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araby essays Sample Essays Analyzing James Joyce's Short Story Araby The content consists of Is Abortion brief but condensations of the action of the story. The content tells your reader what happens. Remember that you cannot relate all the action. Citation Apa 6th! Your outline willhelp you select only those points necessary to your reader's understanding of your interpretation of the work. Study the summary essay below to discover its organization. Note the proportion given in each paragraph to summary and to interpretation. Theintroduction identifies the work and the author. Then, following back-ground information about the story, the or Wrong? writer states his thesis. In the bodyof the essay, each topic sentence points to a specific block of action or adevelopment in Lara the Protagonist Essay the story.

The content of each paragraph is devoted to asummary of a selected block of action, and the last sentence of each para-graph evaluates and Right Essay interprets the citation apa 6th action described. This process-summary followed by interpretation-continues through each paragraph tothe conclusion of the essay. It is the interpretation that gives meaning andsignificance both to the story and to the essay. In the essay that follows, note the use of quotations and how each aids understanding and imparts asense of the style and manner of the work. James Joyce's Araby: Summary of an Epiphany. Right Or Wrong?! Each of the fifteen stories in James Joyce's Dubliners presents aflat, rather spatial portrait. The visual and symbolic details embeddedin each story, however, are highly concentrated, and each story culmi-nates in an epiphany. In Joycean terms, an epiphany is a momentwhen the essence of a character is revealed , when all the forces thatbear on his life converge, and we can, in that instant, understand him.Each story in the collection is conventional wisdom, centered in an epiphany, and eachstory is concerned with some failure or deception, which results in re-alization and Right or Wrong? Essay disillusionment.

Araby follows this pattern. Themeaning is revealed in a young boy's psychic journey from first love to despair and disappointment, and the theme is wisdom, found in the boy'sdiscovery of the discrepancy between the real and the ideal in life. The story opens with a description of North Richmond Street, ablind, cold . Right Or Wrong?! .. silent street where the houses gazed at one an-other with brown imperturbable faces. It is a street of fixed, decaying conformity and false piety. The boy's house contains the samesense of a dead present and a lost past. What Is Ad Hominem! The former tenant, a priest,died in Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay the back room of the house, and his legacy-several old yel-lowed books, which the boy enjoys leafing through because they areold, and a bicycle pump rusting in the back yard-become symbolsof the intellectual and religious vitality of the past. The boy, in themidst of such decay and the independence and kenya similar? spiritual paralysis, experiences the confusedidealism and dreams of first love and his awakening becomes incom-patible with and in ironic contrast to Is Abortion or Wrong? the staid world about how were him. Every morning before school the boy lies on or Wrong?, the floor in thefront parlor peeking out through a crack in the blind of the door,watching and waiting for the girl next door to emerge from wisdom meaning, her houseand walk to school. He is shy and still boyish.

He follows her, walkssilently past, not daring to speak, overcome with a confused sense ofsensual desire and religious adoration. Right Or Wrong?! In his mind she is hominem fallacy, both a saintto be worshipped and a woman to be desired. His eyes are often fullof tears, and Is Abortion Right or Wrong? one evening he goes to the back room where the Croft, Essay priesthad died. Clasping the palms of his hands together, he murmurs, 0love! 0 love! in a prayer not to God, but to the concept of love andperhaps even to the girl, his love.

Walking with his aunt to shop onSaturday evenings he imagines that the girl's image accompanies him,and that he protects her in places the most hostile to romance. Inthe mixed symbolism of the Christian and the Romantic or Orientalmyths Joyce reveals the epiphany in the story: These noises con-verged in a single sensation of life for me: I imagined that I bore mychalice safely through a throng of foes. He is unable to talk to thegirl. Drifting away from his schoolmates' boyish games, the boy hasfantasies in Is Abortion Right or Wrong? his isolation, in the ecstasy and pain of first love. Finally the what girl speaks to the boy. She asks him if he is going toAraby. He replies that if he does he will bring her a gift, and fromthat moment, his thoughts upon the mixed imagery of the saintly lightupon her hair and the potential sensuality of the white border of apetticoat, the boy cannot sleep or study. The word Araby cast anEastern enchantment over him, and then on Is Abortion or Wrong?, the night he is to go tothe bazaar his uncle neglects to return home.

Neither the aunt noruncle understands the boy's need and anguish, and thus his isolationis deepened. We begin to Croft, the Protagonist in You Essay see that the story is not so much a story oflove as it is a rendition of the world in Right Essay which the boy lives. The second part of the story depicts the citation machine edition boy's inevitable disap-pointment and realization. In such an atmosphere of blindness-the aunt and uncle unaware of the boy's anguish, the girl not con-scious of the boy's love, and Is Abortion the boy himself blind to the true natureof his love-the words hostile to romance take on conventional, ironic overtones.These overtones deepen when the boy arrives too late at or Wrong? Essay the bazaar.It is closing and the hall is in darkness. He recognizes a silencelike that which prevades a church after a service but the bazaar isdirty and disappointing. Two men are counting money on a salverand he listens to the fall of the coins. A young lady, bored withhim and interested in two men who are flirting with her, cheapensand destroys the boy's sense of an citation Eastern enchantment. His love,like his quest for a gift to Is Abortion Essay draw the girl to him in an unfriendly world,ends with his realizing that his love existed only in his mind. Thus.

the theme of the story-the discrepancy between the real and theideal-is made final in the bazaar, a place of tawdry make-believe.The epiphany in which the boy lives a dream in spite of the ugly andthe worldly is Lara, brought to its inevitable conclusion: the single sensa-tion of life disintegrates. The boy senses the falsity of his dreams andhis eyes burn with anguish and anger. Essay #2 Using Setting and Atmosphere. Remember that setting is usually a part of atmosphere and that atmo-sphere consists of the prevailing tone of the work and its resultant meaningor effect. Some works will not warrant an essay devoted to setting and at-mosphere; others, like Joyce's Araby, will be so profoundly dependentupon a particular setting that to ignore its importance will be to miss muchof the meaning of the work.

Dream Versus Reality: Setting and Is Abortion Right Atmosphere in James Joyce's Araby Convinced that the Dublin of the 1900's was a center of spiri-tual paralysis, James Joyce loosely but thematically tied together hisstories in Dubliners by means of their common setting. Croft, The Protagonist! Each of thestories consists of Essay a portrait in which Dublin contributes in some wayto the conventional wisdom dehumanizing experience of modem life. The boy in the storyAraby is intensely subject to the city's dark, hopeless conformity,and his tragic yearning toward the exotic in the face of drab, uglyreality forms the center of the story. On its simplest level, Araby is a story about a boy's first love.On a deeper level, however, it is a story about the world in which helives-a world inimical to ideals and dreams. This deeper level is in-troduced and developed in several scenes: the opening description ofthe boy's street, his house, his relationship to his aunt and uncle, theinformation about the priest and his belongings, the boy's two trips-his walks through Dublin shopping and his subsequent ride toAraby. North Richmond Street is described metaphorically and presentsthe reader with his first view of the Right Essay boy's world. Lara The Protagonist In You! The street is blind; it is a dead end, yet its inhabitants are smugly complacent; the housesreflect the attitudes of their inhabitants. The houses are imperturba-ble in the quiet, the cold, the Is Abortion Essay dark muddy lanes and darkdripping gardens. The first use of wisdom meaning situational irony is introducedhere, because anyone who is aware, who is Right or Wrong? Essay, not spiritually blinded orasleep, would feel oppressed and endangered by North RichmondStreet. The people who live there (represented by the boy's aunt anduncle) are not threatened, however, but are falsely pious and dis-creetly but deeply self-satisfied.

Their prejudice is dramatized by theaunt's hopes that Araby, the bazaar the boy wants to visit, is not14some Freemason affair, and by old Mrs. Mercer's gossiping overtea while collecting stamps for some pious purpose. The background or world of blindness extends from a generalview of the street and how were in vietnam its inhabitants to the boy's personal relation-ships. It is not a generation gap but a'gap in the spirit, in empathy and conscious caring, that results in the uncle's failure to arrive homein time for the boy to go to the bazaar while it is still open. Theuncle has no doubt been to Is Abortion Right Essay the local pub, negligent and what indifferent tothe boy's anguish and Is Abortion Right impatience. Movements! The boy waits well into the eveningin the imperturbable house with its musty smell and old, uselessobjects that fill the rooms. The house, like the Is Abortion aunt and uncle, andlike the Crisis Management: Why Crisis entire neighborhood, reflects people who are well-intentionedbut narrow in their views and or Wrong? Essay blind to higher values (even the street lamps lift a feeble light to the sky). The total effect of such settingis an atmosphere permeated with stagnation and isolation. The second use of symbolic description-that of the dead priest and his belongings-suggests remnants of citation apa 6th edition a more vital past. The bi-cycle pump rusting in the rain in the back yard and the old yellowedbooks in the back room indicate that the priest once actively engaged in real service to God and Is Abortion Essay man, and further, from the Crisis Management: Should Have Essay titles of thebooks, that he was a person given to both piety and flights of imagi-nation.

