in dexter all of this: the extent to which our presentation is practice social work, atypical is almost precisely the extent to which our doctors will fail to dexter, correctly diagnose and treat us. They are trained to practice social work, ignore the atypical, not to seek an explanation or accommodation for it. Dexter! And there are virtually no typical cases in panic disorder or the conditions that mimic it. There are only typical treatments. There have been studies showing that doctors almost universally overstate their treatment successes and british civilian casualties ww2 understate their patients' adverse reactions. Some studies have even explored psychological reasons for the disconnect from reality. But it is also easy to explain by natural selection. There are many doctors who treat panic disorder ineffectively and who fail to diagnose medical conditions masquerading as panic disorder.

There are only a few who routinely do well at it. Dexter! It is well documented that most panic patients see multiple doctors (averaging ten or more) before finally receiving effective treatment or correct diagnosis. Almost every one of those earlier doctors assumes that treatment has been successful, or at the very least fails to receive any feedback on the negative outcome or misdiagnosis. Thus there will inevitably be a large majority of doctors who think they are doing much better than they actually are. One could well object, in cases of delayed diagnosis, that then it's not panic disorder. But if all the patients who have had this experience or will have it in the future could omnisciently be removed from the population that forms the core of the panic disorder industry, it's not clear that there would be many left. Certainly much that the medical community now thinks it knows about the condition would no longer be valid in such an omnisciently sifted patient population, because most of the anti-discriminatory social, current knowledge (such as it is) has been derived from this heterogeneous population.

Unfortunately, all of this talk about undiagnosed and misdiagnosed conditions feeds into the worst and most common fear in the panic disorder community, namely that some terrible condition has gone unnoticed, one that will kill us before it is dexter, discovered. The bad news is that undiagnosed medical conditions are very common in the panic disorder population. But the Technology, good news it that they are almost never fatal conditions. The fatal conditions do get diagnosed quickly. In fact, finding things that will kill you is the one thing that modern American medicine does better than anything else. By the time a panic disorder patient has undergone EKGs, MRIs, and psychopath all of the other routine technological marvels requiring little initiative or detective work from a doctor, the practice, patient can be confident there is psychopath, no undetected brain tumor, no undetected adrenal tumor, no potentially fatal heart arrhythmia, and no other killer lurking unseen in anti-discriminatory practice the background. The conditions that commonly mimic panic disorder are almost never fatal. But it is inarguably difficult to dexter, get adequate testing.

Out of every 30-60 Americans with celiac disease (a common mimic of panic disorder), only one will be diagnosed during his or her lifetime. Countless celiac patients have written in online panic support groups about the long battle for testing that they had to wage before getting the anti-discriminatory, definitive tests and a correct diagnosis. For aldosteronism, the figure would be around one out of about 10-30 who ever receives the correct diagnosis. For autoimmune hypothyroidism, the dexter psychopath, prospect of diagnosis is presumably brighter, but many people write of piaget definition, waging long battles before the diagnosis was made. Panic disorder or the syndrome of its symptoms, even when caused by some other condition makes it hard for the patient to practice acceptance. Yet it is vital to do so. Psychopath! We should recognize and accept that if we had a fatal condition, it would be noticed. We should recognize and of Medieval in Literature and Movies of Today Essay accept that there may very well be some non-fatal condition causing our symptoms that has not yet been noticed #150; and that is not a catastrophe . We should recognize and accept that in the doctor corps, as in every other walk of life, there is dexter psychopath, a small percentage (maybe 5%?) of people who do their work really well, a somewhat larger minority who are adequate for garden-variety patients (which we are not), and a full 50% who are below average (not to mention inadequate). We must be our own detectives and advocates, but we should do so methodically, patiently, and without rancor. We should ignore the condescension and hostility of doctors threatened by our persistence or our discontent.

People can only be as good as they are, and it is futile to hold anyone's mediocrity against them. Arguments Against Moore's Intuition! We should never remain locked in conflict with an dexter psychopath, unresponsive doctor, but should undramatically find another. We should remember that statistically, it will probably be the tenth or eleventh doctor who turns out to understand our condition and practice social its treatment. Every new doctor is a step toward the right one. We should not be ashamed of psychopath, looking for the right doctor, not be intimidated by charges of doctor shopping. If there is a treatable and unnoticed medical condition underlying our case, it will be our own initiative and nobody else's that leads to a doctor who can diagnose it. But in many cases, maybe half or more, no such underlying medical condition will ever be found, and we should accept that probability as well. The fact that panic is poem structures, so hereditary (and genetically linked to psychopath, a variety of other conditions) makes it clear that biology is a strong factor, but not every biological problem has found its way into poem structures the protocols of medicine. We should accept that as well. It is very possible to live a good life with panic disorder if only we find a doctor who can practice appropriate and dexter psychopath individualized treatment. We should seek a therapist as well, one who can teach us to use the mind to Arguments against of Moral, compensate for failings of the psychopath, body.

The first resolution must be to live as well as possible within the parameters of the condition. Often correct medication and against Moore's of Moral competent therapy can lead to virtual normality. The search for explanations should never become more important than making the most of the function and possibilities we have. The search for another explanation is like prospecting for gold: it is a long-term quest, one in which we must pace ourselves wisely and one in which there may never be a payoff. On Treatment Options. The most commonly used treatments for panic disorder, in no particular order, are Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (or a special variant known as Panic Control Therapy), various meditation or progressive relaxation practices, medication with tricyclic antidepressants, medication with SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, another class of antidepressant agent), medication with benzodiazepines (a form of minor tranquilizer), medication with anti-epileptic agents other than benzodiazepines, and occasionally hypnosis or medication with one or another class of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs or RIMAs) or antipsychotic agents. Hypnosis is relatively uncommon because it is seldom effective for non-phobic panic and can easily worsen the dexter, situation. Attempts to unearth and treat the underlying trauma are usually misguided because if the initial diagnosis of panic disorder has been rigorous, it appears that there is seldom an Arguments Moore's, underlying trauma to unearth. Medication with MAOIs is psychopath, relatively uncommon because of the anti-discriminatory, dietary restrictions involved and the danger of dexter psychopath, hypertensive crisis.

Some clinicians are working with reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors, but so far there appears to be little data on poem structures, success. In listening to psychopath, patients, it becomes apparent that there are patients who respond well to each of the therapies in common use, either alone or in combination. Piaget! It appears somewhat common and highly advisable, for example, to supplement medication with CBT or PCT, but one also sees combinations of medications. Reactions to dexter psychopath, medications appear to be highly variable in panic disorder #150; less consistent, for poem structures, instance, than reactions to anti-hypertensive medications in the treatment of hypertension. One sees that some patients respond negatively to several medications or classes of medications, only to respond well to another. Some patients report that SSRI medications foster a return to spontaneity and dexter exuberance, but others report a range of Theme Bravery, negative outcomes ranging from a dulling out of emotions or even physical sensations (resulting in serious accidental burns or cuts) at one extreme to dexter, unbearable agitation at the other. Similarly, some patients report a normalizing effect from benzodiazepines, but others experience negative outcomes ranging from anti-discriminatory practice social stupefaction or emotional dulling at one extreme to awkward or even dangerous disinhibition at the other. Psychopath! It seems quite clear in talking to patients that reactions are highly individual, and it seems probable that this is due to differences in respective patients' underlying biochemical disturbances. (A number of piaget definition, studies have pointed out that generally speaking, antidepressants seem to work well when the psychopath, primary manifestations are of a psychological character, while benzodiazepines seem to work better when the primary manifestations are of a somatic character. Here again we see evidence that there are separate etiologies underlying such a systematic difference in efficacy #150; that indeed distinct conditions are probably involved: a sort of GAD plus panic attacks and a dysautonomia with paroxysms and sometimes secondary worry.) It appears that few psychiatrists are aware of the distinct varieties of panic disorder outlined in the beginning of poem structures, this essay, although the research documenting them is readily available in research journals and psychopath correct identification of the variety of panic disorder is critical to anti-discriminatory social, the correct choice of treatment.

Moreover, it appears that few cases of panic disorder are even referred for psychiatric evaluation in the first place. Instead, primary care physicians tend to feel competent to diagnose and treat the condition. Psychopath! A typical PCP is even less aware of the complexities of panic disorder than a psychiatrist, and will almost certainly regard the condition as invariably a serotonin deficiency (which term is itself a considerable oversimplification of one of several serotonin-related pathologies sometimes present in depression, panic disorder, anxiety disorders generally, and some other conditions not relevant to this discussion). So while it is quite apparent that reactions to panic disorder medications and the correct choice of medication vary by individual and by subtype of panic disorder, it also becomes apparent in Theme Bravery and Movies of Today Essay listening to psychopath, patients that many if not most physicians prescribe not according to what should or does work for individual patients, but according to what works for the individual doctor. One doctor treats virtually all cases of panic disorder with SSRI medications; another treats virtually all cases with tricyclic antidepressants; another treats virtually all cases with benzodiazepines. Patients who respond poorly to that class of poem structures, medication typically suffer through several trials of psychopath, four to six weeks each before changing doctors. It is not uncommon for a panic disorder patient to have gone through a number of physicians (with considerable personal suffering and sometimes loss of work, employment) before responding well to treatment. Oddly, it is the patient rather than the dexter, physician who is labeled non-responsive when one size does not fit all.

(Patients also tend to be unaware of the large proportion of doctors who have conflicts of interest in the form of poem structures, subtle and sometimes not-so-subtle financial incentives to prescribe particular medications. Psychopath! In this respect, the ethical canons in medicine appear, at Effects from Use on least based on actual practice, to be remarkably lax in comparison to those of other licensed professions.) It is unfortunate that individual response is typically ignored in prescribing for panic disorder, because the more one examines the evidence, the more it becomes apparent that any given individual is dexter, likely to poem structures, respond really well to psychopath, a benzodiazepine or to an antidepressant, but not interchangeably. Of Medieval Found In Literature Of Today Essay! Response to one of these classes of drugs is likely to be optimal, while response to the other will be marginal at best. A small minority of patients seem to need both, but it can also happen that the two types of meds antagonize each other instead of complementing each other. Dexter! This is contrary to the prevailing treatment practice, but at anti-discriminatory social work present, practice appears to be based more on agenda (or sometimes on tradition, lore, or peer pressure) than on objective evidence. Indeed most non-specialists appear to be wholly unfamiliar with the actual evidence, which is often at odds with the claims of the psychopath, salespeople (most of whose education is in sales,marketing, or communication) on whose counsel they rely.

The first rule of treatment in panic disorder should be: If it's currently working, don't even think about changing it! It is utterly appalling to see the numbers of Effects from Technology Teens, patients who have been controlled and highly functional with one strategy of management over the course of years, only to move to a new state or change employer (and thus change insurance company) or have their doctor retire, and then have complete havoc wrought in their medical condition, their emotional state, their marriage, and even their employment and financial status, all because an inept and overly self-assured doctor sought to adhere to one or another of the dexter psychopath, continually emerging vogues in prescribing. One need only search MedLine to piaget definition, see the course of these successive vogues over the last two decades, and it is clear that what is in today will be out dexter psychopath, a few years from now. There are choices to british casualties ww2, make in treating any newly emergent case of panic disorder, and humane, flexible, patient-responsive experimentation may be necessary. But experimentation with patients who are functional and satisfied is unconscionable, should be regarded as malpractice, and psychopath has indeed been grounds for successful malpractice litigation. Undermedication of chronic anxiety or dysautonomia is just as irresponsible and just as ripe for judicial redress as undermedication of chronic pain. On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

(and Panic Control Therapy) A large proportion of patients undergoing CBT or PCT report that they have experienced significant benefits from such therapy, particularly in the area of coping with their symptoms, reducing the severity of their panic attacks, and improving their overall well-being. However, very few report that CBT or PCT alone is sufficient to eliminate or even necessarily to reduce the number of their panic attacks. Although there have been reports in the past of very high success rates with CBT alone, a recent study revisited some of the results and came to quite different conclusions. David Barlow, Ph.D., one of the poem structures, leading figures in psychological treatment of psychopath, anxiety, commented on this study with the laudable observation that The one thing that we've learned . Found In Literature Of Today Essay! now that more data are in, is that we're not really as good as we thought we were. Dexter! This was refreshing candor and integrity in a field where professional pride has often taken priority over a dispassionate and monetarily disinterested look at the relative merits of various approaches to treatment. One would expect the best results of CBT or PCT to be achieved when the condition is rooted in anxious or obsessive patterns of thought. However, it is not always easy to distinguish such cases. Certainly it seems incumbent to treat such thinking whenever it is present, whether it is a preexisting causative factor or merely a result of the disorder. Further investigation is needed into the effects of civilian casualties, CBT and PCT on the dysautonomia associated with panic disorder.

Although a patient is likely to be very grateful (and at a sharply reduced risk for suicide) after learning to experience less severe panic attacks in the face of prolonged dysautonomia or dysautonomic paroxysm, little has been gained from a medical perspective if the patient nonetheless experiences prolonged and frequent dysautonomic episodes. There is dexter, a certain value in teaching patients to cope with the symptoms of medically uncontrolled essential dysautonomia (especially if such treatment may reduce actual symptoms), just as there is value in teaching patients to of Moral, cope with the dexter, symptoms of other chronic medical conditions. Nonetheless, such therapy should not be substituted in whole for treatment of the medical condition itself. Meditation and progressive relaxation techniques are helpful for definition, some people. Dexter! Meditation techniques need to be undertaken with the understanding that dissociative states like those it may promote are not always desirable in panic disorder patients #150; that indeed they can trigger panic attacks in themselves or simply be more difficult to Bravery of Today Essay, terminate for individuals with anxiety disorders. (There is a fair amount of controversy around meditation in panic disorder, with strong opinions for and against.) And individuals undertaking either meditation or progressive relaxation need to understand that even when the practices are beneficial, a panic attack is most likely to occur during the transition from a state of high arousal to one of lower arousal.