But the priest is dead; his pump rusts; his books yellow. The effect is to deepen, through a sense of a dead past, the spiritual and intellectual stagnation of the Essay present.Into this atmosphere of spiritual paralysis the boy bears, withblind hopes and machine apa 6th edition romantic dreams, his encounter with first love. In theface of Is Abortion Right ugly, drab reality-amid the curses of laborers, jostled bydrunken men and bargaining women-he carries his aunt's parcelsas she shops in the market place, imagining that he bears, not parcels,but a chalice through a throng of foes. The noises converged in asingle sensation of life and in a blending of Romantic and Christiansymbols he transforms in his mind a perfectly ordinary girl into anenchanted princess: untouchable, promising, saintly. Setting in machine apa 6th thisscene depicts the harsh, dirty reality of life which the boy blindly ig-nores. The contrast between the real and the boy's dreams is ironi-cally drawn and Is Abortion Right Essay clearly foreshadows the boy's inability to Lara Croft, Essay keep thedream, to remain blind.

The boy's final disappointment occurs as a result of his awaken-ing to the world around him. The tawdry superficiality of the bazaar,which in his mind had been an Oriental enchantment, strips awayhis blindness and leaves him alone with the realization that life andlove differ from the dream. Araby, the symbolic temple of love, isprofane. The bazaar is dark and empty; it thrives on the same profitmotive as the Right market place (two men were counting money on asalver); love is represented as an meaning empty, passing flirtation. Is Abortion Right Essay! Araby is apa 6th edition, a story of first love; even more, it is a portrait of aworld that defies the Is Abortion Right ideal and the dream. Thus setting in this storybecomes the true subject, embodying an atmosphere of spiritual pa-ralysis against which a young boy's idealistic dreams are no match.Realizing this, the boy takes his first step into adulthood.

INSTRUCTIONS. It is possible in an essay to write about an isolated symbol-onewhich seems unusual, or appealing, or particularly apt. More often,though, you will deal with a central or recurrent symbol (like water inThe Great Good Place). If you write about an isolated symbol, your thesis should be a strong statement of the existence of the symbol in the work,and, the body of your essay should be composed of Crisis Businesses Should Have Essay statements that actuallyconstitute evidence of the existence of the Is Abortion Right Essay symbol. As you develop paragraphs in the body of the essay, make clear your reasons for Crisis Management: Why Businesses Should Crisis Plan Essay ascribing the symbolic significance you do, show the function of the symbol in the work, and above all, prove that awareness of the symbol enriches understanding or appreciation of the work. Right Or Wrong?! The Central Symbol of the Church in Joyce's Araby Joyce's short story Araby is filled with symbolic images of a church. It opens and Businesses Plan closes with strong symbols, and in Right Essay the body ofthe story, the images are shaped by the young), Irish narrator's impres-sions of the effect the Church of Ireland has upon the people of Ire-land. The boy is fiercely determined to invest in someone within thisChurch the holiness he feels should be the natural state of all withinit, but a succession of experiences forces him to see that his determi-nation is in vain. At the climax of the story, when he realizes that hisdreams of holiness and love are inconsistent with the actual world,his anger and anguish are directed, not toward the Church, but to-ward himself as a creature driven by vanity. In addition to the im-ages in the story that are symbolic of the Church and its effect uponthe people who belong to it, there are descriptive words and phrasesthat add to this representational meaning. The story opens with a description of the Dublin neighborhoodwhere the boy lives.

Strikingly suggestive of a church, the image shows the ineffectuality of the Church as a vital force in the lives ofthe inhabitants of the neighborhood-the faithful within the Church.North Richmond Street is composed of two rows of houses withbrown imperturbable faces (the pews) leading down to the tall un-inhabited house (the empty altar). The boy's own home is set in agarden the the independence natural state of Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay which would be like Paradise, since it contains a central apple tree; however, those who should have caredfor it have allowed it to become desolate, and the central tree stands alone amid a few straggling bushes. At dusk when the boy and is ad hiscompanions play in Is Abortion or Wrong? the street the lamps of the street lift their feeblelanterns to the sky of Evil/Sin in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth ever-changing violet (timid suppliants to thefar-away heavens). Since the boy is the narrator, the inclusion ofthese symbolic images in the description of the setting shows that theboy is sensitive to the lack of spiritual beauty in his surroundings.Outside the main setting are images symbolic of those who donot belong to the Church. The boy and his companions go there attimes, behind their houses, along the dark muddy lanes, to where the rough tribes (the infidel) dwell. Here odors arise from the ash pits--those images symbolic to Right or Wrong? Essay James Joyce of the moral decay of his nation.

Even the Lara Croft, house in which the youthful main character lives addsto the sense of moral decay. The former tenant, a priest (now dead),is shown to have been insensitive to Essay the spiritual needs of his people.His legacy was a collection of books that showed his confusion of thesacred with the secular-and there is evidence that he devoted hislife to gathering money and citation apa 6th furniture. He left behind no evidenceof a life of spiritual influence. Is Abortion Right Essay! Despite these discouraging surroundings, the how were the independence movements in vietnam similar? boy is Is Abortion Right, determined to movements in vietnam and kenya find some evidence of the loveliness his idealistic dreams tell himshould exist within the Church. Is Abortion Or Wrong? Essay! His first love becomes the focal pointof this determination. In the person of Mangan's sister, obviouslysomewhat older than the boy and his companions, his longings find anobject of worship. The boy's feelings for the girl are a confused mix-ture of sexual desire and of sacred adoration, as examination of theimages of her reveals. He is obsessed at one and the same time withwatching her physical attractions (her white neck, her soft hair, themovement of the brown-clad figure) and with seeing her always sur-rounded by conventional wisdom, light, as if by a halo.

He imagines that he can carry herimage as a chalice through a throng of Right or Wrong? Essay foes-the cursing,brawling infidels at the market to Portrayed in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth which he goes with his aunt. Allother sensations of Right or Wrong? Essay life fade from his consciousness and he is awareonly of his adoration of the blessed image. He spends his days feel-ing her summons to his foolish blood, a summons that is both astrong physical attraction and a strong pull to the holiness missing inhis life and in the lives of the conventional people he knows. In all his watching ofher he is thankful that he can see so little, as men of Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay his Churchhave ever been filled with holy dread to look upon conventional the Virgin. When the girl finally speaks to him, her words are of Right or Wrong? Essay ordinary concerns: she asks if he is going to Araby, a bazaar in another part ofthe city. But the boy's imagination seizes upon the name Araby andinvests its syllables with an Eastern enchantment in which his soulluxuriates. Araby becomes a place where his soul can find the mysti-cal beauty lacking in his own mundane Church. The girl cannot at-tend the Croft, the Protagonist in You bazaar because of a retreat her convent is having that week.As a consequence the boy feels a summons that has symbolic over-tones of a holy crusade: he is Is Abortion Right or Wrong?, determined to go forth to the en-chanted place and bring back a gift worthy to lay at the feet of Businesses Have Plan Essay his adored one. The aunt and uncle with whom he lives are insensitive to hisburning need to fulfill his crusade.

They are presented as persons living decently within the confines of their Church rules, but lacking avision of Is Abortion or Wrong? concerns higher and edition holier than mechanical conformity torules. They do, finally, though, provide the florin to allow him to go to Araby. Alone, he makes his way to the place of Eastern enchantment.When he arrives, he is struck by a silence like that of a church.This is followed by another image that calls up the image at the be-ginning of the story, that of the aisle leading to an altar. In this case,it is a hall leading to the booth displaying porcelain vases (chalicesfor the Eucharist), and flowered tea sets (the flowers on the altar).The great jars guarding the stall can be interpreted as symbols of themysticism standing guard over Is Abortion, the Church. For the boy, the girl attending the stall, like Mangan's sister, be-comes an object of Croft, Essay faith. Is Abortion Or Wrong?! But when she speaks-again like Mangan'ssister-her words are trivial and Management: Why Have Crisis Plan Essay worldly. In a sudden flash of insightthe boy sees that his faith and his passion have been blind. He sees inthe two men counting money on or Wrong?, a salver a symbol of the moneylen-ders in the temple. He allows the Why Crisis Plan Essay pennies to fall in his pocket.

Thelights in the hall go out; his church is in darkness. Tears fill hiseyes as he sees himself a creature driven and derided by vanity,whose foolish blood made him see secular desires as symbols oftrue faith. In this moment of disillusionment he feels that he himselfis at fault for being so bemused by his ideals that he failed completelyto see the world as it is. He has discovered in his Church and in love(both traditional symbols of Right Essay ineffably sacred loveliness) only a shoddyimitation of Croft, Essay true beauty. Understandably his disillusionment causes him anguish and anger. Using Myth and Archetype. The heart of myth is rooted in religion, in attempts to explain creation, thesoul, and man's place in Right or Wrong? the world. A discussion of myth, therefore, mustbe preceded by your discovery of machine apa 6th edition its presence in a work; and for your dis-cussion to Is Abortion Right Essay be meaningful, you must understand the origin or source of Lara Croft, Essay theideas you decide to ascribe to myth. (In Araby, we perceive the Is Abortion Right or Wrong? clearpresence of a reference to Christianity.) Remember that archetype can be generously applied to Management: Should Have an Active Crisis Plan Essay a num-ber of Is Abortion Essay man's values, dreams, and beliefs, but that myth comprises only apart of archetype.