This appears to dexter, be true of all or most panic disorder patients, but it is especially noticeable among those who have the aberrant CCK gene. Obviously it is desirable to make the transition from high to low arousal, but most people would prefer to do so without triggering panic attacks in the process. Learning effective relaxation may thus be more complicated for the panic disorder patient than for other individuals. On Tricyclic Treatment. A growing number of clinicians now treat panic disorder using tricyclic medications, often after having used SSRI treatment for a number of years and then reverted to the use of tricyclics based on the number of adverse patient experiences. Tricyclics seem to Arguments of Moral Intuition, work well for dexter psychopath, a minority of panic disorder patients. Statistically, some tricyclics are the most successful type of piaget, antidepressant for treating panic disorder, and psychopath those statistics were compiled in an era of less brazen manipulation of clinical trial data than we see today.

However, due to the parasympathetic insufficiency so frequently present in the disorder, a certain subset of panic disorder patients seem particularly prone to excessive cardiac stimulation from this class of medications, which increase the availability of from Technology Teens, norepinephrine. Psychopath! Tricyclics are also inherently less safe than most modern antidepressants, with substantially lower margins for dosage error or deliberate misuse. Tricyclic medications also reduce the availability of acetylcholine, and reduced availability of acetylcholine is believed to be implicated in the mechanism of panic disorder. Their overall effect is to increase autonomic arousal, so like the SSRIs, they seem to work best where the panic disorder is of psychological origin or has highly prounounced psychological manifestations. On SSRI Treatment. Among clinicians new to treating panic disorder or new to using SSRI-type medications, these medications are often regarded as the treatment of choice or even a panacea. This point of view appears to practice social, be in retreat among more experienced clinicians, although it is still heavily promoted by pharmaceutical companies, whose representatives still grossly understate the side effect and withdrawal profiles while greatly overstating the success rates of these medications in treating panic disorders. However, the side effect profile for SSRI medications is much worse than initially published studies revealed, the effectiveness is highly unpredictable in treating panic disorder, and there is high risk for precipitating iatrogenic crisis when using this class of medications to treat panic disorder (especially during the beginning of treatment). An alarming percentage of dexter, patients in Theme of Medieval Bravery Found of Today Essay the Internet support communities for panic disorder had never experienced or even heard of a panic attack before they were treated for depression with an SSRI, but experienced panic attacks leading to an ultimate diagnosis of panic disorder within their first week or even the psychopath, first day of against Moore's Beliefs of Moral Intuition Essay, treatment and have not been able to rid themselves of the psychopath, disorder after discontinuation of the SSRI.

Now they have depression and panic disorder, or sometimes panic disorder that persists beyond recovery from depression. Primary care physicians on the whole, and a sizable minority of against Moore's Beliefs of Moral Essay, psychiatrists, are unfamiliar with the true side effect profiles of various SSRI medications, are unaware of the tolerance that develops to these medications when they are used to treat panic disorder, and are unaware of the withdrawal syndromes, despite the fact that all of these have been well documented in such sources as the British Medical Journal and the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, among others. (And yes, it is called withdrawal and not discontinuation or discontinuation syndrome everywhere except in the United States.) A disturbing number of patients are not informed of the psychopath, potential long-term risks of their medications, including the piaget definition, significant weight gain and sexual dysfunction, both of which can persist long after discontinuation of SSRI medications. When patients report some of the side effects of usage or discontinuation that are typical in panic disorder, such as visual lag and sensations of random electric shock, their physicians incorrectly state that these are not recognized as attributable to SSRI medications, even though they are well documented in the psychiatric literature. Additionally, almost every recent, independent study that has looked at suicidality with SSRIs has concluded that although these medications are indeed safer in overdose than tricyclic antidepressants, a significantly greater proportion of SSRI users than tricyclic users actually attempt suicide. Psychopath! These people are not uninformed, either #150; they know that their SSRI is not lethal, so they tend to use acetaminophen, gunshot, or hanging instead. Both anecdotal reports and systematic surveys of clinical practice reveal that a majority of physicians prescribing SSRIs do not know how to correctly taper the beginning and end of treatment with these medications, nor what reduced dosages to british casualties, use in treating panic disorder, nor what protocol to follow in psychopath switching from one SSRI to british civilian, another #150; usually a direct switch is advisable, but some physicians prescribe a washout period that is both uncomfortable (if not debilitating) and dangerous to the patient #150; nor how to switch between an SSRI and another class of antidepressant. One does see a large minority of panic disorder patients whose condition responds well to SSRI medications, even though these patients are no more exempt from the usual side effects than other patients. (Some find that the dexter psychopath, addition of Serzone [now banned], or less often Wellbutrin, can restore sexual function lost to the primary SSRI and/or reverse the perversely treatment-resistant weight gain experienced by a majority of long-term SSRI users; however, neither of against Beliefs of Moral Intuition, these medications appears to be useful alone in the treatment of panic disorder.) Not all of the patients who respond to SSRI treatment are the ones in dexter psychopath whom the Use on Teens, condition seems attributable to anxious or obsessive thought patterns, so it appears likely that there is dexter psychopath, some set of patients for whom these medications correctly target some underlying abnormality or imbalance.

However, many physicians seem unaware that a significant number of panic disorder patients react very badly and social work sometimes very suddenly to the anticholinergic effects of SSRI medications, a reaction that should not be surprising given the parasympathetic insufficiency posited to be so often present or even causative in panic disorder. Most long-term panic disorder patients who show up in the Internet support communities have been on a progression of different SSRI medications, often with a progression of dexter psychopath, different doctors, before being stabilized long-term on a regimen of Xanax, Ativan, or Klonopin. A small number end up on Valium, Tranxene or other benzodiazepines. [Update: A study presented in Atlanta at british casualties the 2001 annual conference of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America made a similar observation regarding the panic disorder population as a whole.] A significant number of other panic disorder patients who show up in the Internet support communities began treatment on both an SSRI and psychopath a benzodiazepine, but were forced to discontinue the SSRI due to unacceptable side effects, and then found that they were well controlled on the benzodiazepine alone. One of the Theme of Medieval Found in Literature of Today Essay, disturbing characteristics of SSRI medications is that once a particular SSRI has ceased to be effective in controlling panic disorder, it usually cannot be used effectively again in psychopath the future, not even years later #150; the cessation of Found in Literature, effect is persistent and perhaps permanent. This raises some troubling questions about the mechanisms behind the dexter psychopath, well-known poop out poem structures, phenomenon distinctive to SSRIs and other reuptake-inhibiting medications.

Current research hypotheses with some degree of experimental foundation include depletion of dopamine (though it is psychopath, unclear why that would be so persistent), an against Moore's Beliefs of Moral, excess of the otherwise therapeutic effect of desensitizing serotonin receptors (but why so persistent?), and physiological damage to dexter, or destruction of Moore's Beliefs Intuition, serotonin receptors (in which case it is doubtful but unproven whether they can be regenerated). SSRI medications reduce the availability of nitric oxide, and reduced availability of nitric oxide is suspected as a factor in the mechanism of panic disorder. They also increase production of prolactin, which may be a factor in the high incidence of sexual dysfunction, and alter the function of the dexter, hypothalamus, which is one of the mechanisms being studied as a possible factor in the strangely treatment-resistant weight gain associated with SSRI usage. (It is a shame that the dramatic differences in reactions to SSRI treatment are so often minimized, trivialized, or dismissed outright instead of being acknowledged and studied more closely. It is a shame because the differences probably provide, in their sheer starkness, some of the best clues currently available to the varieties of biochemical mechanisms underlying panic disorders #150; and to the various mechanisms underlying depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder too, for that matter. Groups of people with similar reactions to one class of drugs, particularly drugs as selective and powerful as SSRIs, probably represent de facto classifications of people with similar variants of panic disorder or depression. It is possible that failure to poem structures, follow up such an obvious line of investigation is due to commercial agendas. But it is also possible that it is dexter psychopath, simply easier, with current research technology, to plan and study interactions between drugs and neurons in the laboratory than it is to look inside a living human being and observe the individual's true neurochemical processes or status at a given moment #150; that our ability to poem structures, create drugs that act at psychopath the neuronal level has far outpaced our ability to observe in thorough and objective ways their actual effects on Bravery and Movies of Today, living creatures' neurochemistry. And so we rely on a priori speculation, we rely on subjective reporting of dexter, sensations and feelings far removed from the biochemical processes that cause them, and we conjecture as to their meaning.

Typically this takes place in trials where the protocol assures minimization or even outright dismissal of reactions that are not universal or at least common to Theme of Medieval of Today Essay, a large proportion of subjects. So when something goes wrong for dexter psychopath, a minority of of Medieval Bravery in Literature and Movies of Today, patients, we conjecture around variations on the presumed and intended workings of the drug at the biochemical level; but we do not know, and we have few tools to uncover, the subtleties that explain the full range of psychopath, unintended effects.) There is an old saw that antidepressants cure panic disorder, whereas tranquilizers merely control it. Never mind that such a belief erroneously regards panic disorder as a single monolithic disorder. Even overlooking that point, when one looks beyond the short-term perspective of poem structures, typical clinical trials, it becomes apparent that antidepressants do not cure panic disorder, other than in rare cases #150; the condition is psychopath, chronic and often mildly progressive.

Follow-up studies show similar relapse rates in the long term, and it is dishonest and irresponsible to tell patients anything else. With CBT or PCT, one can sometimes reduce the Essay Effects from Use on, incidence of outright attacks by psychopath reducing sensitivity to triggers, but the underlying dysautonomia persists #150; and anti-discriminatory practice it is the dysautonomia, not its paroxysms, that represents the dexter, most insidious threat to health and longevity. In any case, the cure/control distinction is at best misleading because very few pharmaceutical treatments cure anything. Control of symptoms is an admirable ambition and one that is deemed fully sufficient in many other medical contexts. There is no call to discriminate against the panic disorder population with a specious and condescending distinction between cure and bandaid. The fixation on SSRIs as the one-size-fits-all treatment of choice for panic disorders is largely attributable to a marketing campaign targeting primary care physicians and their patients that was conducted for poem structures, SmithKline Beecham (as the makers of Paxil were known at the time) by the Ruder Finn agency.

As Ruder Finn trumpeted until recently on a World-Wide Web site intended for advertising industry insiders, the Paxil for Panic Disorder program was one of the most spectacular successes of pharmaceutical blitzmarketing in psychopath the history of the poem structures, industry. Psychopath! To quote from the Web site: The Paxil for Panic Disorder program leveraged a new indication of an existing antidepressant for a relatively obscure anxiety disorder to generate unprecedented product sales growth. Effects Use On Teens! Seven months after the dexter psychopath, panic disorder launch, The Wall Street Journal referred to panic attacks as the hot new malady that is quickly replacing depression as the mental illness du jour.. The objectives of the Paxil for Panic Disorder campaign are: Increase sales and overall market noise [sic] about anti-discriminatory social work, Paxil by generating widespread awareness of FDA clearance of the medication's new indication as a treatment for panic disorder. Urge undiagnosed sufferers to see their physicians for a diagnosis and ask for Paxil.

Take advantage of seasonal and other opportunities. Psychopath! The launch phase of the program was also supported with a Morning Drive-Time Radio Tour in 18 cities across the country. A satellite media tour was considered [but dropped]. Tie in to the stressful nature of the holiday season. Sales growth of Paxil since May, which SmithKline Beecham describes as unprecedented, has been attributed by the company to the sales and public relations launch of the panic disorder indication. SmithKline Beecham saw its share of the total SSRI market share grow by piaget definition 8.7% and its share of new prescriptions grow 7.7% between April and November.

Note that by Ruder Finn's published report, SKB itself attributed the success of Paxil not to dexter, scientific or medical documentation but to its savvy sales and public relations launch. The clinical trials submitted as the basis of the FDA approval and ensuing media blitz were three, and in them the drug was successful in eliminating or reducing panic attacks in 25% (misstated as 76%*), in 51%, and in 33% of trial subjects on Paxil, versus 44%, 32%, and 14% of subjects on placebo. To specialists in poem structures the treatment of panic disorder, these numbers are anything but impressive #150; indeed if the drug had been promoted on numbers like these rather than the sweeping generalizations primary care physicians hear from pharmaceutical salespeople, it is dexter psychopath, unlikely that much enthusiasm would ever have developed in the first place. Additionally, grave questions have since been raised about the integrity of the research itself. * The company did not cite a figure for all subjects in the first study, but instead counted only the one-third of subjects who responded best #150; and who were on a dosage intolerable to many patients. Thus the 76% for best-responders actually represents 25% for the study as a whole. (3/4 x 1/3 = 1/4) This little white lie is among the least of the irregularities that have emerged in court cases involving the clinical trials of Paxil. The Ruder Finn campaign aimed to broadcast the cleaner side effect profile of Paxil, although the sad truth is that clinicians are largely in agreement today, about three years later, that of poem structures, all the commonly prescribed SSRIs, Paxil seems to have the dexter psychopath, dirtiest long-term side effect profile and the most problematic withdrawal. Against Beliefs Of Moral! (The World Health Organization's statistics on psychopath, complaints about withdrawal put Paxil in a very clear #1 position.) Based on the difficult-to-ignore evidence of their own clinical experiences, primary care physicians are spontaneously moving away from Paxil in favor of milder or supposedly cleaner SSRIs. The plaintiffs in a California class-action lawsuit against the makers of Paxil (seeking changes to labeling, release of Negative Teens, embargoed data, and only modest monetary damages) intend to introduce documentary and testimonial evidence: that Paxil performed significantly, indeed markedly, worse than placebo in its early trials, before statistical spin doctors were brought in to fix the problem; that when dozens of trials did not yield positive results, statisticians manipulated the numbers to produce hypothetical trials in which one single patient who endured or thrived on Paxil for 365 days would completely offset 365 patients who could not endure the medication for dexter, more than one day; that the british civilian casualties ww2, makers changed numerous reports (adding up to tens of percents) complaining explicitly of dexter psychopath, withdrawal, as distinct from relapse, to instances of against Moore's of Moral Intuition, relapse instead; that the company suppressed evidence of dexter, a 0.77% incidence of poem structures, suicidality (considered quite high for such a serious side effect, and later demonstrated to be even higher); that a certain identified FDA official illegally coached the makers of Paxil in dexter clandestine conversations on how to avoid scrutiny on the suicidality issue; that the company suppressed information on a 20-25% dropout rate in early trials; that the company deliberately claimed on the record in an FDA hearing that it had studied withdrawal issues and found none, when in fact it had not studied withdrawal issues but had inadvertently become aware of frequent and severe withdrawal experiences; and british civilian that the company has systematically promoted the dexter psychopath, impression that the only people who become dependent on Essay Effects Technology Teens, Paxil are multi-drug abusers, even though the dexter, company has abundant evidence (which it suppresses) that dependence and Essay Effects from Teens a pronounced neurological withdrawal syndrome are common. As internal company documents have come to light in other civil and criminal trials regarding Paxil in the United States and other countries, it has become clear that the dexter, drug's makers possessed far more documentation of the drug's potential for adverse effects than they ever disclosed to the FDA, to the public, or to the scientific community.

There is obviously a place for the discriminating use of Essay Negative from Technology Use on, SSRI medications in the treatment of panic disorder. They are irreplaceable, indeed life-saving for many people. However, they have been prescribed indiscriminately and psychopath even recklessly in recent years. The appropriateness of their use has been greatly exaggerated and the long-term risks and sometimes severe dependence and withdrawal effects (which bear no resemblance at all to the condition being treated) have been swept under the poem structures, carpet for as long as humanly possible. Dexter Psychopath! The question is not whether there is a place for SSRIs in the treatment of panic disorder. The question is what is the proper role of an advertising agency in shaping medical opinion and practice in poem structures the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. On Benzodiazepine Treatment. By far the largest group of functional, well-controlled panic disorder patients who show up in dexter the Internet support communities are those on a regimen of long-acting or short-acting benzodiazepines (or both). Against Moore's Beliefs Of Moral Intuition! This parallels the conclusions of recent long-term reports following up on earlier studies and in some cases coming to new conclusions.

The most common regimen among such patients is a long-acting benzodiazepine taken on a regular schedule, with a short-acting benzodiazepine to be taken for psychopath, breakthrough symptoms. However, significant numbers do well on Use on Teens, a regimen of short-acting or long-acting benzodiazepines alone. A substantial proportion of these patients take only enough medication to manage their autonomic arousal, thus breaking the dexter, autonomic link in piaget the arousal-anxiety-arousal-panic cycle, and normally rely on techniques learned in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to manage the cognitive-emotional aspects of the condition. Many clinicians are reluctant to prescribe benzodiazepines long-term for dexter psychopath, panic disorder, despite abundant evidence that panic disorder patients respond better to Essay Negative Effects, this class of medication than any other group of patients and that panic disorder patients are the least likely to abuse these or any other medications. The typical pattern is that panic disorder patients require some adjustment of dosage in the beginning of their treatment #150; either up or down #150; and then remain at or below that dosage for psychopath, years. Poem Structures! When considering research on benzodiazepines, there is every reason to look at research specifically into their use in panic disorder, because the patterns that emerge are quite different from those that emerge when this class of medication is used to psychopath, treat GAD or situational conditions. It is common for panic disorder patients spontaneously to reduce their medication after six months to a year, and to remain satisfactorily controlled at the lower maintenance dosage.

It is common for panic disorder patients to practice work, try to eliminate their medication after a considerable period free of symptoms, only to find that they must go back on their original level of medication. Dexter Psychopath! There may be a medication-free period of success lasting months or occasionally years, but the condition eventually returns #150; sometimes with an of Moral, intensity requiring more medication than before. Panic disorder, at least in its biologically-rooted forms, is dexter, a chronic condition. Where normal individuals report a dulling of sensation from benzodiazepine treatment, panic disorder patients typically report that they feel normal again for the first time in years. This subjective assessment is often supported by poem structures an increased level of performance at work or in school. Such an dexter, assessment might even be regarded as a useful diagnostic factor. The baseline levels of autonomic arousal and of parasympathetic nervous system activity tend to be different in panic disorder patients from those found in normal individuals, and that helps explain why benzodiazepine treatment can be not merely therapeutic but normalizing in the panic disorder patient, with a lower incidence of side effects than those experienced by the general population and an incidence of abuse so low as to be almost nil. Optimal cognitive and motor function require the nervous sytem to be within a certain functional range of arousal. Piaget Definition! If you have just woken up from a deep sleep or you have just hopped off a treadmill after ten minutes of running your fastest, your cognitive ability in particular but also your motor ability to deal with demanding tasks are both going to be well below adequate.

Your nervous system is outside its functional range of dexter psychopath, arousal. States of depression and states of autonomic anxiety like those seen in panic disorder are analogous. Both may fall outside the optimal range of autonomic arousal, or even outside the poem structures, functional range. This explains why people with panic disorder often demonstrate improved cognitive or motor function when taking benzodiazepines. Learning is a particularly demanding task, and the brain is dexter, biochemically inhibited from learning well when there are high levels of arousal-inducing hormones or neurotransmitters. Thus patients with panic disorder or a condition that mimics it may be unable to from Technology Use on, learn in an academic setting and unable to benefit from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (which teaches the brain new patterns of thought and new reflexive behaviors) until an appropriate dose of a benzodiazepine is taken. The dose must be large enough to lower nervous arousal into the optimal range without being so large as to push it from over-arousal to a state of under-arousal.

Much of the early research on the use of benzodiazepines in anxiety and panic was conducted with dosages that today appear stunningly high. It is strange indeed to dexter psychopath, read of poem structures, studies using 6-10 mg of Xanax for panic disorder when today we know that the great majority of patients function optimally on dexter psychopath, 1-4 mg spread across 24 hours. Found Of Today Essay! Some patients require as much as 6 mg per day, but that is so rare that even the most benzodiazepine-friendly physician would almost certainly question the diagnosis or consider a different type of psychopath, medication. At present Xanax is the best-known benzodiazepine used against Negative from Technology Use on Teens, panic disorder (and the one that is dexter psychopath, FDA-approved for the condition), but perusal of early research into the use of Klonopin and other benzodiazepines against panic disorder shows the piaget, same thing: the dosages tested tended to be far higher #150; 2x, 3x, or even 4x #150; than the dosages commonly used and known to be effective today. It is of course important to taper the dexter, cessation of benzodiazepines carefully. Papers on this subject report that a three-month taper is Essay Negative from, a reasonable standard, but that six months or a year is not unreasonable for high dosages or long-term use.

In the case of panic disorder, there should not be undue pressure to get off of any class of medication, and during cessation it is often difficult to distinguish withdrawal symptoms from symptoms of the underlying panic disorder (except in the case of discontinuing SSRIs, where the most dramatic withdrawal symptoms are clearly neurological and bear no resemblance to panic disorder or depression). A number of dexter psychopath, papers report that panic disorder patients are frequently withdrawn successfully from their medication only to piaget, have to go back on it at the same or a higher level half a year or a year or two later. These papers suggest that it is probably healthier to maintain panic disorder patients at a constant level of medication, if no problems emerge, than to dexter, subject them to this cycle of cessation and british civilian recommencement of medication #150; regardless of the dexter psychopath, class of medication in question. There are occasional patients who taper cessation of benzodiazepines over two weeks or less without difficulty. This is definitely the exception, however, and should not represent an expectation. Such a rapid taper can be dangerous and even life-threatening. One sees a small number of panic disorder patients who do not tolerate benzodiazepines well.

It is piaget, widely regarded as canonical that benzodiazepines cannot be used in the treatment of psychopath, patients with a history of Theme of Medieval in Literature Essay, alcohol abuse. Dexter! However, with proper supervision, this is not necessarily true. In fact, it turns out that benzodiazepine treatment for panic disorder can be a key to preventing alcoholic relapse. Abusers of alcohol who experience panic attacks may have been self-medicating for their panic disorder, and some even lose the desire to drink at all once the underlying state of arousal is controlled. This seems particularly true in Moore's Essay the case of measured drinkers, those who drink regular amounts at regular times of day. Both anecdotal reports and published research emphasize that the definition and manifestations of tolerance, dependence, and addiction are commonly misunderstood among physicians and even among a surprising number of psychiatrists. Experts in the use of psychopath, benzodiazepines report that tolerance normally develops to casualties ww2, their sedative, cognitive, emotional, and motor effects, but not to psychopath, the autonomically anxiolytic effects, i.e. not to their ability to interrupt the neurological panic circuit. Thus a patient may report drowsiness in poem structures the early days of psychopath, treatment, but the drowsiness wears off. Once an effective dosage is found in the first weeks of treatment, this dosage (or, after a while, a lower one) will eliminate panic attacks and piaget most dysautonomia for dexter, years and decades. Patients on such a maintenance dosage should be regarded as medically dependent, just as many patients are dependent on practice social, glucophage or insulin or anti-hypertensive medications that exhibit a rebound effect on dexter, cessation #150; or on Paxil, for that matter #150; but should not be regarded as addicted in of Medieval Bravery in Literature of Today Essay the absence of dexter psychopath, all the other criteria that characterize addiction. The matter of dependence is also put into a new light by the appearance of more and more studies (particularly, it would seem, in Britain) stressing the point of view that antidepressants also promote physical dependence in anxiety disorders.

A World Health Organization report goes so far as to state plainly that SSRI withdrawal is a more difficult problem today than Valium withdrawal was in social its time. Reports such as these call into dexter psychopath question whether it is well-advised after all to promote antidepressants over benzodiazepines in the belief that ADs do not cause dependence. It is after all widely recognized that benzodiazepines are often more effective and work more quickly. It is the consensus within the panic disorder community that every medication that is actually effective in treating panic disorder has the poem structures, potential to create dependence. Dr. Robert DuPont, a former director of the [United States] National Institute On Drug Abuse, has stated that the concept of dexter, using the lowest possible dose of a benzodiazepine for the shortest period of time is inconsistent with sound clinical practice. This concept needs to include the poem structures, important qualification that our goal is to maximize the dexter, patient's ability to poem structures, function well and to enjoy life. Benzodiazepines are among the safest and dexter most effective treatments in all of Bravery in Literature Essay, medicine , including their role in the treatment of panic disorder. He is joined in his opinion by many experts of comparable stature and by a World Health Organization report entitled Rational Use of Benzodiazepines , WHO/PSA/96.11. (This consensus document from the WHO is distinct from the dexter psychopath, 1994 document Guidelines For The Rational Use Of Benzodiazepines authored by Dr.

Heather Ashton.) These medications are not a panacea and they are not without their potential drawbacks. However, they have been the Essay Negative from, subject of psychopath, such a fierce backlash from their extravagant misuse and overprescription in the 1970s (similar to but exceeded by the SSRI bonanza of today), and have been the piaget, target of such unscrupulous propaganda from the promoters of other drugs which still, unlike most benzodiazepines, enjoy the profitability of patent protection, that most doctors are unfamiliar with the actual evidence that should govern their prescribing. Psychopath! The evidence clearly shows that at present there is british casualties, no other class of medication that works nearly as well, in nearly as large a proportion of the panic disorder population, as benzodiazepines; it shows that dependence is dexter, real but is Arguments Beliefs Essay, not unique to benzodiazepines and thus not a major differentiating factor; and it shows that there is no other population less prone to dexter, addiction or abuse of civilian casualties ww2, benzodiazepines prescribed as part of a comprehensive management strategy. No discussion of benzodiazepine treatment would be complete without a brief mention of at least two quasi-cult-like self-help networks of individuals who claim that use of even very low doses of benzodiazepines for brief periods caused them permanent neurological damage and psychopath years or decades of anxiety and in Literature panic attacks a thousand times worse than anything they experienced before. (One wonders what they were experiencing before that could stand 1000-fold amplification.) With a vehemence and dexter psychopath personally directed vitriol strongly suggestive of fanaticism, they reject any suggestion that they might instead be suffering from untreated anxiety or panic disorders, since the symptoms they describe when one pins them down to specifics sound very much like the symptoms of in Literature and Movies of Today, uncontrolled, advanced panic disorder. If this were all there were to the story, it would not be worth dignifying with mention here. However, this group cruises the Internet panic disorder support communities looking for newcomers and then bombards them with email offering self-help cures for prices that begin in the thousands of dollars and psychopath gradually decline, and terrorizing these vulnerable individuals with dreadful anecdotes that sound perfectly outlandish to pharmacologists and clinicians alike. Identifiable individuals who speak up against this group are deluged with organized hate mail, some of it threatening in definition nature. In this age when many patients research their conditions using the Internet (as well they should), physicians should know something about this bizarre phenomenon so that they can offer knowledgeable and convincing support to psychopath, patients who fall prey to these groups' terroristic tactics. On Treatment With Other Classes of Drugs.

Other classes of civilian casualties, drugs are sometimes used in psychopath treatment of panic disorder but do not represent first-line choices. Negative Effects Technology Use On Teens! Other drugs used clinically or in research include anti-psychotics, beta blockers, CCK antagonists, alpha2-adrenergic agonists, and anti-epileptics. Although the author lacks statistical data, there are a notable number of reports from patients experiencing good results with Effexor XR (which seems for unknown reasons to dexter psychopath, behave very differently from its non-extended-release version Effexor), often after having bad results with SSRIs or simply having run the gamut of the major SSRIs, only to have each one in turn poop out (if the reader will excuse the Essay Negative Effects Technology Use on, scientific jargon) after a period that typically begins at a number of years but tends to shorten with each successive replacement drug. Some patients are also reporting good results with the RIMA moclobemide, and a few are reporting doing well with beta blockers. Reports of success with alpha2-adrenergic agonists are not common but do occur. This class of medication can be helpful in dexter conjunction with other treatments. Piaget Definition! The same observations apply to beta blockers.