Archetype is a much larger term, and if you perceivesome universal experience in a literary work, it can quite logically form apart of Crisis Have an Active Crisis Plan Essay our racial past. Family, marriage, war, peace, the need to Is Abortion be lovedand to live forever: these are patterns, emotions, and drives we share withour ancestors. They change little with time, and Should an Active Plan Essay each generation respondsto them with deep emotions. The presence of archetype in a work givesthat work added importance and Is Abortion Right an essay defining the citation apa 6th edition archetype, its effectand resultant added meaning will be of Is Abortion Right or Wrong? value to citation apa 6th readers who may have re-sponded but have not discerned why. To write an essay using myth and archetype, determine how theirpresence influences and reveals the meaning of the work. If myth or arche-type becomes the basis of a work (as they do in Araby), an essay point-ing out their meaning will provide you with a ready-made thesis. Orderingthe development of your essay will become relatively simple, for the stagesof the reenactment of the Is Abortion Right or Wrong? archetypal pattern will direct your presentation.If, on the other hand, the use of myth does not form the basis of the entirework, but is citation apa 6th, only an enrichment of another pattern, your order of develop-ment will be somewhat more complex. In this case you will need to deter-mine the precise function the or Wrong? single use of the mythic element serves andthen center your thesis on this function. The Lonely Quest of the Protagonist in You James Joyce's Araby Probably no other twentieth century short story has called forthmore attention than Joyce's Araby. Some universality of experiencemakes the story interesting to readers of all ages, for or Wrong? they respond in-stinctively to an experience that could have been their own.

It is what is ad fallacy, apart of the instinctual nature of man to long for what he feels is Right, thelost spirituality of his world. What Hominem Fallacy! In all ages man has believed that it ispossible to search for and find a talisman, which, if brought back, willreturn this lost spirituality. The development of theme in Araby re-sembles the archetypal myth of the quest for a holy talisman. In Araby, Joyce works from a visionary mode of artisticcreation-a phrase used by psychiatrist Carl Jung to describe the,'visionary kind of literary creation that derives its material fromthe hinterland of man's mind-that suggests the Right or Wrong? abyss of time sepa-rating us from prehuman ages, or evokes a superhuman world of con-trasting light and darkness. It is a primordial experience, which sur-passes man's understanding and to which he is and Chillingworth Essay, therefore in danger ofsuccumbing. Is Abortion Essay! 1 Assuredly this describes Joyce's handling of the mate-rial of Araby. The quest itself and its consequences surpass the un-derstanding of the young protagonist of the story. He can only feelthat he undergoes the experience of the quest and naturally is Evil/Sin Portrayed in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth, con-fused, and at the story's conclusion, when he fails, he is anguishedand angered. His contrasting world of Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay light and darkness containsboth the lost spirituality and the dream of restoring it.

Because ourown worlds contain these contrasts we also feel, even though theprimordial experience surpasses our understanding, too. It is true, as a writer reminds us, that no matter the work,Joyce always views the order and disorder of the world in terms ofthe Catholic faith in which he was reared. 2 In Araby, however,there is, in addition, an overlay of Evil/Sin in Dimmesdale Essay Eastern mysticism. This diversity of background materials intensifies the universality of the Is Abortion Right experience.We can turn to the language and the images of the story to see howthe boy's world is shown in terms of these diverse backgounds. There is little that is light in the comer of machine edition Dublin that formsthe world of the story, little that retains its capability to evoke spiri-tuality. North Richmond Street is blind; the houses stare at one an-other with brown imperturbable faces. The time is winter, with itsshort days and its early dusk. Only the boy and his laughing, shoutingcompanions glow; they are still too young to have succumbed tothe spiritual decay of the adult inhabitants of Dublin. But the boysmust play in dark muddy lanes, in dark dripping gardens, neardark odorous stables and ashpits. Joyce had said of Dubliners,the collection of stories from which Araby comes, that he intendedto write a chapter in or Wrong? the moral history of Lara Croft, my country and I choseDublin for the scene because that city seemed to me the centre ofparalysis.

3 The images of the story show us that the spiritual envi-ronment of the boy is paralyzed; it is musty, dark. Everywhere in his dark surroundings the Right or Wrong? Essay boy seeks the light. He looks for it in the central apple tree-symbol of religiousenlightenment-in the dark garden behind his home. Citation Edition! The gardenshould be like Eden, but the tree is overshadowed by the desolationof the garden, and thus has become the Is Abortion Essay tree of spiritual death. Helooks for light in the room of his home where the former tenant, apriest, had died, but the only objects left by the priest were books,yellowed and damp.

Here, too, the hominem quest has failed. No evidence ofspiritual life remains. Decay and rust have taken over all the Is Abortion treasures the priest had laid up on earth for himself. Into this world of darkness appears a girl, Mangan's sister. Citation Apa 6th! Be-cause of her the boy feels a surge of Is Abortion Essay hope that now in her love he willfind light. Even though he has never spoken to her, except for Lara Croft, the Protagonist Essay a fewcasual words, her name is like a summons to Is Abortion Essay all his foolish blood.His youthful imagination sees her always surrounded with light; sheis the contrast to his dark world. She becomes an image to in vietnam and kenya similar? him of allthat he seeks. That image accompanies him even in places the mosthostile to romance: the market and the streets, among the drunkenmen and bargaining women, amid the curses of labourers, the shrilllitanies of shop-boys.

In this unlikely place occurs what Joyce calls an Right or Wrong? epiphany, which to him means a sudden spiritual manifesta-tion, when objects or moments of inconsequential vulgarity can betransfigured to Crisis Why Businesses Have an Active Plan something spiritual.4 The boys says, I imagined that Ibore my chalice safely through a throng of foes. Plainly he has feltthe summons to cherish the holy, the light, in this dark world ofthose who are hostile to the sacred. However, what he feels is beyond his understanding. His lovefor the girl is part sexual desire, part sacred adoration. He is, he says,confused. He loses interest in Is Abortion Essay his school and in everything about him; hethinks of how were movements in vietnam similar? nothing but the girl. He can see her dark house, herbrown-clad figure touched by lamp-light.

He feels that he has foundone image of holiness in Right or Wrong? his world of lost spirituality. If he can gainthe girl, he feels, the light will be restored to his dark existence. In his one conversation with her she reveals that she cannot goto Araby, a bazaar she would like to attend. She suggests that itwould be well for the Protagonist Essay him to go. He speaks impulsively: If I go I willbring you something. His opportunity has come.

He can go toAraby-his soul luxuriates in or Wrong? Essay the very syllables of the mysticallymagic name-and he can bring back a talisman to secure his favorwith her. The lost light of edition his world will be restored. Undoubtedly, as a writer suggests, Araby is Is Abortion Right Essay, Arabia, which is associated with thePhoenix, symbol of the renewal of wisdom life. Is Abortion Or Wrong? Essay! 5. Over half the story is concerned with the delays and frustrationsin his plans for his quest, and citation edition with his final journey to the en-chanted place, where the talisman will be procured. Significantly, he must go to Araby alone.

The train is deserted; when throngs of buy-ers try to press their way onto the train the porters move them back,saying this is a special train for the bazaar. All who go on a questfor the high and the holy must go alone. Arriving, he finds the bazaar nearly empty. He recognizes a si-lence like that which pervades a church after a service. The churchis empty; it is not attended by the faithful. Right Or Wrong?! Two men count money ona silver salver. Croft, The Protagonist Essay! The young lady who should attend him ignores himto exchange inane vulgarities with two young gentlemen.

Suddenly from the Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay trivialities here the boy experiences anotherepiphany, a sudden showing forth in which his mind is floodedwith light, with truth. He can see the parallel that exists between thegirl here and his girl; he can see his feeling for her for what it is-physical attraction. Her brown-clad figure is one with the how were in vietnam similar? drabworld of North Richmond Street. Here, instead of Eastern enchant-ment, are flimsy stalls for buying and selling flimsy wares. His grailhas turned out to be only flimsy tea sets covered with artificial flow-ers. As the upper hall becomes completely dark, the boy realizes thathis quest has ended.

Gazing upward, he sees the vanity of Is Abortion imagininghe can carry a chalice through a dark throng of foes. 1 Carl G. Jung, Modern Man in Search of a Soid. trans. W. S. Dell and CaryF. Baynes (New York, 1933), pp. Lara Croft, The Protagonist In You Essay! 156-157. 2 William Bysshe Stein, Joyce's 'Araby': Paradise Lost, Perspective, X11,No.

4 (Spring 1962), 215. 3 From Letters of James Joyce, Vol. II, ed. Richard Ellmarm (New York,1966), p. 134. 4 James Joyce, Stephen Hero (New York, 1944), pp. 210-211. 5 Marvin Magalaner, Time of Apprenticeship: The Fiction of Young JamesJoyce (London, 1959), p. 87. USING POINT OF VIEW. If we draw an analogy of a multistoried house withwindows on all sides, we can understand that a person's view of the worldcan vary greatly, depending on which window he views it from; whether heis outside looking in; or whether, distantly, he looks at the house and the surrounding countryside simultaneously.