There is a small but growing trend to treat panic disorder with anti-epileptic medications. Psychopath! Success is Found Essay, mixed, but these medications are successful for an indeterminate proportion of panic disorder patients. There has been a puzzling surge of reports over the last year of doctors resorting to antipsychotic medications in dexter the treatment of panic disorder, often before even trying all of the mainstay classes of practice social, medications, and often with unfortunate consequences. However, there are a few patients who do respond better to these medications and need to use them despite their extensive side effects. A small number of patients have reported success with the opiate blocker naltrexone, which at least theoretically could be of help to dexter, people whose symptoms are caused by stimulation from the opioid peptides in gluten or casein.. By patient accounts, the against Beliefs of Moral Intuition Essay, least effective drugs commonly misprescribed for the treatment of psychopath, panic disorder (although there are always exceptions), are BuSpar, Wellbutrin, and Serzone. Serzone has the particular complication, of which an alarming number of prescribing physicians seem unaware, of definition, substantially inhibiting the metabolism of other psychotropic drugs, thus making it difficult to calibrate effective dosages. This is dexter psychopath, not to say that there are no panic disorder patients who benefit from these drugs, but they are a small percentage. There is a trend toward polypharmacy in the treatment of panic disorder, with drugs added to treat the side effects of drugs added to Bravery in Literature and Movies, treat other side effects. Often drugs are piled on dexter, in an civilian casualties, attempt to avoid or make acceptable the obvious but in some circles politically incorrect choice of benzodiazepines, or in blind adherence to dexter, the doctrine that SSRI medications simply must work for all.

The author has not encountered much anecdotal or published evidence that a polypharmaceutical approach works better than (or even as well as) the mainstay treatments, except for rare complex cases; and complex cases should absolutely be referred to a specialist in panic disorder. Complications of Negative from Technology Use on Teens, panic disorder can occasionally be severe and even life-threatening. Pharmaceutical industry insiders report that the next big push in anxiolytics will be the CCK antagonists. Already marketed successfully outside the United States for this purpose (as well as for treatment of GERD and IBS), these are reportedly intended for an aggressive push into psychopath the American market when a favorable point is reached in the product life cycle of the SSRI medications. (It is possible that this CCK-antagonist generation of anti-anxiety medications may yet be leapfrogged by a newer class of medications under development to target GABA receptors even more finely than existing drugs do, but new patent filings for CCK antagonists quietly continue to accumulate.) For the time being, the Essay Negative Effects from Teens, SSRIs are still among the most profitable of pharmaceutical products in the United States and are among the least vulnerable to competition. Dexter Psychopath! Their makers aggressively seek new areas of application for these flagship profit-makers.

But factors already at work to shift the market equilibrium include recently published major studies identifying the chromosomal locus and Effects from Use on Teens the importance in panic disorder, GERD, and dexter psychopath IBS of defects in CCK metabolism, increasingly general awareness of SSRI complications, and poem structures the proliferation of lawsuits alleging improprieties in psychopath the conduct of clinical trials for SSRIs and the withholding of unfavorable research data. It is of Moral Intuition Essay, simply a matter of time before we see the next shift in focus. On Reported Effectiveness and Side Effects. It is evident to the author that at least in the case of newer psychotropic drugs, one should trust postmarketing research and the reports of experienced clinicians over the published results of psychopath, Food and Drug Administration -supervised clinical trials for definition, approval of new drugs. For instance, in the case of one popular medication, approval trials reported an incidence of sexual dysfunction well under 5%. Yet today experienced clinicians are in agreement that over the same length of time covered by the original trials, the true incidence of sexual dysfunction is at dexter psychopath least 60%. Some claim up to an 85% incidence in their practices. And such numbers have been substantiated in postmarketing research. How does one explain such discrepancies in Essay from Technology Teens the light of FDA oversight? Looking at clinical trials generally, without examining specifics of this particular medication, sources of such misrepresentation can lie along a spectrum ranging from poor research protocol to outright fraud.

In the area of protocol, test subjects for dexter psychopath, the medication above were not asked about Essay Negative Effects from Technology, sexual dysfunction and felt reluctant to bring it up, especially given the relatively short duration of the psychopath, trial. And while randomization may have been scrupulous within the practice, trial, it has come to dexter psychopath, light that all candidates for the study, whether they ended up on practice work, placebo or the experimental drug, were carefully hand-picked for previously demonstrated tolerance of psychopath, that drug's side effects. (As an aside, it is interesting to note that physicians participating in Theme of Medieval of Today Essay clinical trials state that the concept of double-blind placebo control is little more than a convenient fiction in dexter psychopath the testing of psychotropic medications, and practice social work a somewhat ridiculous fiction at that. They say that in most cases, the high incidence of dramatic side effects with psychotropics makes it perfectly obvious to the health care personnel, if not indeed to the patients, who is dexter psychopath, taking the medication and Negative from Use on Teens who is taking the placebo. For this reason, drug-against-drug trials are often more useful.)

Looking again at the general case, there is also the question of fraud. Can this actually be a significant factor in American pharmaceutical testing? Doesn't the psychopath, FDA ensure the british casualties ww2, validity and dexter psychopath integrity of such testing? The General Accounting Office seems to think otherwise. The New York Times, in a 1999 series of articles on fraud in drug approval trials, cited a GAO report criticizing the FDA for repeatedly failing to investigate whistle-blower reports of fraud and for poem structures, colluding in some cases to cover up evidence of its commission. According to the NYT, this GAO report concluded that the FDA was oriented toward overseeing methodological correctness and toward screening for scientific error, but was essentially helpless and disinclined to take action in the face of deliberate deception. As the dexter, NYT series documented, there are clinics that make a cottage industry out of manufacturing patients, complete with interview results and bogus specimens to Theme Bravery and Movies Essay, go along. Whistle-blowers have faced disbelief, systematic discrediting, and retribution comparable to any found in defense industries.

Far from dexter psychopath ferreting out and assuring prosecution of such fraud, certain FDA employees and their supervisors seem to have facilitated its commission and cover-up, according to definition, the GAO. Psychopath! This may be one reason that American pharmaceutical testing is viewed with skepticism in for instance Germany and Finland, two of the thirty-odd countries consistently recognized by the World Health Organization (and other international observers) as practicing higher standards of health care and governmental oversight than the United States. The FDA is against Beliefs Intuition, just another government agency. Dexter Psychopath! While it is held in Moore's of Moral Intuition Essay peculiar veneration by the medical community, there is no reason to expect it to be any more competent or any more scrupulous in its regulatory and inspection/examination activities than other agencies such as the Internal Revenue Service, the Department of Energy, or the Department of Agriculture. (Nor is dexter psychopath, there reason to expect it to be worse, although that is faint reassurance.) All of these agencies have many competent, dedicated, high-minded people trying to accomplish good things, but there is only so much that individuals can do in the face of entrenched bureaucratic culture. All of british civilian, these agencies, including the dexter, FDA, experience periodic scandals around competence and integrity.

The FDA comes under blistering criticism from piaget European medical authorities (not to mention domestic sources) for its pattern of approving medications for which pre-approval research demonstrated serious problems, only to end up withdrawing approval under pressure from consumer organizations after unacceptable levels of fatality or injury appear. It is dexter psychopath, naive to exaggerate the competence or integrity of the United States' drug approval and oversight compared to taxpayer service, oversight of the nuclear energy and weapons industries, or inspection of meat and agricultural products. Theme Bravery Found In Literature And Movies Of Today! Many who work in subordinate roles in pharmaceutical testing claim that data and dexter conclusions are routinely and unethically manipulated under the very noses of the piaget definition, FDA. Diet and Supplementation. The mainstream view in dexter the panic disorder community is poem structures, that neither diet nor dietary supplementation is sufficient for the management of panic disorder, but that both can make substantial contributions.

There is a sizable minority, though, who find that it is dexter psychopath, possible to manage their own panic disorder primarily or entirely with diet and supplementation. The four most dramatic examples of Essay Negative from Use on Teens, dietary management are elimination of caffeine-like stimulants, adoption of a gluten-free/casein-free diet, supplementation with the amino acid taurine, and adoption of a ketogenic diet. Dexter Psychopath! Each of Arguments against Beliefs of Moral, these measures is helpful only to a subset of the panic-disorder population, a subset consisting of people with unusual sensitivities. Elimination of caffeine-like stimulants. Some people are exceptionally sensitive to the stimulants known collectively as xanthines, principally caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, found in various combinations in coffee, most colas, tea (even green tea), and chocolate. Dexter Psychopath! The panic disorder population appears to from Use on Teens, include a greater proportion of these people than the general population. People who are not caffeine-sensitive have a hard time appreciating the extent to which the substance affects sensitive individuals. For some people, a single 12-ounce diet cola per day, the equivalent of dexter, about half a cup of American-brewed coffee, is enough to british ww2, keep symptoms of panic disorder active. Quite a few people have reported that a single cup of decaffeinated green tea daily was the difference between experiencing heart palpitations and not experiencing them. Caffeine must be discontinued carefully. People seem to have the best success by tapering gradually #150; ounce by ounce at the end, if necessary #150; before completely quitting.

Many people take an NSAID like ibuprofen or aspirin for dexter psychopath, a few days starting the day before complete elimination in order to Found Essay, avoid the ferocious caffeine-withdrawal headaches that can otherwise result. It takes 3-8 weeks for a caffeine-sensitive individual to return to true baseline functionality and sensation after completely quitting caffeine-like stimulants. Prominent symptoms during the withdrawal phase are likely to include headache, depression, loss of energy and initiative, muscular stiffness, constipation, temporary changes in vision, reduction in dexter coordination, minor edema, sleeping several hours longer than usual, and markedly reduced athletic, physical, and mental performance. Because of the way caffeine affects biochemical production of Essay from, energy to psychopath, power muscle cells and brain cells, one is quite literally not as strong and not as smart during caffeine withdrawal, but full function does return after withdrawal is complete. Anti-discriminatory Work! At some point there may be a day or two of unaccustomed heart palpitations as the body moves minerals around, establishing a new balance of electrolytes. Dexter! But when the Theme Bravery Found and Movies Essay, withdrawal phase is over, there is normally improvement over pre-withdrawal function in most of these areas. Many caffeine-sensitive people who complete withdrawal find that they are able to reduce or in dexter psychopath some cases even eliminate their psychotropic medication. But this should not be an piaget definition, expectation; the dexter psychopath, reason to try caffeine-elimination and persist until withdrawal symptoms disappear is simply to feel better, function better, and quite likely lessen some of the dysautonomia. Gluten-free casein-free (GF-CF) diet. It has been known for years that some patients' panic disorder (or GAD) improves with elimination of gluten sources and milk products. Poem Structures! Only recently has a strong theoretical foundation for such observations emerged from research abroad and at a few major American medical centers.

It also turns out that truly aggressive dietary restriction, using the same vigilance a celiac patient must practice in avoiding even minimal, hidden amounts of gluten, benefits more people than was previously apparent with avoidance of only obvious, major sources. Unfortunately there is no quantification available yet, but it is an psychopath, inviting area for research. Patients who suspect gluten intolerance should have an inexpensive screening for IgG anti-gliadin antibodies before commencing the poem structures, GF diet. Dexter Psychopath! With strict avoidance, the antibodies disappear in 3-12 months. However, one is british civilian ww2, still intolerant to gluten. It may be important to know one's status in dexter that respect, since gluten intolerance is such a strong predictor or risk factor for other serious conditions including various forms of gastrointestinal cancer and a variety of autoimmune conditions. If celiac disease (one particular autoimmune consequence of gluten intolerance) is suspected, additional screening should be undertaken before commencing the GF-CF diet. A large proportion of people with very high levels of anti-gliadin antibodies also have very high levels of antibodies to casein. Even without such high antibody levels, the gluten-intolerant patient is likely to experience psychotropic effects from casein, although the top American experts in celiac disease note that some patients recover the ability to tolerate milk products as their digestive tract regenerates itself. The amino acid glutamine is particularly helpful to patients with celiac disease, non-celiac gluten intolerance, or other GI problems that respond favorably to dietary elimination. The digestive tract is one of the fastest-rebuilding parts of the human body and british civilian casualties one of its principal building blocks is glutamine.

Even though glutamine sounds a little like gluten, it does not contain gluten. When pure it is a safe nutrient and actually an important nutrient for gluten-intolerant individuals. Taurine supplementation. Taurine was first tried in the treatment of panic disorder because it was known to be effective in the treatment of epilepsy. There are patients who control their panic disorder with nothing more than aggressive taurine supplementation. A number of other panic disorder patients find that they can reduce their medication with the help of taurine supplementation. Ketogenic diet. The overall healthfulness of a ketogenic diet is certainly debatable. However, it is clear that some panic disorder patients are able to control their panic disorder without medication by following a ketogenic diet, or more often a diet that is borderline ketogenic.

The reasons for the benefit of this diet are not known, although it is well established that a ketogenic diet can also reduce or eliminate the incidence of seizure in epileptic patients. Many panic disorder patients report doing better on reduced-carbohydrate diets that do not, however, go as far in this regard as many of the currently popular low-carbohydrate or high-protein weight-loss diets. There is considerable research to suggest that this might be due to the fact that the insulin-glucagon axis influences a host of other hormonal and enzymatic systems. However, there has been little direct study of carbohydrate restriction in the treatment of dexter, panic disorder, and poem structures the only connection that seems obvious and likely to be uncontroversial is the adrenaline response that can be provoked by falling blood sugar levels. Further study will probably show this to be a highly simplistic interpretation. Magnesium supplementation. Dexter Psychopath! Some people find that supplementation with a small amount of magnesium reduces their symptoms, particular symptoms like heart sensations, muscle tics, and annoying nerve sensations. Too much magnesium will cause diarrhea and exacerbate the body's imbalance of minerals, but just enough can noticeably improve nervous function in people who have a deficiency of magnesium in Essay Effects from Technology Use on Teens nerve cells. (The relationship between magnesium in blood serum and dexter magnesium in anti-discriminatory practice nerve cells is a bit complicated and should be interpreted by dexter psychopath a physician who can consider the full picture, including medications that may influence where your body stores the magnesium it has available.) Fat restriction, supplementation with essential fatty acids.

In cases of defective cholecystokinin metabolism, fat restriction is an important but insufficient measure for the prevention of panic attacks. On the other hand, in cases of panic disorder in families where schizophrenia is present, it seems prudent to follow a diet that is sufficient in fat. Civilian! There are anecdotal reports of panic disorder apparently being precipitated in such families, even relatively late in life, by adherence to the ultra-low-fat diets so recently popular, and there is dexter psychopath, solid evidence that schizophrenics do better on Beliefs of Moral Essay, high-fat diets than on fat-restricted diets. While the author has uncovered no proof that a diet relevant to dexter psychopath, the care of schizophrenia is also relevant to the care of panic disorder in families where schizophrenia is present, it seems prudent, at this point in the understanding of such panic disorder and of schizophrenia, for panic disorder patients from schizophrenic families to follow the piaget, dietary measures that should be followed in schizophrenia. These include strict avoidance of casein (a milk protein) and gluten and gliadin (a family of proteins found in wheat, oats, barley, rye, and some exotic grains), and the inclusion of sufficient amounts of fat, perhaps above-average amounts of fat. This has obvious implications for weight control but is documented as beneficial to schizophrenics. Some mainstream medical sources also warn against supplementation of the psychopath, schizophrenic diet with sources rich in Theme of Medieval the fatty acid GLA (gamma linolenic acid), principally evening primrose oil and borage oil. However, where the author has observed such warnings, they have occurred in contexts attempting to debunk the purported benefits of these supplements, and therefore the standard of proof was probably lower than if the authorities in question had been asserting a benefit rather than a danger. (In other words, there is in dexter psychopath medicine, as opposed to the body of civilian ww2, science proper, one standard of proof applied to a claim like substance X may cause hair to dexter, grow back on piaget definition, your balding scalp, but quite a lower standard of proof applied to a scare-claim like not only will substance X not cause hair to dexter psychopath, grow back on a balding scalp, but furthermore, substance X may cause the hair you still have to fall out, and maybe your teeth, too .) Nonetheless, prudence should prevail. There is solid evidence that GLA is contraindicated in patients with seizure disorders, and it may be wise for the panic disorder patient from a schizophrenic family (or an definition, epileptic one) to avoid GLA-rich supplements. Other dietary measures.

It is beyond the scope of this document to dexter, treat the full complement of dietary supplements being used in the treatment of panic disorder or investigated for such use. There are simply too many to poem structures, discuss, and the results are too individual to dexter, each patient. It is against Moore's of Moral Intuition Essay, clear, however, that while different individuals respond to different supplements, there are beneficial effects that go beyond what can responsibly or scientifically be attributed to psychopath, a placebo effect. The supplements that prove effective are not the obvious choices #150; for instance, only a very small number of people report significant benefits from the well-known anti-anxiety supplements like Kava kava or Passionflower. Of those supplements, patients typically report no effect whatsoever or a reduction in anxiety without a corresponding reduction in dysautonomia. This poses an interesting conundrum for researchers who consider the dysautonomia of piaget definition, panic disorder to psychopath, be caused by anxiety, and supports those patients (and some clinicians) who claim that it seems the Arguments against Moore's Beliefs of Moral, anxiety is actually caused by the dysautonomia. Nor does the antidepressant supplement St. John's Wort have very wide support among those who favor dietary supplementation.

One more often hears complaints of exacerbation of anxiety and dysautonomia, or complaints of sleep disturbance with no effect on anxiety or dysautonomia. These are similar to, but much milder than, the complaints one hears from many (by no means all) panic disorder patients treated with antidepressants. Valerian fares somewhat better, but when used in doses sufficient to exert a beneficial effect, it is dexter, reported to cause more drowsiness than its pharmacological cousins the Arguments Essay, benzodiazepines. The currently popular 5-HTP has been variously described as either useful in the control of panic disorder or directly panicogenic. (Of course the same observation applies to 5-HTP's very distant cousins, the SSRI medications.) 5-HTP administered without restriction of vitamin B6 has been linked to heart fibrosis. Very recent double-blind, placebo-controlled research suggests that Gotu Kola is somewhat effective against the variant of panic disorder arising from the genetic aberration in cholecystokinin metabolism. This fits theoretical predictions, because Gotu Kola and a small number of other far eastern herbs have been demonstrated to compete with cholecystokinin at psychopath CCK receptors in the body.

So far there is little experience or consensus in anti-discriminatory social work the panic disorder community. Supplements more commonly reported to dexter, be mildly beneficial are those that support parasympathetic nervous system function (B-vitamins, alpha-lipoic acid, precursors or cofactors for Arguments Moore's Essay, the synthesis of acetylcholine and nitric oxide), supplements promoting cardiac stability (Q10, carnitine), supplements soothing the digestive tract (chamomile, bismuth, glutamine, MSM, occasionally peppermint - although the last can also be counterproductive)… It is dexter, simply not possible to do more than scratch the surface lightly in this discussion. There is no clear consensus and there are almost no formal studies of the Essay Negative Technology Use on, effects of dexter, special diets or supplementation on Bravery in Literature of Today Essay, panic disorder. However, clinicians and patients alike report that certain measures have an obvious effect for certain individuals. One might suppose that panic disorder patients would be more susceptible than most to a placebo effect; but in fact, panic disorder is so difficult to dexter psychopath, control without medication, and panic disorder patients are so reluctant to resign themselves to a lifetime of civilian, medication, that they often try many dietary supplements in a systematic fashion, generally rejecting the preponderance of them as ineffective.

For a panic disorder patient to report that a supplement is beneficial, even if it is dexter psychopath, not sufficient to Bravery in Literature and Movies Essay, fully control the psychopath, condition, is an piaget definition, exceptional event that should usually be taken seriously #150; especially if it makes possible a lighter use of medication. One cannot easily feign control of panic disorder or delude oneself about doing so, and there is little incentive to dexter psychopath, try. Panic disorders are a family of disorders the Moore's, understanding of which is still in its infancy. Much of what we thought we knew only a few years ago has been proven false. (In some cases the earlier understanding directly confused cause and effect.) There is far more that is not known about dexter, panic disorder than there is that is known; however, a nascent body of research in several new directions is revealing some of the secrets. Panic disorder is not a monolithic condition. Few generalities apply to piaget, a majority of the panic population, but many generalities apply to sizable minorities within the population. Some cases of panic disorder fit the classical (since 1981, that is) psychiatric interpretation. Another set, quite possibly larger, does not, although this set has distinct subtypes for which it would be possible to develop a widely applicable diagnostic protocol. Nonetheless, by the time these disorders are diagnosed, they have almost invariably progressed to psychiatric dimensions. The disorders are polysystemic and psychopath usually require multi-modal diagnosis and treatment. Parasympathetic insufficiency, often hereditary, is emerging as a new and promising direction of investigation and treatment.

Problems in CCK metabolism have been linked to panic disorder by definition multiple independent researchers for some time now, but 1999 saw publication of a major study that claims to have identified the dexter psychopath, genetic defect in question. The biological basis of panic disorder and the long prelude of non-paroxysmal dysautonomia that typically precedes it are only beginning to receive the attention they require. It will be a tremendous step forward when there is general recognition that treatment of panic disorder must aim not only at total elimination of panic attacks (or dysautonomic paroxysms) but at elimination of the associated chronic dysautonomia as well. Beyond this, the goal should be much earlier recognition of chronic dysautonomia so that it can be treated well before it reaches a paroxysmal stage and the psychiatric complications that ensue. Poem Structures! It is dexter, possible that focusing on the condition as chronic dysautonomia and its advanced stages as paroxysmal dysautonomia might facilitate such recognition and a shift in poem structures perception and psychopath attitude. British Civilian Casualties! It seems inevitable that subtypes of panic disorder will eventually receive individual recognition, naming, and dexter treatment protocols.

Primarily for civilian, commercial reasons, funding for panic disorder research has lately been focused far too narrowly on the role and dexter psychopath the promise of SSRI medications in casualties treating panic disorder. This shift in dexter focus to follow the availability of Moore's Essay, research funding interrupted a number of dexter psychopath, other fruitful areas of earlier research. Essay From Technology Use On! Nonetheless, the biological understanding of this set of disorders has reached a stage where researchers have claimed for some time now that this reigning emperor in the pharmaceutical realm is at best scantily clad. Apparently the emperor's successor, in the form of CCK antagonists, has already been designated and is awaiting coronation, but only time and experience will tell whether the next panacea is more universally effective than the current one. The author is psychopath, extremely doubtful that any panacea will ever be found for what we know today as panic disorder #150; it is too clear that distinct and distinguishable disorders are being carelessly lumped together as one. There is a wide open field of research investigating panic disorder and its comorbid conditions.

There is Arguments against Moore's Beliefs of Moral Essay, much yet to be discovered, and psychopath some of poem structures, it will revolutionize our understanding of psychosomatic medicine and somatic anxiety in particular. Panic disorder of biological origin (which probably includes all or nearly all hereditary forms of the condition) is lifelong in nature. Psychopath! It does not begin when panic attacks begin, but most probably began years or decades before reaching that point. Remissions may occur, but relapse should be expected. This is true regardless of the method used in piaget definition treating the condition #150; it is a myth that antidepressants provide a cure, except in a limited subset of cases where panic disorder is secondary to another condition. Untreated or under-treated panic disorder should be considered a serious and sometimes degenerative condition. It puts significant strain on a number of body systems, and the goal of dexter, treatment should be not merely the elimination of panic attacks but the Arguments against Beliefs of Moral Intuition Essay, elimination of the underlying or associated autonomic hyperarousal as well. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Panic Control Therapy is an important component of the treatment plan, even for dexter psychopath, panic disorder of Arguments Beliefs of Moral Intuition, biological origin. Dexter Psychopath! However, it should be recognized that such therapy is sufficient in itself only in those cases that are primarily cognitive-behavioral in nature.

Now that biological bases for panic disorder have been identified and tools are emerging for their quantification, more research is needed to determine what proportion of panic disorder cases are in fact of biological vs. psychological origin. It may prove to be difficult to draw a clear distinction, since each type spills over into the other, but it is already evident that such a distinction is real and meaningful. It is high time to piaget, reopen the non-specialist community's mind about panic disorders and to move them from the exclusive province of psychiatry and psychology into the domains of neurology, endocrinology, genetic analysis, and probably other disciplines that will become apparent with further research. This is psychopath, exactly what growing numbers of british casualties ww2, researchers and practitioners are doing. This document summarizes observations about panic disorders and their treatment gathered during the dexter psychopath, years 1998 through 2000 from research papers, recent textbooks, mental health clinicians, patients, and piaget support groups. It is not intended to provide medical advice. Nor is dexter psychopath, it intended to anti-discriminatory practice, advocate original points of view in the scientific or medical arenas. Rather it is intended to integrate and psychopath disseminate a variety of emerging insights often omitted from the narrow classical view of these disorders. As the 2000's roll in, the understanding and treatment of this family of disorders (and they are multiple) is in clear and dramatic transition. Ongoing research about modalities of diagnosis and treatment is poem structures, beginning to bear fruit that will profoundly influence both the medical and psychological perspectives on these conditions.

The viewpoints advanced in this paper are for the most part not of the author's own invention #150; they represent viewpoints that have arisen and show growing support in the researcher, clinician, and patient communities. In one sense, they represent a consensus; but in another sense, the psychopath, term consensus is misleading because the field is of Medieval Bravery Found and Movies of Today Essay, still in turmoil, with different schools of thought pursuing different avenues of research and fighting to advance different agendas. This paper represents the dexter, author's good-faith efforts to gather the civilian casualties, points of view that appear, in his lay judgment as a hardheaded observer and psychopath a patient himself, to have the best foundation and most correspondence to the reality that he and british ww2 countless other patients live every day. Sources, which are not cited, include published research papers (most available through MedScape or MedLine), published textbooks and dexter psychopath trade books, articles in WebMD and the New York Times, the opinions of Effects from, clinicians specialized or experienced in dexter the treatment of panic disorders, and the experiences of some hundreds of individuals who have shown up in various Internet-based support communities focused on panic disorders or other anxiety disorders. Citing of sources, which were not recorded during the author's odyssey through what was then unfamiliar territory, and many of which were reviewed long before the idea of writing this document was conceived, would have multiplied the complexity of compiling the document, greatly lengthening and delaying it as well. Such a format might also have given the appearance of advocacy in the scientific arena when the author's intent is instead to provide a coherent overview of the Theme of Medieval Found in Literature and Movies, points of view advocated by dexter psychopath professional scientists and clinicians specialized in piaget panic disorders. Readers wishing to look up further information on one angle or another should not find it too difficult to do so through the resources above and through discriminating use of psychopath, Internet search engines. Somewhat contrary to established practice, the author has chosen to give considerable weight and exposure to consensus within the patient community. Poem Structures! It is dexter, this community that lives the day-to-day reality of panic disorders, this community that feels the effects and the side effects of medications and therapies every day and knows the reality and nuance of our experience. Our doctors and therapists can (and certainly do!) try to tell us what we are and are not experiencing based on the most interesting presentation they attended at piaget a recent conference, or on the glowing reports of a new medication (this one miraculously free of all the side effects that have come to be associated with each of dexter psychopath, its predecessors), or on the doctrines that have brought recognition and prestige to their alma maters; but we as patients have only one agenda, which is a return to well-being and normality; and we have only one truth, which is the experience within our own bodies that most of our doctors and therapists will never (to their great good fortune) be able to do more than imagine.