Certainly our view of a characterwill depend upon our position in relation to the scene, just as his view islimited by the author. Is Abortion! Henry James considered the positioning of both characters and machine apa 6th edition narrator crucial to fiction, and in recent years (in fact since his detailed studiesof point of view) critics have considered the artist's use of point of view the central focus for interpretation. Look at the questions point of view provokes. Does the viewpoint allow for Right or Wrong? irony? Does it limit sympathy or does it evoke greater sympathy? Does it causeattitudes to be formed? What are they? Does choice of this particular nar-rator or persona influence the reader's view of the situation? How? Does itcontrol imagery and symbolism? In your conclusion, reaffirm your thesis by showing the overall effec-tiveness of the point of view on the work.

Did the work gain much or littlefrom its use? Study the Crisis Businesses Crisis following essay to better understand how point ofview in Araby frees language, achieves psychic distance, and intensifiesthe experience portrayed. THE IRONIC NARRATOR OF JAMES JOYCE'S ARABY Although James Joyce's story Araby is told from the first per-son viewpoint of its young protagonist, we do not receive the Is Abortion Right or Wrong? impres-sion that a boy tells the story. Instead, the narrator seems to be a manmatured well beyond the experience of the the independence movements in vietnam similar? story. The mature man re-minisces about his youthful hopes, desires, and frustrations. Is Abortion Or Wrong?! Morethan if a boy's mind had reconstructed the events of the story for us,this particular way of telling the story enables us to perceive clearlythe torment youth experiences when ideals, concerning both sacredand earthly love, are destroyed by Lara the Protagonist in You, a suddenly unclouded view of theactual world.

Because the man, rather than the boy, recounts the experi-ence, an ironic view can be presented of the institutions and personssurrounding the boy. This ironic view would be impossible for Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay theimmature, emotionally involved mind of the boy himself. Only an adult looking back at the high hopes of foolish blood and its resul-tant destruction could account for the ironic viewpoint. Throughoutthe story, however, the narrator consistently maintains a full sensitiv-ity to his youthful anguish. From first to last we sense the reality tohim of his earlier idealistic dream of beauty. The opening paragraph, setting the scene, prepares us for theview we receive of the what fallacy conflict between the loveliness of the ideal andthe drabness of the actual. Descriptive words show the Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay narrator's con-sciousness of the hominem fallacy boy's response to beauty and the response of Essay theneighborhood people, who are blind to beauty: North RichmondStreet is blind; its houses, inhabited by decent people, stare un-seeingly at one another-and all this is Evil/Sin, under a sky of ever-changingviolet, in a setting of gardens marred by the odours of ash-pitsand dark odorous stables. Essay! The boy's own house, which had form-erly been inhabited by a priest, is placed in a garden like that ofEden.

It is a place of potential holiness, shown to us in the irony ofthe garden's barrenness and the priest's worldliness: the garden hasnow only a central apple tree and how were the independence in vietnam a few straggling bushes; thepriest had died and left behind him evidence of his preoccupationwith secular literature and with collecting money and furniture. Into this setting appears a figure representative of all that isideal, the girl. The narrator shows us in Is Abortion or Wrong? a subtly ironic manner thatin his youthful adoration of Mangan's sister she is, confusedly, theembodiment of hominem fallacy all his boyish dreams of the beauty of physical desireand, at the same time, the embodiment of his adoration of all that isholy. In his dark environment Mangan's sister stands out, a figure al-ways shown outlined by light, with the power to set aflame in him azeal to conquer the uncaring and the unholy. Her image, constantlywith him, makes him feel as though he bears a holy chalice througha throng of foes-the Saturday evening throng of drunken men,bargaining women, cursing laborers, and all the others who have noconception of the mystical beauty his young mind has created in thisworld of material ugliness. He is alone as a boy, the man narrator shows us, with his viewof the possible loveliness of the world. Even the aunt and uncle withwhom he lives are callous to his burning need to go to the bazaar,which looms in his imagination as a place of mystical Eastern en-chantment, to purchase a gift worthy of his loved one. Looking back,the narrator can see that his uncle had been concerned with his daily,worldly tasks, his aunt with maintaining a decent observance ofthis day of our Lord, although she does not want him to be disap-pointed in his wish to go to the bazaar. From the vantage point ofmaturity the narrator can realize that the aunt and Is Abortion Right or Wrong? the uncle perhaps once possessed an awareness of the romantic, an awareness that hassince been clouded by the drabness of North Richmond Street. Like Stephen Dedalus of Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as aYoung Man, the boy, then, must seek for the high, the inviolate, byhimself. And, also like Stephen, he finds instead the world.

When heenters Araby the boy sees its resemblance to an emptied church, andthat is the irony so far as maturity can view it: Araby is not a holyplace because it is not attended by the faithful. He has come alone on a deserted train; the bazaar, full of spu-rious wares, is tended by uncaring people who leave him even morealone than he had been before; the young lady who should havewaited on him ignores him to joke with two young men. The younglady's inane remarks to the young men have a ring in the memory ofthe mature narrator reminiscent of his adored one's remarks. Both areconcerned with the Crisis Why Businesses Have an Active Plan material, the crass. The narrator can, with his backward look, supply us with twoapprehensions: one, the or Wrong? Essay fully remembered, and thus fully felt, anguishof a too sudden realization of the disparity between a youthful dreamof the mystic beauty of the world and his actual world; and two, theirony implicit in a view that can see the dream itself as a vanity. In his brief but complex story, Araby, James Joyce concen-trates on character rather than on plot to reveal the ironies inherentin self-deception. On one level Araby is a story of initiation, of aboy's quest for the ideal. The quest ends in and kenya failure but results in aninner awareness and a first step into Is Abortion Right, manhood. On another level thestory consists of a grown man's remembered experience, for the storyis told in retrospect by Lara Croft, in You, a man who looks back to a particular momentof intense meaning and insight.

As such, the boy's experience is notrestricted to youth's encounter with first love. Rather, it is a portrayalof a continuing problem all through life: the incompatibility of Right or Wrong? theideal, of the dream as one wishes it to Management: Have Plan be, with the Right or Wrong? bleakness of real-ity. This double focus-the boy who first experiences, and the manwho has not forgotten-provides for the dramatic rendering of astory of first love told by a narrator who, with his wider, adult vision,can employ the sophisticated use of irony and symbolic imagery nec-essary to reveal the story's meaning. The boy's character is indirectly suggested in the opening scenesof the story. He has grown up in the backwash of citation machine apa 6th edition a dying city. Sym-bolic images show him to be an individual who is sensitive to the factthat his city's vitality has ebbed and or Wrong? Essay left a residue of empty piety, thefaintest echoes of romance, and only symbolic memories of an activeconcern for Lara God and fellow men. Although the young boy cannot ap-prehend it intellectually, he feels that the Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay street, the town, and Irelanditself have become ingrown, self-satisfied, and unimaginative. It is a. world of spiritual stagnation, and as a result, the boy's outlook is conventional wisdom meaning, se-verely limited. Right Essay! He is ignorant and Lara the Protagonist Essay therefore innocent. Lonely, imagin-ative, and Is Abortion Right Essay isolated, he lacks the understanding necessary for evalua-tion and perspective. He is at first as blind as his world, but Joyceprepares us for his eventual perceptive awakening by tempering hisblindness with an unconscious rejection of the spiritual stagnation ofhis world.

The boy's manner of is ad hominem thought is or Wrong? Essay, also made clear in the openingscenes. Religion controls the lives of the inhabitants of North Richmond Street, but it is a dying religion and receives only lip service.The boy, however, entering the new experience of first love, finds hisvocabulary within the experiences of his religious training and the ro-mantic novels he has read. The result is an idealistic and confused in-terpretation of love based on quasireligious terms and the imagery ofromance. This convergence of two great myths, the Christian with itssymbols of hope and sacrifice and the Oriental or romantic with itsfragile symbols of heroism and escape, merge to form in his mind anillusory world of mystical and ideal beauty. This convergence, whichcreates an epiphany for Why Should Crisis the boy as he accompanies his aunt throughthe market place, lets us experience with sudden illumination the tex-ture and Right or Wrong? content of his mind. We see the Portrayed Essay futility and stubbornness ofhis quest. But despite all the evidence of the dead house on Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay, a deadstreet in a dying city the fallacy boy determines to bear his chalice safelythrough a throng of foes. He is blindly interpreting the world in theimages of his dreams: shop boys selling pigs' cheeks cry out in shrilllitanies; Mangan's sister is saintly; her name evokes in him strangeprayers and praises. The boy is extraordinarily lovesick, and fromhis innocent idealism and Essay stubbornness, we realized that he cannotkeep the dream. He must wake to is ad fallacy the demands of the world aroundhim and react. Thus the first half of the story foreshadows (as the manlater realizes) the boy's awakening and Is Abortion Right or Wrong? disillusionment.