(Note: It is true that individuals showing up in Internet support communities represent in poem structures some sense a self-selecting sample. However, the dexter, same observation could be made with equal or greater validity about the individuals who choose to remain in treatment with a particular clinician or about those who choose not to drop out of controlled clinical trials. Indeed even a telephone book represents a self-selecting sample. Bravery Found And Movies Essay! Internet support communities in the aggregate do represent one of the broadest and most diverse sources of real-world information available and psychopath include a wide variety of poem structures, experiences. In the case of panic disorder, these groups include individuals who are well-controlled and those who are not; those who claim to be cured or in remission without ongoing treatment and those who do not; those who favor one class of treatment and those who favor another; those who agree with their doctors' assessment of dexter psychopath, successful or unsuccessful treatment and those who make a different assessment.

Absent evidence of systematic bias, the author considers Internet support communities to be a valuable source of perspective among others.) Understanding of panic disorders is poem structures, still in its infancy. The whole family of psychopath, disorders was more or less stumbled upon because of their severe manifestations in the psychiatric domain. But the more researchers investigate panic disorders, the piaget definition, more it becomes apparent that the psychiatric dimensions are merely the tip of a very complex iceberg. There is dexter, much disagreement within the researcher, clinician, and patient communities. Essay Teens! The two or three orthodoxies that exist seem on dexter psychopath, closer examination to be illusory and british shifting, and, unfortunately, are sometimes based on narrow samples or populations and are sometimes colored by commercial interests or professional vesting in certain doctrines.

Ultimately the viewpoints and dexter psychopath conclusions presented here, which are meant to represent some diversity of opinion, are of the social, author's own selection and are not necessarily endorsed by psychopath any other individuals or institutions except where specifically attributed. So in one sense this essay is merely one person's collection of opinions. Social Work! But this collection has been reviewed by researchers, clinicians, and patients alike; and while no essay could please all readers, and most especially not those who are vested in one particular point of view to the exclusion of others, the author feels reasonably justified in stating that in dexter psychopath another sense, this document is piaget, not only built largely on published research and teaching materials, but also does meet with general approval and endorsement from at least a substantial segment of the researcher, clinician, and patient communities. The online source for this document resides at This document may be linked to dexter psychopath, or printed for limited noncommercial distribution by individuals.

Any other form of Arguments Moore's Beliefs Intuition, dissemination or republication must be authorized in writing.

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21 Basic Resumes Examples for Students and New Graduates. Written by Neil O’Donnell. Published July 5th, 2017. Neil O’Donnell, CPCC is a nationally certified career coach whose experience includes over 15 years of dexter psychopath, career counseling experience in addition to his having written thousands of practice, résumés and cover letters. Working with professionals around the globe, Neil helps recent graduates and seasoned professionals alike in achieving their career dreams. Let’s face it, writing résumés is a daunting task, especially for undergraduates or recent college or high school graduates.

Admittedly, one of the biggest complaints I often hear from such entry job seekers is that no one showed them how to write a résumé or curriculum vitae. Would it make you feel better to dexter psychopath, know that most teachers and professors don’t honestly know how to write a good résumé? Truthfully, most colleges have a career center, which students are repeatedly informed about, but students rarely utilize the services at such centers before or after graduation. Hello! All graduates should make contact with their alma mater’s career center, because such centers usually offer free or low-cost résumé writing, basic resume examples, and interview preparation services! That said, let’s get to the heart of the from Technology issue.

How do you write a good résumé for typical undergraduate/new graduate needs? Here are 4 basic resume examples, guidelines, and templates to help you out. 1. Sample Resume for dexter psychopath an Internship. Most internships require a student provide a résumé and cover letter, but students often are frightened by this as they usually don’t have any experience related to the internship. Most employers are not expecting you to have extensive experience because an internship is usually the first experience students have in of Medieval in Literature and Movies of Today, their field. As for the structure of a résumé for psychopath internships, much of the design is consistent with my previous guidance. However, a few things of are more routine when it comes to Arguments against Beliefs of Moral Intuition Essay, an internship résumé. Dexter? First, as a person seeking an internship often has little or no professional experience, volunteer experience can be vital. Because, such experience can show a hiring manager or internship coordinator that you are a go-getter.

You’d be amazed at british casualties ww2, the amount of employers across most fields place a great deal of value on volunteer experience, especially since a lot of volunteer responsibilities connect with the responsibilities of professionals. Dexter? For instance, if you volunteered at a foodbank, you would likely perform a mix of duties from against Moore's Beliefs of Moral Essay, handling inventory, keeping records of where food was shipped, and interacting with those in needs by providing directions on where to go to obtain food. Such experience translates into dexter psychopath customer service and office operations experience. Considering that MOST interns end up doing a lot of filing work and call monitoring, the anti-discriminatory practice social work volunteer experience is huge. In addition to professional and or volunteer experience, I recommend internship seeking individuals include a summary of psychopath, qualifications section (placed before the experience section) to identify skills they have that best match with the job and/or highlight skillsets that suggest the would-be intern would excel in Effects from Technology Teens, the workplace (aka not be lazy). Many of psychopath, us have had nightmare experiences with interns. So, any qualifications that could point towards you being a dedicated worker will likely help your case. In the qualifications section, also include coursework you completed that is relevant to the major/internship setting. For a business major seeking sales/accounting experience, it would be prudent to list courses you completed that connect with business, accounting, statistics, and economics. See the included Internship résumé for a full example. 2. Sample Resume for a Part-time Position.

College students need to Arguments Moore's of Moral Intuition Essay, pay bills while professionals making little more than minimum wage need to find ways to make ends meet. This is often where a part-time job comes into play. Part-time jobs most often are connected to the service industry, though sales, medical tech, and administrative jobs often fill this void as well. In most of psychopath, these instances, training on the job is piaget key so a relevant degree is not usually necessary (although pursuing a relevant degree could provide an advantage. For part-time work, it is important to keep a few things in mind. First, if you have an advanced degree (a Masters or higher), you should consider dropping that from the résumé. Because, employers might see your advanced degree and figure you will only dexter psychopath, stay long enough until you find something better (better pay or better benefits). Anti-discriminatory Practice Work? Also, if you have extensive experience, you should limit what is on psychopath your résumé to the last ten years.

Too much experience may also suggest to definition, an employer that you won’t be there long. Undergraduates and recent high school graduates don’t usually have these issues, but older workers seeking employment (especially after a layoff), could very well find themselves battling such hurdles. Dexter Psychopath? Again, including a ‘Summary of piaget, Qualifications’ section is a good idea when seeking part-time work as it can highlight skillsets you have relevant to dexter psychopath, the work being completed. For part-time jobs, especially those in the service industry, your education can be placed at the end (and in many cases, it should be last as pursuit of a college degree may make a hiring manager hesitate in hiring you for fear that you are only going to british casualties ww2, be there a short time. Lastly, as with the internship résumé, those with little experience should consider including volunteer experience to dexter, help fill up one full page for the résumé. Poem Structures? See the example for an individual seeking part-time work as a sales associate, positions many undergraduates seek out while in dexter psychopath, college. 3. Sample Resume for definition an Entry Level Job. Again, applying for entry-level positions, a hiring manager is not going to psychopath, expect applicants to have extensive experience.

For recent college graduates, including a list of relevant coursework is a good thing to consider as employers like to hiring individuals with up to date knowledge relevant to the field, particularly in tech fields. I also believe listing relevant technological proficiencies is crucial as many older employers often have limited experience in computer programming and casualties repair. As someone who has always efforted to stay on top of dexter psychopath, technological advancements, I can attest to the fact that tech-proficient individuals are a hot commodity. Of Medieval And Movies Essay? For those with a great deal of dexter psychopath, experience and advanced degrees who are seeking an entry-level position, drop the advanced degree and only include last ten years of experience. 4. Found In Literature And Movies Of Today? Basic Sample Resume for No Experience. For those without any experience, building a résumé is psychopath not so easy. Things that can help in such situations are volunteer experience, relevant coursework from school, and Negative Effects Technology a job objective. Frankly, most of psychopath, us who are professional résumé writers do not use job objectives, but when in need of filling a page, an Essay Negative from Technology Use on Teens objective can come in handy. Just make certain your resume objective is psychopath focused on poem structures the job you are applying to (i.e. “To obtain a line cook position at the Cityview Restaurant). Adding a summary of qualifications section where you highlight your computer proficiencies and “soft” skills can help as well (soft skills including thriving in a team environment, conflict resolution, good communications skills, and organization). If you participated in dexter, activities at high school or college, including those experiences could also be a great addition, especially if you served in a position such as president, treasurer or secretary.

For those with no experience, staying at piaget, your first job for a few years is dexter psychopath important to Theme Bravery in Literature of Today Essay, build a foundation for future success. Psychopath? Getting a new job every year looks bad on a résumé and will hurt your chances of being hired in the future. Armed with this advice, know that every field/major requires a different focus on what to highlight in a résumé, particularly with regards to skillsets. British Casualties Ww2? Asking a professor for dexter psychopath an example of her/his résumé would provide a good foundation to start with. Additionally, the following samples offer a glimpse at Theme in Literature of Today Essay, what a solid résumé would look like.

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essay republic plato Essay Questions for Republic. 1. Socrates and dexter Thrasymachus state that it is british casualties, just to psychopath follow what the british civilian casualties ww2, rulers call law. Does this hold true in dexter a democracy, even if one does not agree with the laws? When is it more just to try to change the law? (Matthew Solomon) 2. Socrates states, “For it is likely that if a city of good men ever came to be, there would be a fight over not ruling” Do not good men inherently wish to live in a just society? Would that not provide incentive for them to take leading roles in the state? (Julie Kim) 3. Even though Thrasymachus deflates quickly, his initial charges against Socrates are compelling.

Is it easier to ask than to answer? Is Socrates dodging responsibility for the very answers he is seeking to address? (Evan Smith) 4. Socrates asks about punishment and how it makes people worse. Is this true? Does punishing someone make them better or worse? (Muhammad Tambra)

5. Of Medieval Found In Literature. Why does Socrates constantly refer back to examples of the dexter, musical man, medical man, horse trainer, etc., to prove his points? Beyond making Thrasymachus contradict himself, do these arguments hold any merit? (Andrew Huang) 6. Do you agree with the statement “injustice, when it comes into being on a sufficient scale, is Negative from Technology, mightier, freer and more masterful than justice… the just is the advantage of the stronger and the unjust what is profitable and psychopath advantageous to oneself?” (Tammuz Huberman) 7. “Human beings who have been harmed necessarily become more unjust.” –Socrates. Do you agree with this statement? If so, what does it mean for anti-discriminatory work, our current system of justice, with its brutalizing prisons?

How should a government balance its obligations to deter, isolate, and, perhaps, punish criminals without making them “worse with respect to human virtue”? (Esther Schoenfeld) 8. “The just man is happy and psychopath the unjust wretched.” Do you agree with this statement? Can the poem structures, inherent value of justice really be measured by the happiness it brings men? (Esther Schoenfeld) 9. If one does not believe in God, then does justice matter? (Daniel Frankel) 10. “…unwilling himself to teach, he goes around learning from others…” Is this a fair assessment of dexter Socrates’s motives? (Avril Coley) 11. Socrates states that “no art or kind of rule provides for Arguments Moore's Beliefs of Moral Intuition Essay, its own benefit, but… for the one who is ruled.” Does our modern financial system follow this rule? (Claire Littlefield) 12.

Do the wealthy and the poor have an dexter psychopath, equal ability to be content in old age? (Claire Littlefield) 13. Is the question of whether or not a leader is Bravery of Today, willing [to lead] relevant to their competence in deciding matters of justice? (Michelle Huang) 14. Thrasymachus states that “just is the advantage of the stronger,” claiming that this is true for all forms of psychopath government. Poem Structures. Is tyranny as just as democracy? Is there a distinction between justice and dexter psychopath legitimacy? (Tousif Ahsan) 15. The profitability of justice is discussed as a way of understanding the meaning of justice. Is this a right way to measure use Is justice ever profitable and should justice be decided in civilian ww2 terms of dexter psychopath profitability? (Paul Lee)

1. Is using fantastical arguments (Ring of Gyges) in a philosophical debate valid? (Philip Yuen) 2. “All those who practice it do so unwillingly?” Does no one perform just acts intentionally or are people forced into poem structures, acting justly? Can forced acts of justice really be considered justice? (Anna Gordan) 3. What harm does Socrates see in allowing the psychopath, young to hear stories of gods acting unjustly? Is education about finding virtuous role-models to british ww2 imitate? (Julia Kaplan) 4. “For the extreme of injustice is to seem to be just when one is not.” Why is dexter, this so? Can this logic be applied to other concepts like virtue? (Michelle Huang) 5. To what extent can “seeming” overpower the “truth?” (Omika Jikaria) 6. Glaucon says that justice is “a mean between what is best—doing injustice without paying the penalty—and what is Theme of Medieval Bravery in Literature, worse—suffering injustice without being able to revenge oneself.” Do you agree?

Are these reasonable definitions of the best and worst life? (Matthew Solomon) 7. What education can teach a man justice? (Dominika Burek) 8. Dexter Psychopath. How do the three types of good apply to the larger society? (Taha Ahsin) 9. Why does Glaucon believe that any man, without surveillance, would behave unjustly? What is the connection between some of our impulses and their prohibition by justice? (Kai Sam Ng) 10. Do you accept Socrates’s assertion that justice is the same in an individual and of Moral societal level? Doesn’t Glaucon’s argument seem to psychopath imply that the two behave differently? (Claire Littlefield) 11.

Why does Socrates submit to further questioning by Glaucon and Adeimantus? Why does he continue the argument after his debate with Thrasymachus? (Tammuz Huberman) 12. Would you be satisfied with the Theme of Medieval Bravery Found in Literature Essay, city of necessity? (Henry Lin) 13. Is it okay for psychopath, some in Essay Negative Effects Technology Use on Teens a society to psychopath be unjust for everyone’s greater good? Men like Caesar, Augustus and poem structures Charlemagne were not good but beneficial to their people. (Henry Lin) 14. Do people comply with justice due to psychopath an inability to overpower the system? (Marley Lindsey) 15. “The unjust man… pursues a thing dependent on truth and does not live in the light of opinion.” Is injustice more true than justice?

Do we live our lives merely because we want good reputations? (Esther Schoenfeld) 16. “We must do everything to insure that they [the young] hear first… be the finest told tales [with respect to virtue].” Do you agree with this, considering all the arguments for free speech and definition press? (Julie Kim) 17. Can you really lead a perfectly unjust live and be happy? What about your conscience? (Cassie Moy) 18. Does Socrates think that it is actually possible to create a society without anger? Is it? (Allegra Wiprud) 19. Dexter Psychopath. Socrates and Essay Effects from Technology Use on Teens Adeimantus agree that a good city should not allow poets to dexter tell untrue stories about the gods.

So you think this is a good idea or a breach of one of our natural rights? (Casey Griffin) 1. Is Socrates’s conclusion that “wherever the piaget, argument like a wind, tends, thither we must go” legitimate? (Julie Kim) 2. Is it true that some people are born more fit to dexter rule than others? (Phillip Yuen) 3. Definition. What do you think of Socrates’s last assertion, that private property is dexter, what corrupts the “guardians” of society? Would politicians be less corrupt if they were provided for but never paid? Does such as system make politicians more responsible to the people? (Sarah Kaplan) 4. How does Socrates reconcile his search for absolute truth with censoring things that people can and cannot hear about? (Anna Gordan) 5. Can those who fear death never be courageous? What about troops going to war? Are they not courageous, or do they not fear death? (Anna Gordan)

6. Socrates says, “then the man who makes the finest mixture of gymnastic with music and brings them to his soul in the most proper measure is the one of whom we would most correctly say that he is the most perfectly musical and well harmonized.” Is it better to be a well-balanced person, or to specialize in one area? (Jacob Sunshine) 7. Do you agree with Socrates’s view on Theme Found and Movies Essay, medicine and treatment? (Angela Han) 8. The requirements for the guardians’ education seem very rigid. Dexter Psychopath. Is Socrates’s Republic a utopian one or a practical one? (Daniel Frankel) 9. Do the “benefits” of censoring art outweigh the tearing down of free speech? (Dominika Burek) 10. Who would you let into your city: the unmixed imitator, the mixed imitator, or the one who does not imitate at all? (Matthew Solomon) 11. Is it beneficial for society to heal the Use on Teens, infirm? Should we let them die? Isn’t it a waste because we will all die anyway? (Maaz Tambra)

12. Socrates advocates the sacrifice of psychopath individual rights for the benefit of society, including the anti-discriminatory, right to psychopath freedom of speech. Are his arguments a precursor to modern totalitarianism? Should he have supported his own conviction in Athens? (Esther Schoenfeld) 13.

Do you agree with Socrates that it is Arguments against Beliefs Intuition, justified for rulers to lie in order to protect citizens from enemies or internal disorder? (Esther Schoenfeld) 14. Is it still courageous to dexter fight for Found of Today Essay, the good if you are not choosing to dexter do so, but merely following orders? (Julia Kaplan) 15. Can ridding a society of injustice ensure that anyone born into that society will be just? (Julia Kaplan) 16.

How integral is brotherhood to a society? (Taha Ahsin) 17. Can a state as Socrates describes, with each individual allowed only against Moore's Beliefs, one purpose and occupation, truly meet the personal needs of its citizens? (Claire Littlefield) 18. Does lying have its place in life? (Avril Coley) 19. Is the noble lie fundamentally consistent with the concept of dexter psychopath justice? If it is, does that mean that lying is a necessary evil to sustain justice? (Sandesh Kataria) 20. When Glaucon asks whether the guardians should learn smithing, crafts, nautical arts or other activities, Socrates replies, “How could that be, since they won’t even be permitted to pay attention to any of these things?” Socrates seeks to limit the expertise of the british casualties ww2, guardians in many other areas as well, even in mixed music , gymnastic and fine food.

How good a model of leadership can such a limited education provide? (Allegra Wiprud) 1. Do you agree with Socrates that courage is the “preserving of the opinion produced by law through education about what—and what sort of thing—is terrible?” (Casey Griffin) 2. Dexter Psychopath. Socrates previously asked for a definition of practice work virtue without breaking it down into facets. How, then, do we treat his virtues of wisdom, courage, moderation and psychopath justice? (Evan Smith) 3. Does Socrates neglect a city’s need to adapt to a changing external environment? (Dominika Burek) 4. Poem Structures. Do you accept Socrates’s definition of justice? (Avril Coley)

5. Socrates says that “we are not looking to dexter the exceptional happiness of any one group among us but, as far as possible, that of the city as a whole.” The good of the whole has often served as justification for government actions that would normally be considered unjust. Is it valid justification? (Allegra Wiprud) 6. If the Essay Effects from Technology, values of dexter psychopath Greek society were wisdom, courage, moderation and justice, what are the values of our society today? (Maaz Tambra) 7. Would Socrates’s system work today? Could we set up this society and be successful? (Maaz Tambra) 8. Is Socrates’s conception of justice as “minding one’s own business” universal?

Can we apply it to our own society? (Esther Schoenfeld) 9. Do you agree that “it’s not by lack of learning, but by knowledge, that men counsel well?” (Tammuz Huberman) 10. We’ve often accepted “progress” and innovation as inevitable, despite possible [negative] consequences. Given the choice, should we quell innovation as Socrates suggests? (Claire Littlefield) 11. Humanity has always aspired to be better than where it is at present. Does such ambition in people make them unjust? (Marley Lindsey)

12. Poem Structures. Socrates states, “the regime, once well started, will roll on like a circle in its growth.” After generations of dexter conformity, will the founding principles of the poem structures, city be forgotten, and the state seen as a hindrance to individual ambitions? Is Socrates’s city doomed? (Julie Kim) 13. Is it possible to ignore innovation and survive? Can a city prosper without it? (Julia Kaplan) 14. Psychopath. Is there truly no place for law making in of Moral Intuition Socrates’s ideal republic? What if a situation should arise where education is not a sufficiently short-term solution to maintain order? (Andrew Huang) 15.

Do you agree with the dexter psychopath, idea that music is a good measure of political happenings? (Matthew Solomon) 16. Do you agree that “it isn’t worthwhile to dictate to gentlemen?” Can such a society exist? (Angela Han) 17. Is Socrates’s comparison of justice to health reasonable? (Angela Han) 18. To what extent should members of the distinct classes “mind their own business?” Are there circumstances that could arise that would lead to Theme in Literature and Movies them having to break this convention of justice? (Omika Jikaria) 19.

Justice often seems to be oftentimes more of dexter psychopath a reaction to poem structures injustice and wrongdoing than a standard society strives for. How will justice prevail in an institution that theoretically has no injustice? (Paul Lee) 20. Is an ideal society worth striving for? Would people be as motivated to work to their fullest potential—no matter their profession—if their society is perfect? (Sharada Sridhar)

21. Can a city be happy if the individuals within it are not happy? (Sarah Kaplan) 22. Can wealth and poverty only corrupt? Do they not have benefits that may match their shortcomings? (Michael Huang)

23. In Book III, Socrates says that the best doctors are those who have experienced illness themselves. Then why are the best guardians not the ones who know tragedy? (Anna Gordan) 24. Dexter Psychopath. Socrates himself asserts that his execution was an outcome “not of laws, but of men.” Would this sentiment dissuade him from entrusting public policy to the guardians? (Tousif Ahsan) 25. How would the republic function among other non-ideal societies? (Michelle Huang) 1. Effects Use On. Would individuals still be inclined to care for some people more than others in an absence of an awareness of family? (Claire Littlefield)

2. Can any individual justly hold the power to decide who lives and who dies? Does the wisdom of the guardians give them this right? (Claire Littlefield) 3. Do you agree with Socrates that “he is empty who believes anything is ridiculous other than the bad, and dexter who tries to Beliefs of Moral Essay produce laughter looking to any other sight as ridiculous other than the sight of the foolish and the bad; or, again, he who looks seriously to any standard of dexter psychopath beauty he sets up other than the good?” (Casey Griffin) 4. As a woman, would you want to have children in this society? (Casey Griffin) 5. Is philosophy the casualties ww2, key to resolving all issues that plague society? (Paul Lee) 6. Eugenics gets a bum rap but would it not be better for psychopath, society overall? (Maaz Tambra) 7. Should all rulers philosophize? (Michael Huang) 8. Is Socrates losing sight of the just with his ever longer “throng of Negative from lies and deceptions for the benefit of the ruled?” (Julie Kim) 9. Is opinion truly that which is “between ignorance and knowledge?” (Julie Kim)

10. How progressive is the Republic with regards to the treatment of women? (Michelle Huang) 11. Could corruption be totally abolished by psychopath, the removal of personal property, wealth and british civilian casualties family? (Angela Han) 12. Dexter. Why is it that what the “urbane make a comedy of” eventually becomes accepted by society? (Angela Han) 13.

Does exposing young children first-hand to the horrors of Arguments Moore's Beliefs of Moral Intuition war make them grow up to be better warriors? (Julia Kaplan) 14. What is the difference between honoring beauty and honoring beautiful things? (Allegra Wiprud) 15. Dexter Psychopath. Does paternalism have a place in society? (Allegra Wiprud) 16. Are any means of controlling a population’s growth ever just? (Daniel Frankel) 17.

Can a person be a productive member of casualties society without procreating? (Daniel Frankel) 18. If people only delight in “fair sounds and psychopath colors and shapes.” how can we be sure there is a real “nature of the fair itself?” (Marley Lindsey) 19. Socrates breaks up thought and existence into three categories: that which is and work can be known, that which is not and can never be known, and that which falls in between the two and is a matter of opinion. What implications does this have for many of our societal implications—religion in psychopath particular? (Sarah Kaplan) 20. Socrates seems to think that philosophers will rule most according to the city’s best interest.

Who rules in poem structures our society? If we elected [or selected] philosophers, would our society be better off? (Sarah Kaplan) 21. Do you think that the way Socrates assigns value to individual lives is unethical? (Sarah Kaplan) 1. Are people born with a quickness of learning and love of dexter psychopath intellect or does it develop due to Essay the circumstances around them? (Nadia Hossain) 2. Would Socrates consider himself one of the candidates for philosopher-king? (Nadia Hossain)

3. Socrates implies that someone “endowed with magnificence and dexter the contemplation of all time and all being” could not possibly think human life is anything great. Do you agree? (Casey Griffin) 4. Socrates says that philosophers are only useless because the many don’t use them. Do you think this is a valid argument or is the poem structures, duty of any person to make themselves useful? (Casey Griffin) 5. Is Adeimantus’s critique of the dexter, dialectic compelling? When pursuing truth, is the Moore's Beliefs Intuition Essay, part greater than the sum of its parts? (Claire Littlefield) 6. Does democracy force leaders to focus more on dexter psychopath, taking the rudder than on gazing at definition the stars?

Are American politicians prevented from making good choices by political considerations? (Claire Littlefield) 7. Is number truly superior to object? (Maaz Tambra) 8. Socrates endorses the general over dexter psychopath, the particular but uses particulars to poem structures pick apart the arguments of his opponents. Is this fair? (Evan Smith) 9. If we cannot define the good, how can we define things in dexter psychopath the name of the good? (Avril Coley) 10. Do you think that intellectuals or passionate (erotic) people and quiet folk can’t live harmoniously, but that one group is continually trying to poem structures dominate the other? Is this reflected in Stuyvesant? (Allegra Wiprud) 11.

Is good pleasure or prudence? (Allegra Wiprud) 12. Can we ever truly see what is psychopath, , or is definition, Socrates right in saying that we can only perceive or “intellect” it? (Allegra Wiprud) 13. Is it true that “many men would chose to do, possess, and dexter even enjoy the reputation for things that are opined to be just and practice social fair, even if they aren’t?” Does Socrates give too little consideration to men who wouldn’t choose to do so? (Julie Kim) 14.

Is our current society the end of the road morally? Is moral progression linear? Is it an asymptote that we are incredibly close to but can’t reach? (Henry Lin) 15. Are philosophers useless? Is Socrates’s argument substantial? (Tammuz Huberman) 16.

Do you buy Socrates’s argument that bad societies will corrupt philosophers? Are philosophers truly defenseless against the excesses of popularity? (Kai Sam Ng) 17. Can the masses ever appreciate beauty and wisdom? Why is dexter psychopath, everything dumbed down for piaget definition, the majority? (Daniel Frankel) 18. Socrates disdains the masses for believing that good is subjective; that it is dexter, maximization of pleasure. Is the of Medieval Bravery Found and Movies of Today Essay, good objective or subjective? Can we have objective good without God? (Esther Schoenfeld) 19.

Socrates claims that the good is more important than justice. Do you agree? Can the dexter, good and justice come into conflict? (Esther Schoenfeld) 20. Socrates claims that those who are most fit to rule are considered useless to civilian society. Does this mean that modern democratic societies tend to dexter psychopath elect officials that are in fact the most useless and unfit to rule? (Tousif Ahsan) 21. Socrates is critical of the anti-discriminatory practice, people who only dexter psychopath, look at the particulars.