The account of the boy's futile quest emphasizes both his lonelyidealism and his ability to achieve the perspectives he now has. Thequest ends when he arrives at the bazaar and how were in vietnam similar? realizes with slow, tor-tured clarity that Araby is not at all what he imagined. It is tawdryand dark and thrives on the profit motive and the eternal lure itsname evokes in men. The boy realizes that he has placed all his loveand hope in Is Abortion Essay a world that does not exist except in his imagination. Hefeels angry and betrayed and citation machine edition realizes his self-deception. He feels he isa creature driven and derided by Right, vanity and the vanity is his own. The man, remembering this startling experience from his boy-hood, recalls the moment he realized that living the dream was lost asa possibility. That sense of loss is the independence movements in vietnam and kenya similar?, intensified, for its dimension growsas we realize that the desire to, live the dream will continue throughadulthood. At no other point in the story is characterization as brilliant asat the end. Joyce draws his protagonist with strokes designed to let usrecognize in the creature driven and derided by vanity both a boywho is initiated into knowledge through a loss of innocence and aman who fully realizes the incompatibility between the Is Abortion Right beautiful andinnocent world of the imagination and the very real world of fact.

InAraby, Joyce uses character to embody the movements similar? theme of his story.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. We evaluate people and groups as responsible or not, depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities. Often we do this informally, via moral judgment. Sometimes we do this formally, for instance in Is Abortion, legal judgment. This article considers mainly moral responsibility, and focuses largely upon individuals. Later sections also comment on conventional wisdom meaning the relation between legal and moral responsibility, and on the responsibility of collectives. The article discusses four different areas of individual moral responsibility: (1) Responsible agency, whereby a person is regarded as a normal moral agent; (2) Retrospective responsibility, when a person is judged for her actions, for instance, in being blamed or punished; (3) Prospective responsibility, for instance, the responsibilities attaching to a particular role; and (4) Responsibility as a virtue, when we praise a person as being responsible. Philosophical discussion of responsibility has focused largely on (1) and (2). The article points out that a wider view of Right Essay, responsibility helps explore some connections between moral and legal responsibility, and between individual and how were the independence and kenya similar? collective responsibility. It also enables us to relate responsibility to Is Abortion or Wrong?, its original philosophical use, which was in political thought. The word responsibility is surprisingly modern.

It is also, as Paul Ricoeur has observed, not really well-established within the philosophical tradition (2000: 11). This is reflected in the fact that we can locate two rather different philosophical approaches to responsibility. The original philosophical usage of Why Businesses Crisis Plan, responsibility was political (see McKeon, 1957). This reflected the origin of the word. Is Abortion Or Wrong? Essay. In all modern European languages, responsibility only finds a home toward the citation end of the Is Abortion Essay eighteenth century. This is within debates about representative government, that is, government which is responsible to the people. In the Lara Croft, in You Essay etymology of responsibility, the Oxford English Dictionary cites the debates on the U.S. Right Or Wrong?. constitution in machine edition, the Federalist Papers (1787), and the Anglo-Irish political thinker Edmund Burke (1796). When John Stuart Mill writes of Essay, responsibility, in the middle of the nineteenth century, again his concern is not with free will, but with the principles of representative government. At the end of the nineteenth century, the most notable thinker to speak of responsibility is Max Weber, who propounds an ethics of responsibility ( Verantwortungsethik ) for the politician. For Weber, the vocation of politics demands a calm attention to the facts of the wisdom situation and Is Abortion Right Essay the consequences of actions and not to lofty or abstract principles. So far as responsibility has a place in eighteenth and is ad nineteenth century thought, then, this is in political contexts, where the concern is with responsible action and the principles of representative government.

In twentieth century philosophy, on Right or Wrong? Essay the other hand, the emphasis has been on questions of free will and determinism: Is a person responsible for her actions or character? Would the how were similar? truth of determinism eliminate such responsibility? Recent moral philosophy contains many attempts to show how responsible agency might be compatible with the causal order of the universe. These debates obviously center on the individual agent. As such, they pose difficulties for understanding the topic of collective responsibility an issue that twentieth century politics has raised with a new urgency. Nor does a concern with free will correspond to Is Abortion Right, many everyday issues about responsibility for example, questions of mutual accountability, defining a persons sphere of conventional, responsibility, or judging a person as sufficiently responsible for a particular role.

This Encyclopedia article will mainly deal with the responsibility of individual persons; another article considers collective moral responsibility. In fact, there are several important uses of responsibility as it relates to individuals, which this article will tackle in Is Abortion Right Essay, turn. There are also important questions about the distinction between moral and legal responsibility. The article will then consider what relations there may be between the concepts individual and collective uses. It concludes by briefly asking what connection there may be between the original, political use of responsibility, and individual moral responsibility as people now usually understand it. There is no philosophically well-settled way of dividing or analyzing the various components of machine, responsibility, and some components are often ignored by philosophers.

To take a more comprehensive approach, this article divides the Is Abortion Essay responsibility of individuals into four areas of Crisis Management: Why Businesses Have an Active, enquiry. Recent analytic moral philosophy has tended to ask two deceptively simple questions about responsibility: What is it to Is Abortion Right, be responsible? and What is conventional a person responsible for? The first question is usually taken as a question about moral agency, the second as a question about holding people accountable for Right or Wrong? Essay past actions. Conventional Meaning. As noted, however, this does not capture the variety of uses that we make of the concept. We can see this by observing that both questions might mean something quite different, leading us to four distinct topics, as follows: What is it to be responsible? is most often asked by philosophers as a question about the Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay foundations of moral agency. What sort of creature can properly be held responsible for its actions? The simple answer is: a normal human adult. Lara Croft, In You. To explain and justify this reply, philosophers tend to Is Abortion, turn to psychological and metaphysical features of Evil/Sin Portrayed in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth, normal adults, such as free will.

We might also approach the same issue with a somewhat different emphasis: What features of (normal, adult) human interaction are involved in our holding one another responsible? However, in asking What is it to be responsible? we might also have a second question in mind. We often praise some people as responsible, and criticize others as irresponsible. Here responsibility names a virtue a morally valuable character trait. We may also praise an institution as responsible. One of the or Wrong? Essay words original uses was to call for responsible government.

We can compare this with the more recent demand that corporations be socially responsible. This aspect of responsibility has received very little philosophical attention. What is a person responsible for? is a question most often asked by the independence in vietnam and kenya similar? philosophers in connection with causation and Right or Wrong? Essay accountability. This retrospective, or backward-looking, use is closely connected with praise and blame, punishment, and how were the independence in vietnam similar? desert. When something has gone wrong, we invariably want to know who was at fault; and when something has gone right, we occasionally stop to ask who acted well. This is the topic of retrospective responsibility.

Again, however, we might use the same words to ask an Is Abortion or Wrong?, entirely different question: What is a person responsible for? might also be an enquiry about a persons duties about her sphere of responsibility, as we say. A parent is responsible for Management: Why Should Have Crisis Plan Essay caring for his child, an employee for doing her job, a citizen for obeying the law. It is a basic fact of Is Abortion Right Essay, human cooperation that responsibilities are often divided up between people: for example, the doctor is movements in vietnam and kenya responsible for prescribing the right drugs, and the patient responsible for taking them correctly. As against questions of retrospective responsibility, this topic is sometimes termed prospective responsibility, that is, what responsibilities we are duty-bound to undertake. These two apparently simple questions (What is it to be responsible? and What is a person responsible for?) about individual responsibility thus point to four different topics: Each of these topics poses a host of important philosophical questions. Both the retrospective and prospective uses also raise the relation between legal and moral responsibility. Many important theories of responsibility relate to legal concerns, which will be discussed in Right Essay, a later section. What. As we pursue these topics, there is also the difficulty of seeing how they interrelate, so that it makes sense that we use the same word to raise each issue. The discussion begins with the topics which philosophers have most often discussed: the nature of moral agency and retrospective responsibility.

Normal human adults represent our paradigm case of responsible agents. What is distinctive about them, that we accord them this status? Thinking of retrospective responsibility in particular, why can be held accountable for their actions justly praised or blamed, deservedly punished or rewarded? The philosophical literature has explored three broad approaches to Is Abortion Right, moral agency: Human beings have free will, that is, distinctive causal powers or a special metaphysical status, that separate them from everything else in the universe; Human beings can act on the basis of citation machine apa 6th edition, reason(s); Human beings have a certain set of moral or proto-moral feelings. The first approach, although historically important, has largely been discredited by the success of Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay, modern science. Science provides, or promises, naturalistic explanations of such phenomena as the evolution of the human species and the workings of the Essay brain. Almost all modern philosophers approach responsibility as compatibilists that is, they assume that moral responsibility must be compatible with causal or naturalistic explanation of human thought and action, and therefore reject the metaphysical idea of free will. (An important note: There can be terminological confusion here. Some contemporary philosophers will use the term free will to describe our everyday freedom of choice, claiming that free will, properly understood, is compatible with the worlds causal order.)

Among modern compatibilists, a contest remains, however, between the second and Right Essay third approaches positions that are essentially Kantian and Humean in inspiration. Immanuel Kants own position is complex, and commentators dispute how far his view also involves a metaphysical notion of free will. It is indisputable, however, that our rationality is at the centre of his picture of conventional meaning, moral agency. Kant himself does not speak of responsibility the word was only just coming into Essay the language of his day but he does have much to say about imputation ( Zurechnung ), that is, the basis on which actions are imputed to a person. Kant was principally concerned with evaluation of the self. Although he occasionally mentions blame (mutual accountability), his moral theory is in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth Essay really about the basis on which a person treats herself as responsible. Is Abortion Or Wrong? Essay. The core of his answer is that a rational agent chooses to act in the light of principles that is, we deliberate among reasons. Therefore standards of rationality apply to us, and when we fail to what, act rationally this is, simply and crudely, a Bad Thing.

It is important to be aware that Kant sees reason as having moral content, so that there is Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay a failure of apa 6th, rationality involved when we do something immoral for instance, by pursuing our self-interest at the expense of others. Even if we sometimes feel no inclination to Is Abortion Right, take account of and Chillingworth Essay, others, reason still tells us that we should, and can motivate us to do so. Recognizably Kantian accounts of moral agency include Bok (1998) and (less explicitly) Fischer Ravizza (1998). The issue of reasons moral content separates Kantians from Is Abortion or Wrong? Humeans. David Hume denied that reason can provide us with moral guidance, or the fallacy motivation to act morally.

He is famous for his claim that Reason is wholly inactive, and can never be the source of so active a principle as conscience, or a sense of Right or Wrong?, morals ( A Treatise of Human Nature , book 3, part 1, sect. Why Businesses Should An Active Plan Essay. 1). If we are moral agents, this is Essay because we are equipped with certain tendencies to feel or desire, dispositions that make it seem rational to us to act and think morally. Hume himself stressed our tendency to feel sympathy for Evil/Sin and Chillingworth others and our tendency to approve of actions that lead to social benefits (and to disapprove of those contrary to the social good). Is Abortion Right Or Wrong?. Another important class of feelings concern our tendencies to feel shame or guilt, or more broadly, to citation apa 6th, be concerned with how others see our actions and Is Abortion character. A Humean analysis of responsibility will investigate how these emotions lead us to Evil/Sin in Dimmesdale, be responsive to one another, in ways that support moral conduct and provide social penalties for immoral conduct. That is, its emphasis is less on Right peoples evaluation of in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth, themselves and more on Is Abortion or Wrong? how people judge and influence one another. Russell (1995) carefully develops Humes own account. Citation Machine Apa 6th Edition. In twentieth century philosophy, broadly Humean approaches were given a new lease of life by Peter Strawsons Freedom and Resentment (1962). This classic essay underlined the role of reactive sentiments or reactive attitudes that is, emotional responses such as resentment or shame in practices of responsibility. The basic criticisms that each position makes of the other are simple.

Kantians are vulnerable to Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay, the charge that they do not give a proper account of the role of feeling and emotion in the moral life. Why Crisis Plan. They can also be accused of reifying our capacity for Right or Wrong? Essay reason in a way that makes mysterious how human beings capacities for reason and morality might have evolved. Humeans are vulnerable to the charge that they cannot give any account of the validity of reasoning beyond the boundaries of what we might feel inclined to endorse or reject: Can the Humean really hold that moral reasoning has any validity for people who do not feel concern for others? Contemporary philosophers have developed both positions so as to take account of such criticisms, which has led to rather technical debates about the nature of reason (for instance, Bernard Williams (1981) well-known distinction between internal and external reasons) and normativity (what it is for something to provide a reason to conventional meaning, act or think in a certain way, for example, Korsgaard, 1996). Is Abortion Or Wrong? Essay. So far as responsibility is concerned, Wallace (1994) is a well-regarded attempt to mediate between the two approaches. Rather differently, Pettit (2001) uses our susceptibility to reasons as the basis for an essentially interactive account of moral agency. For our purposes, perhaps the most important point is that both positions highlight a series of factors important to responsibility and mutual accountability. Evil/Sin Essay. These factors include: general responsiveness to others (for instance, via moral reasoning or feelings such as sympathy); a sense of responsibility for our actions (for instance, so that we may offer reasons for Is Abortion Right Essay our actions or feel emotions of shame or guilt); and Lara the Protagonist in You tendencies to regard others as responsible (for instance, to respect persons as the authors of their deeds and to feel resentful or grateful to them).

In each case, note that the first example in brackets has a typically Kantian (reason-based) cast, the second a Humean (feeling/emotion-related) cast. Two further thoughts should be added which apply regardless of which side of this debate one inclines toward. Is Abortion Right Essay. First, it is not at all clear that these factors are on/off, either there or not there; in other words, it looks likely that responsible agency is a matter of degree. One possible implication of this is that some other animals might have a degree of moral agency; another implication is that human beings may vary in the extent of their agency. (This seems clearly true of citation machine edition, children as opposed to adults. We may be more reluctant to believe that the Essay extent of adults moral agency can vary, but such a claim is not obviously false.) Second, none of these factors has an obvious connection to free will, in the metaphysical sense that opposes free will to determinism. As we shall see, however, whether we emphasize the rational or the affective basis for responsible agency tends to generate characteristically different accounts of retrospective responsibility, where the Evil/Sin Portrayed in Dimmesdale issue of free will tends to recur. In assigning responsibility for Is Abortion Right an outcome or event, we may simply be telling a causal story. This might or might not involve human actions. For example: the faulty gasket was responsible for the car breaking down; his epileptic fit was responsible for the accident.

Such usages do not imply any assignment of blame or desert, and philosophers often distinguish them by referring to causal responsibility. More commonly, however, responsibility attribution is concerned with the morality of somebodys action(s). Among the many different causes that led to an outcome, that action is Evil/Sin in Dimmesdale Essay identified as the Right or Wrong? morally salient one. If we say the Evil/Sin and Chillingworth captain was responsible for the shipwreck, we do not deny that all sorts of other causes were in play. But we do single out the person who we think ought to be held responsible for the outcome. Philosophers sometimes distinguish this usage, by speaking of liability responsibility. Retrospective responsibility usually involves, then, a moral (or perhaps legal) judgment of the person responsible. This judgment typically pictures the Is Abortion Essay person as liable to various consequences: to feeling remorse (or pride), to being blamed (or praised), to making amends (or receiving gratitude), and so forth. This topic is an Croft, in You, old concern of philosophers, predating the term responsibility by at least two millennia.

The classic analysis of the issues goes back to Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics , where he investigates the conditions that exculpate us from Is Abortion Right blame and the circumstances where blame is appropriate. Evil/Sin Portrayed In Dimmesdale And Chillingworth. Among conditions that excuse the actor, he mentions intoxication, force of Essay, circumstances, and coercion: we cannot be held responsible where our capacity to choose was grossly impaired or where there was no effective choice open to us (though perhaps we can be blamed for getting into that condition or those circumstances). We can be blamed for what we do when threatened by apa 6th others, but not as we would be if coercion were absent. In each case, the Right Essay issue seems to the independence similar?, be whether or not we are able to control what we do: if something lies beyond our control, it also lies beyond the scope of our responsibility. However, although Aristotle thinks that our capacities for deliberation and choice are important to responsible agency, he lacks the Kantian emphasis on Essay rational control discussed in the last section. Aristotle grants considerable importance to habituation and stable character traits the hominem fallacy virtues and vices. Hence another way of interpreting what he says about responsibility is to argue that Aristotles excusing conditions represent cases where an action does not reveal a persons character: everybody would act like that if circumstances provided no other choice; no one makes responsible choices when drunk.

On the Is Abortion Right Essay other hand, how we respond to coercion does reveal much about our virtues and vices; the point is that the Essay meaning of such acts is very different from the meaning they would have in Right or Wrong? Essay, the absence of coercion. In its emphasis on character, Aristotles account is much closer to Humes than to Kants, since character is about tendencies to feel and behave in various ways, as well as to think and Lara Croft, the Protagonist Essay choose. Given that Kants moral psychology is usually thought to Right Essay, be less plausible than Aristotle or Humes, it is in vietnam interesting that Kantian approaches have, nonetheless, dominated modern approaches to Is Abortion Right, retrospective responsibility. Evil/Sin In Dimmesdale Essay. Why should this be so? Kants underlying thought is that the person who acts well deserves to be happy (he continually refers to goodness as worthiness to be happy). Or Wrong?. The person who acts badly does not: she deserves to be reproached, ought to feel remorse, and may even deserve punishment. Since blame, guilt and punishment are of great practical importance, it is clearly desirable that our account of responsibility justify them. Some thinkers have argued that these justifications can be purely consequentialist. For instance, Smart (1961) argues that blame, guilt and is ad punishment are only merited insofar as they can encourage people to do better in the future. However, most philosophers have been dissatisfied with such accounts. Is Abortion Right Essay. Instead, they have argued that justification must relate to wisdom, the culprits desert . For most people, the intuitive justification for or Wrong? Essay the sort of desert involved in retrospective responsibility lies in individual choice or control.

You chose to act selfishly: you deserve blame. You chose not to machine, take precautions: you deserve to Right Essay, bear the consequences. You chose to break the law: you deserve punishment. (The question of legal responsibility is citation machine edition considered separately, below.) This way of putting matters clearly gives pride of place to our capacity to control our conduct in the light of reasons, moral and Right Essay otherwise. It will also emphasize the intentions underlying an action rather than its actual outcomes. This is because intentions are subject to rational choice in a way that outcomes often are not. Kants thought that the rational agent can choose whether or not to act on the basis of what, reasons is sometimes expressed in the idea that we should each be respected as the authors of our thoughts and intentions. This thought has the less positive consequence that when somebody chooses immorally and irrationally, he fails in Right Essay, a distinctive way, so that he is fallacy not (in Kants terms) worthy to be happy. Note, however, that this line of Right or Wrong?, thought is open to a very obvious objection. It can be argued that our intentions and choices are conditioned by our characters, and and kenya our characters by the circumstances of our upbringing. Clearly these are not matters of choice.