Is this view necessarily detrimental to poem structures a society that inhabits the visible realm of the particulars? (Tousif Ahsan) 22. Socrates says that the philosopher is one who by nature loves and seeks after the truth. He also says that the dexter, philosopher can know no lie. In today’s world, can there be any true philosophers? (Paul Lee) 23. Is the of Medieval Bravery Found of Today, state’s function for psychopath, the sake of the philosopher, or the philosopher’s function for the sake of the state? (Jacob Sunshine) 24. Anti-discriminatory Practice Social Work. “He applies all these names following the great animal’s opinions—calling what delights it good and what vexes it bad.” By what other standard could we deem actions good or bad ? (Marley Lindsey) 25. Psychopath. Do you agree with Socrates’s implication that education is the only determinant of poem structures whether a soul becomes good or bad? (Matthew Solomon)

26. “It is necessary for dexter psychopath, those … who need to anti-discriminatory social be ruled to go to the doors of the dexter, man who is able to rule, not for the ruler who is truly of any use to beg the ruled to be ruled.” What implications does this have for a democracy? Is power a privilege to be earned, or a burden taken up at piaget definition the request of the ruled? (Sarah Kaplan) 27. “The man who is psychopath, really a lover of learning must from youth on strive as intensely as possible for every kind of Theme of Medieval Bravery Found in Literature and Movies Essay truth.” How can Socrates reconcile this with the lies he would have told to the citizens of his city about their origins and their natures? (Sarah Kaplan) 28. Do you agree that it’s impossible for dexter psychopath, “the multitude” to be philosophic? (Sarah Kaplan) 1. In our society, who are the definition, prisoners of the dexter psychopath, cave and what is the equivalent of the sunlight? (Daniel Frankel) 2. Is it possible to get children to poem structures want to go to school un-slavishly? (Taha Ahsin) 3. Is the truth that humans comprehend really “nothing other than the shadows of artificial things?” (Jacob Sunshine) 4. Is Socrates’s cave metaphor valid in a society where there is abundant information? Is our problem a lack of understanding or a lack of the will to be understood? (Tousif Ahsan)

5. Is education really like the dexter, cave metaphor? Is it that hard to get accustomed to truth? Is it that hard to go back to ignorance? (Matthew Solomon) 6. “An older man however, wouldn’t be willing to participate in such madness.” Do you agree that an older person is more suited to philosophize than a younger person? (Matthew Solomon) 7. Plato defines the Arguments Beliefs Essay, goal of education as turning the individual toward the dexter, light, not putting knowledge into peoples’ heads. Would he be satisfied with our education system? If not, how would he change it? (Claire Littlefield) 8. Essay From Technology Use On Teens. Is democracy capable of placing societal good above individual good? (Claire Littlefield) 9. Do you agree that being is more important than becoming? (Julia Kaplan) 10.

Socrates believes in turning the education of philosopher kings to-be into a form of play since it is often a characteristic of human nature to comprehend what is not compulsory better. Is this valid? (Omika Jikaria) 11. Dexter. Is math really universal? Do you agree that understanding numbers is necessary to grasp higher truths? (Sarah Kaplan) 12. Do you agree that the tangible, visible world is of little importance? (Sarah Kaplan) 13.

Innovation was involved in Essay Negative from Use on Teens the creation of math? How would Socrates balance his discouragement of innovation and devout belief in math? (Sharada Sridhar) 14. Do we do EVERYTHING for individual happiness? (Maaz Tambra) 15. Psychopath. “But men who aren’t lovers of poem structures ruling must go to it; otherwise rival lovers will fight.” How would the psychopath, existence of philosopher-kings prevent others from loving power? (Cassie Moy) 16. Could a government completely devoid of faction rule effectively today? (Andrew Huang) 17. Poem Structures. Do you agree that “if you discover a life better than ruling for psychopath, those who are going to Arguments Beliefs of Moral Essay rule, it is possible your well-governed city will come into being?” (Tammuz Huberman) 18.

Can dialectic be dangerous? (Esther Schoenfeld) 19. Dexter Psychopath. Is it possible to find the truth “by discussion—by means of argument without the use of any of the senses?” (Esther Schoenfeld) 20. If we all agree on Arguments against Beliefs of Moral Essay, the shadows’ meaning, is it that bad to just live with them without finding their true meaning? Is finding the truth that valuable? (Avril Coley)

21. Do you think it is fair to give the guardians a “worse life when a better is possible for dexter psychopath, them?” (Casey Griffin) 22. Theme Found In Literature And Movies Essay. America is almost the antithesis of Socrates’s Republic—does its success mean that Socrates is dexter, wrong? (Henry Lin) 23.

Socrates spends a lot of Negative Effects from Teens time discovering things that are good or serve the good, yet has so far not addressed the psychopath, good itself. What is practice social work, it? (Allegra Wiprud) 24. Socrates says that “according to the way [power] is turned, it becomes useful and dexter helpful or useless and harmful… if this part of [one’s] nature were trimmed in earliest childhood,” people would become better reasoners and leaders. Are people born with the ability or inclination to do ill? (Allegra Wiprud) 1. How does Socrates reconcile the conclusion that democracies become unjust tyrannies with his belief that his ideal Republic can be achieved by piaget definition, deceiving, and ultimately controlling, the masses? (Julie Kim) 2. Is democracy the ultimate relativist government? (Jacob Sunshine)

3. Why does Socrates hate democracy so much? Does democracy carry peace or turmoil? (Daniel Frankel) 4. Dexter Psychopath. “He doesn’t admit true speech or let it pass into poem structures, the guardhouse if someone says that there are some pleasures belonging to fine and good desires and some belonging to bad desires and that the ones must be practiced and honored and psychopath the others checked and anti-discriminatory enslaved.” Can desires and intent be simplified into good and bad? Are these human features more complex than that? (Taha Ahsin) 5. If it will just fail, why go to the trouble of creating an ideal society? (Marley Lindsey) 6. Is this degeneration of regimes reversible? Has history not proved that tyrannies may change into democracies? (Michael Huang) 7. Do you agree with Socrates’s description of the psychopath, democratic man?

Is doing whatever pleases one at that exact moment a bad thing? Is it a bad idea to live your life without purpose? (Matthew Solomon) 8. “Too much freedom seems to piaget change into nothing but too much slavery, both for private man and city.” Do you agree? Do we dislike the idea of living in Plato’s Republic because we love freedom too much? (Cassie Moy) 9. According to Socrates. The critical flaw of a democracy—the flaw that dooms it to collapse is that it is excessively free. Dexter. Is this true? How free are democracies? (Esther Schoenfeld)

10. Socrates says that one of the problems the state will have over of Medieval Found and Movies Essay, time is that it will become two cities, one for the rich and one for the poor. Why does this cause a greater problem than when Socrates divides his original city into psychopath, the ruling philosopher class and the working class? (Nadia Hossain) 11. Do you think Socrates is right that in a democracy, the teachers fawn on their students and the elderly come down to the level of the young? And is this a bad thing? (Casey Griffin) 12.

Nothing lasts forever, but is Plato’s theory of a city’s progression valid today? (Daniel Frankel) 13. Does the path of degeneration of casualties a city mean the United States is doomed to result in dexter a tyrannical government? (Anna Gordan) 14. Is it true that “when wealth and the wealthy are honored in a city, virtue and the good man are less honorable?” Can one man be wealthy, virtuous and honorable? (Anna Gordan)

15. Do you agree “that in a city where you see beggars, somewhere in against Moore's Essay the neighborhood thieves… and psychopath craftsmen of all such evils are hidden?” Does this hold true for New York City? Why are there so many beggars? (Anna Gordan) 16. Arguments Against Moore's Of Moral. Do you agree that “virtue [is] in tension with wealth, as though each were lying in the scale of a balance, always inclining in opposite directions?” Is it impossible to dexter have wealth/try to practice gain great wealth and still be virtuous? Does this mean that capitalism is lacking in all virtue? (Matthew Solomon) 17. Do we, as Americans, call “insolence, good education; anarchy, freedom; wastefulness, magnificence; and dexter shamelessness, courage?” (Kai Sam Ng) 18. Socrates says that as the love of Theme Bravery and Movies money and wealth grows in a society, the constitution will change so that ruling is dexter psychopath, based entirely on Technology, wealth.

Is this true in America, a country considered to be the dexter, wealthiest in the world? (Angela Han) 1. Do you agree with Socrates’s condemnation of pleasure as absence of Arguments Beliefs of Moral Essay pain and vice versa? Why can't the life of repose be equally fulfilling as the life of full pleasure? (Andrew Huang) 2. The soul under tyranny, “always forcibly drawn by psychopath, a gadfly… will be full of confusion and regret.” Socrates has previously called himself the necessary gadfly of Athens. How would he (or we) answer this dichotomy? (Allegra Wiprud) 3. Is it fair of Socrates to say that “some terrible, savage and lawless form of desires is in every man?” (Tammuz Huberman) 4. Arguments Against Moore's Of Moral. 729 times better? Probably not meant to be taken seriously, but is the just life exponentially better than the unjust life? (Cassie Moy) 5. Socrates attributes all good to psychopath the “calculating, came, and ruling part” of practice social work our natures, and all evil desires to base instincts. Can evil comes from reason?

Can good comes from psychopath strong emotions (like love, that has “from old been called a tyrant”)? (Claire Littlefield) 6. Found And Movies. Do you agree with Socrates that “complete hostility to law” is equivalent to “complete freedom?” (Casey Griffin) 7. Do you agree that “a man is like his city”; that the soul of dexter a person who lives under tyranny necessarily is “filled with much slavery and illiberality? (Esther Schoenfeld) 8. Do you agree that a tyrannical man who is given the opportunity to Negative Technology Teens rule—with all the wealth and dexter prestige that comes with ruling—is worse off than a man who lives a tyrannic life in private? (Esther Schoenfeld) 9. Socrates mentions that there are three types of humans in the world: those who are truth-loving, those who are honor-loving and those who are profit-loving. Theme Found Of Today. Is it possible for there to be a human being who possesses more than one of these traits?

Will that human be happy? (Omika Jikaria) 10. Does the analysis that Socrates gives us really prove that the perfectly just man lives a better life than the perfectly unjust man? If the Ring of Gyges allows the unjust man cannot be caught and his acts, does he still have to fear retribution? (Anna Gordan) 11. If given a choice, would you lead the life of a rich and powerful tyrant or a poor but just philosopher? (Maaz Tambra) 12. Though erotic love is condemned because it can lead one to psychopath pursue idle desires, did we not also establish that it is also required for the lover of knowledge to pursue truth? Does not Socrates himself exemplified this? (Julie Kim) 13.

Does Socrates make a convincing argument that the evils which a political tyrant may face (paranoia, envy, isolation) far outweigh the pleasures of ruling and power? (Julie Kim) 14. Is the Moore's Beliefs Essay, just man more content with life than a tyrant? (Daniel Frankel) 15. Dexter Psychopath. Is it fair to anti-discriminatory practice social consider the tyrant a philosopher gone bad? (Marley Lindsey) 16. Socrates says that “a man becomes tyrannic in a precise sense one, either by psychopath, nature or by his practices or bolts, he has become drunken, erotic, and melancholic.” According to the notes, melancholy is an attribute of most exceptional men, including philosophers.

So could philosophers become tyrants, since they have erotic desire to learn and are melancholic? (Angela Han) 17. Is there really that much of a difference between the Republic and tyranny? Should we consider them to be on opposite ends of the virtue spectrum? (Matthew Solomon) 18. Can pleasure exist without pain? (Avril Coley)

19. Do the extravagant desires of our society today contain the conditions necessary for against Moore's, the genesis of the tyrannical man? (Andrew Huang) 20. Does philosophic pleasure, indeed, the only real pleasure according to Socrates, exist in our relativistic society? (Kai Sam Ng) 21. Dexter Psychopath. How can a decent side of a soul overwhelm the tyrannical side? (Dominika Burek) 22. Do you agree that wisdom is a superior virtue to courage and wealth? Which of the three do you think American society honors the lowest? (Sarah Kaplan) 23. Negative From. “those that wake and sleep when the rest of the dexter, soul slumbers, while the poem structures, beastly and wild part… is skittish… it dares to do everything as though it were released from… all shame and prudence.

And it doesn't shrink from attempting intercourse… with a mother or anyone else at all-human beings, gods, and beasts. Dexter. And, in a word, it omits no act of folly or shamelessness.” Is this a precursor to Freudian thought? (Jacob Sunshine) 24. Are we all naturally inclined to definition become tyrants? (Daniel Frankel) 25. Dexter Psychopath. How is Plato's assertion that happiness comes from understanding the form of the Good similar to the religious assertion that happiness comes from understanding God? (Tousif Ahsan)

26. Do our dreams define our desires? (Angela Han) 1. How does Socrates’s example of three types of couches translate to Arguments Moore's of Moral Intuition ideas such as justice or virtue? What would be the secondary form of these? (Avril Coley) 2. Is it a person’s fault if they lead an unjust life? (Maaz Tambra) 3. Do the “forms” exist outside human thought? Can knowledge exist independent of man’s of man’s understanding of it? (Sarah Kaplan) 4. Do you agree that “the part [of the soul] which trusts measure and calculation would be the best part of the soul?” If not, which is the dexter, part of the soul that should be listened to in the poem structures, pursuit of a good and just life? (Julia Kaplan) 5. At the end of the day, would you follow Socrates and “keep to psychopath the upper road and practice justice with prudence?” Has justice finally become objective? (Marley Lindsay) 6. Is Socrates’s argument against imitation valid? Is imitation really bad? (Matthew Solomon)

7. Is the end of Republic satisfying? Is the Arguments against Beliefs Intuition Essay, reader left content? (Tammuz Huberman) 8. The Republic ends by dexter psychopath, talking about an immortal soul and the afterlife as a final justification for living a just life. If you don’t believe in an afterlife of any kind, do Socrates’s arguments still hold power? (Casey Griffin) 9. Socrates clearly dislikes poets strongly. Who are the “poets” in our society? How do we view them? (Omika Jikaria) 10. Socrates says he would be happy to Theme Bravery Found in Literature Essay allow the poets back into the city if anyone could come up with a valid argument. Do you accept the challenge? (Maaz Tambra)

11. Like the myth of Er, is it okay to pursue a just life in order to receive an award? (Angela Han) 12. Are we less willing to do “the right thing” when nobody is watching? How much do we respect justice, virtue, and courage? (Allegra Wiprud)

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