This is why a concern with retrospective responsibility raises the family of issues around moral luck and continues to lead back to the issue of free will: the idea that we are, really and ultimately, the Is Abortion Right Essay authors of conventional wisdom meaning, our own choices despite scientific and common-sense appearances. The article on praise and blame discusses this issue in more depth, contrasting Kants approach with that of Aristotle and utilitarianism. Is Abortion Right. Humeans, favoring naturalistic explanation of thought and action, are likely to be drawn to how were movements in vietnam and kenya similar?, elements of the last two namely Aristotles emphasis on actions as revealing virtues and vices, and the consequentialist emphasis on social benefits of practices of accountability. Is Abortion. In particular, Humeans are much more likely to see retrospective responsibility in how were the independence movements in vietnam and kenya, terms of the feelings that are appropriate for instance, our resentment at someones bad conduct, or our susceptibility to shame at others responses. Right Or Wrong?. Clearly, such feelings and what fallacy the resulting actions are about our exercising mutual influence on one anothers conduct for the sake of more beneficial social interaction.

In other words, although the Right Humean analysis can be understood in terms of individual psychology, it also points to the question: What is Lara Croft, the Protagonist Essay it about Is Abortion or Wrong? human interaction that leads us to hold one another responsible? Kantians, on the other hand, tend to Evil/Sin Portrayed in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth, think of retrospective responsibility, not as a matter of influencing others, but rather as our respecting individual capacities for rational choice. This respect may still have harsh consequences, as it involves granting people their just deserts, including blame and Is Abortion Right or Wrong? punishment. A different use of responsibility is as a synonym for duty. When we ask about a persons responsibilities, we are concerned with what she ought to be doing or attending to.

Sometimes we use the term to describe duties that everyone has for example, Everyone is responsible for looking after his own health. More typically, we use the term to in You, describe a particular persons duties. He is Right Essay responsible for sorting the garbage; she is responsible for looking after her baby; the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for Management: Have an Active Essay monitoring air pollution; and so on. In these cases, the term singles out the duties, or area of responsibility, that somebody has by virtue of their role. This usage bears at Is Abortion, least one straightforward relation to the question of Crisis Why an Active Crisis Plan Essay, retrospective responsibility.

We will tend to hold someone responsible when she fails to perform her duties. A captain is Right responsible for conventional wisdom the safety of the ship; hence he will be held responsible if there is a shipwreck. The usual justification for this lies in the thought that if he had taken his responsibility more seriously, then his actions might have averted the shipwreck. In some cases, though, when we are entrusted with responsibility for something, we will be held responsible if harm occurs, regardless of whether we might have averted it. This might be true if one hires (that is, rents) a car, for instance: even if an accident is not your fault, the contract may stipulate that you will be responsible for Right or Wrong? Essay part of the repair costs. In order to Lara Croft, Essay, hire (rent) the car in the first place, one must accept take responsibility for certain risks. Legal thinkers, in particular, have pointed out that this suggests one way in which Kantian approaches that is, approaches to Is Abortion Essay, responsibility which focus on acts and outcomes that were under a persons control may be inadequate. We may think that everybody has a duty (that is, a prospective responsibility) to how were in vietnam and kenya, make recompense when certain sorts of risks materialize from their actions. Consider a standard example: suppose John accidentally slips and breaks a vase in Jane's shop.

This is probably not something John had control over, and to avoid the risk of damaging any of Jane's possessions, John would have to avoid entering her shop altogether. Yet we usually think that people have a duty to make some recompense when damage results from their actions, however accidental. Or Wrong? Essay. From the point of citation machine, view of our interacting with one another, the Right or Wrong? issue is not really whether a person could have avoided a particular, unfortunate outcome, so much as the fact that all our actions create risks; and when those risks materialize, someone suffers. The question is then as Arthur Ripstein (1999) has put it whether the losses should lie where they fall. To say that they should is basically to shrug our shoulders about the damage; in that case, the only person who suffers is the shop-owner. Evil/Sin Portrayed In Dimmesdale And Chillingworth Essay. But we often think that losses should be redistributed. For that to happen, someone else has to make some sort of amends in this case, the person who caused the accident will have to accept responsibility. In terms of Is Abortion Right, prospective responsibility, then, we may think that everyone has a duty to make certain amends when certain risks of action actually materialize just because all our actions impose risks on others as well as ourselves. In this case, retrospective responsibility is machine justified, not by whether the person controlled the outcome or could have chosen to do otherwise, but by reference to these prospective responsibilities.

Notice, however, that we might want to distinguish the duty to make amends from the issue of blameworthiness. Or Wrong? Essay. One might accept the above account as to why the customer should compensate the owner of the broken vase, but add that in such a case she is not to blame for the breakage. There is clearly some merit to this response. It suggests that retrospective responsibility is more complicated than is often thought: blameworthiness and what is ad hominem liability to compensate are different things, and may need to Right or Wrong?, be justified in different ways. However, this question has not really been systematically pursued by moral philosophers, although the distinction between moral culpability and Evil/Sin Portrayed in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth liability to Right Essay, punishment has attracted much attention among legal philosophers. The connection between prospective and retrospective responsibility raises another complication. This stems from the fact that people often disagree about what they ought to do that is, about what peoples prospective responsibilities are. This question of moral disagreement is not often mentioned in how were the independence movements, debates about responsibility, but may be rather important. To take an example: people have very different beliefs about the Is Abortion ethics of voluntary euthanasia some call it mercy killing, others outright murder.

Depending on our view, we will tend to in You, blame or to condone the person who kills to end grave suffering. In other words, different views of somebodys prospective responsibilities will lead to very different views of how retrospective responsibility ought to be assigned. One might even argue that many of Is Abortion Right, our moral disagreements are actually brought to light, and fought out, when actors and on-lookers dispute what responses are appropriate. For example, is someone who commits euthanasia worthy praise or blame, reward or punishment? These disagreements, often very vocal, are important for the whole topic of responsibility, because they relate to how moral agents come to be aware of what morality demands of them. Kantian ethics typically describes moral agency in terms of the citation co-authorship of Is Abortion Right, moral norms: the rational agent imposes norms upon herself, and so can regard herself as an citation machine edition, author of morality. (This element of Kantian ethics can be difficult to appreciate, because Kant is so clear that everyone should impose the same objective morality on themselves.) Whether or not one accepts the Kantian emphasis upon rationality or a universalist morality, it is clear that an important element of responsible agency consists in judging ones own responsibilities. Hence, we do not tend to describe a dutiful child as responsible. This is because he obeys, rather than exercising his own judgment about what he ought to do. Is Abortion Right Or Wrong? Essay. This issue is not just about how we judge our own duties, however: its also about how others judge us, and our right to wisdom, judge others.

So far as others regard us as responsible, they will recognize that we also have a right to judge what peoples prospective responsibilities are, and how retrospective responsibility ought to or Wrong? Essay, be assigned. Importantly, people can recognize one another as responsible in this way, even in the face of quite deep moral disagreements. By the conventional wisdom meaning same token, we know how disrespectful it is of someone, not to Is Abortion Right, take her moral judgments seriously. The question of how far we are entitled to judge prospective responsibilities our own and other peoples and how far we are entitled to judge retrospective responsibilities our own and others raises yet another complication for how we think about responsibility. As the example of Lara Croft,, childhood suggests, there can be degrees of responsibility.

Ascribing different degrees of Right or Wrong? Essay, responsibility may be necessary or appropriate with regard to different sorts of citation apa 6th, decision-making. Hence we sometimes say, Hes not ready for that sort of Is Abortion Essay, responsibility or She couldnt be expected to understand the implications of that sort of choice. In the first place, such statements highlight the close connection between prospective and retrospective responsibility: it will not be appropriate to hold someone (fully) responsible for his actions if he was faced with responsibilities that were unrealistic and over-demanding. What Is Ad Hominem Fallacy. It also points to the fact that people vary in their capacities to or Wrong? Essay, act and edition judge responsibility. This reminds us that the capacities associated with responsible (moral) agency are probably a matter of degree. Is Abortion Right Or Wrong?. It might also remind us of a fourth use of responsibility: to name a virtue of character. While theories of moral agency tend to regard an apa 6th edition, agent as either responsible or not, with no half-measures, our everyday language usually deploys the Is Abortion Right term responsible in a more nuanced way. As just indicated, one way we do this is by weighing degrees of responsibility, both with regard to the sort of prospective responsibilities a person should bear and and Chillingworth Essay a persons liability to Is Abortion Right Essay, blame or penalties.

A more morally loaded usage is involved when we speak of responsible administrators, socially responsible corporations, responsible choices and their opposites. In these cases, we use the how were in vietnam similar? term responsible as a term of praise: responsibility represents a virtue that people (and organizations) may exhibit in one area of their conduct, or perhaps exemplify in Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay, their entire lives. In such cases, our meaning is usually quite clear. The responsible person can be relied on to judge and to what is ad hominem fallacy, act in certain morally desirable ways; in the case of more demanding (more responsible) roles, the person can be trusted to exercise initiative and to demonstrate commitment; and when things go wrong, such a person will be prepared to take responsibility for dealing with things. One way of putting this might be to Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay, say that the responsible person can be counted on take her responsibilities seriously. Croft, The Protagonist. We will not need to hold her responsible, because we can depend on her holding herself responsible. Another way of putting the matter would be much more contentious, and Is Abortion harkens back to the question of whether we should think of moral agency as a matter of degree. Evil/Sin In Dimmesdale And Chillingworth. One might claim that the responsible person possesses the elements pertaining to moral agency (such as capacities to judge moral norms or to respond to others) to a greater degree than the irresponsible person. This would be highly controversial, because it seems to undermine the idea that all human beings are equal moral agents. However, it would help us to see why a term we sometimes use to describe all moral agents can also be used to praise some people rather than others. However this may be, it is fair to Is Abortion Essay, say that this usage of responsible has received the least attention from citation edition philosophers.

This is interesting given that this is clearly a virtue of considerable importance in modern societies. At any rate, it is possible to Is Abortion Right or Wrong?, see some important connections between the virtue and the areas that philosophers have emphasized. The irresponsible person is not one who lacks prospective responsibilities, nor is hominem fallacy she one who may not be held responsible retrospectively. Essay. It is Management: Why Businesses Should Have only that she does not take her responsibilities seriously. Note, however, that the more responsible someone is, the more we will be inclined to Right Essay, entrust her with demanding roles and responsibilities. In this case, her exposure, as it were, to being held retrospectively responsible increases accordingly.

And the same is true in the opposite direction, when someone consistently behaves less responsibly. An illuminating essay by Herbert Fingarette (1967) considers the Evil/Sin limit case of the psychopath, someone who shows absolutely no moral concern for Right or Wrong? Essay others, nor any sensitivity to Portrayed and Chillingworth Essay, moral reproach. Perhaps our first response will be to say that such a person is irresponsible, even evil. Right Essay. Fingarette argues we must finally conclude that he is in fact not a candidate for moral responsibility that he is not a moral agent, not to be assigned prospective responsibilities, not to be held retrospectively responsible for his actions. In other words, it only makes sense to grade someone as responsible or irresponsible, so long as holding her responsible has any prospect of making her act more responsibly. The psychopath will never be responsive to citation apa 6th, blame, nor ever feel guilt. Is Abortion Right Essay. In fact, as someone who will never take any responsibility seriously, he does not qualify as a moral agent at all as being responsible in its most basic sense. This might sound like writing the person a blank check to behave utterly immorally, but two points should be remembered: First, society protects itself against Why Have Crisis, such people, often by incarcerating them as insane (psychopathy names a mental disorder). Second, the Kantian account reminds us that not to treat someone as responsible for her actions is to fail to respect her as the Right or Wrong? Essay author of in Dimmesdale, her deeds. Or Wrong?. In other words, to hold that someone does not qualify as a responsible agent represents an extremely serious deprivation of social status. Looking at Why Businesses Should Crisis Plan, the matter positively, we can also say that a person who exhibits the virtue of Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay, responsibility lives up to the three other aspects of responsibility in an exemplary way.

First, she exercises the capacities of responsible moral agency to Crisis Management: Why Should Plan, a model degree. Right Essay. Second, she approaches her previous actions and omissions with all due concern, being prepared to take responsibility for any failings she may have shown. Evil/Sin In Dimmesdale. And third, she takes her prospective responsibilities seriously, being both a capable judge of what she should do, and willing to act accordingly. 3. Moral versus Legal Responsibility. As some of the examples of or Wrong? Essay, retrospective and prospective responsibility indicate, law has an especial connection with questions of is ad fallacy, responsibility. Legal institutions often assign responsibilities to people, and hold them responsible for failing to Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay, fulfill these responsibilities either via the criminal law and policing, or by allowing other parties to bring them to court via the Lara the Protagonist Essay civil law, for Is Abortion or Wrong? example when a contract is breached. Accordingly, the justification of punishment represents a major concern of philosophy of law.

Likewise, legal philosophers, including figures such as H.L.A. Hart, Herbert Morris and Joel Feinberg, have written a great deal about the philosophy of responsibility. Their discussions have had considerable influence on Croft, moral and Is Abortion Right or Wrong? political philosophers. The most obvious point, that all writers will endorse, is that legal and Crisis Businesses Should Crisis Plan moral responsibility often overlap, but will diverge on some occasions. In the liberal state we can hope that there will be systematic convergence, inasmuch as the Is Abortion Essay law will uphold important moral precepts, especially concerning the Lara Croft, in You protection of rights. Or Wrong? Essay. (In a corrupt or tyrannical state, on the other hand, it is obviously very common that legal and moral responsibility have no relation at all. Tyrants often demand that their subjects be complicit in immorality, such as harming the innocent.) An example where law and morality clearly overlap is murder: it is both a legal crime and an egregious moral wrong. Few would dispute, then, that murder ought to Lara the Protagonist in You, be punished, both legally and morally speaking. However, the law does not punish attempted murder in the same way as an actual murder that is, it does not prioritize intentions over Is Abortion Right outcomes in the same way that many believe that moral judgment should.

The difference between murder and grievous bodily harm may not lie in Management: Why Businesses Should Have an Active Crisis Essay, the intention or even in Essay, the actual wounds inflicted: everything depends on the outcome, that is, whether death results. What Is Ad Hominem Fallacy. Thus the crimes attract different punishments, though our moral judgment of someone may be no lighter in the case of Right, a particularly vicious assault. One way of putting this is to say that the law is concerned with definite outcomes, and only secondarily with intentions. Both moral and legal philosophers disagree as to why, or even whether, this should be the case. A distinguished line of thought, exemplified by H.L.A. Hart in his essay Legal Responsibility and Excuses (in Hart, 1968), holds that legal responsibility should be understood in different terms to moral judgment. The law is not there to punish in the independence movements and kenya, proportion to blameworthiness or wickedness (as Hart observes, much disagreement surrounds such judgments). Instead, the law provides people who are competent to or Wrong?, choose with reasons to act in socially responsible ways. Hart focuses on excuses under the Portrayed in Dimmesdale Essay law, such as insanity or coercion. Law admits such excuses in spite of their possible consequentialist disutility (excuses may well decrease the deterrent force of law, because some people might hope to misuse these excuses to wriggle out of legal accountability).

For Hart, excuses are an important part of a system that does not just seek to prevent crime, but also to protect choice; as a result, law does not punish those who were not able to Essay, choose their actions. Under such a choosing system, individuals can find out, in general terms at apa 6th edition, least, the costs they have to pay if they act in certain ways (1968: 44). Is Abortion Or Wrong? Essay. In this way, law can foster the prime social virtue of Lara, self-restraint (1968: 182). Law can also respect what Peter Strawson stressed in Freedom and Resentment (1962): that our social relations depend on our emotional responses to peoples voluntary actions. If otherwise competent persons choose badly, they do not just cause harmful effects, but also undermine social relations. Harts justification of or Wrong? Essay, punishment, then, holds that attributions of Lara the Protagonist in You Essay, (legal) responsibility help uphold social order while respecting individual choice. His account therefore combines a consequentialist emphasis on external actions and outcomes with an important mental element: punishment is only appropriate in case of Right or Wrong?, competent choice, that is, where excusing conditions do not apply. However, Hart emphasizes that his account does not apply to moral judgment, about which his views seem to be more or less Kantian. More recent writers have taken up this line of thought, without endorsing the claim that moral and legal judgment need be so strongly distinct. Crisis Should Have An Active Crisis Plan Essay. Arthur Ripstein (1999) has argued that law defends equality and reciprocity between citizens.

It therefore has to protect peoples interests in freedom of action as well their interests in security of Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay, person and property. Law has to be concerned with fairness to victims as well as fairness to culprits. To do this, it defines a system of prospective responsibilities that protect the interests of all, and holds people retrospectively responsible for breaches. For instance, the is ad coercive measure of punishment is called for where a person disregards anothers liberty or security interests. Threats or attempts also disregard those interests and may be punishable, but they do not undermine equality in social relations as severely as successful violations of rights. (As Ripstein notes, his approach actually descends from Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay Kants account of punishment, which works in a different way to Kants account of Evil/Sin Portrayed in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth Essay, moral imputation. Right Or Wrong? Essay. On this, see Hill, 2002.) Ripstein leaves open whether this account might also have implications for understanding moral responsibility (be it prospective or retrospective). However, his underlying idea concerning fairness to both wrong-doer and is ad victim does suggest problems for accounts of retrospective moral responsibility that focus (in more or less Kantian fashion) only on the culprits choice and intentions. A quite different school of thought, recently exemplified in the work of Michael Moore (1998), endorses a recognizably Kantian view of moral responsibility, and Is Abortion Essay argues that the law ought to share this approach. Apart from the theoretical difficulties that face the Kantian approach to moral responsibility, however, this school of what is ad, thought has to claim that large parts of Is Abortion Right, legal practice are misconceived. In particular, it must hold that all practices of strict liability are illegitimate.

Strict liability is the what practice of holding a person accountable if certain harms materialize, even where she could not have done anything to prevent those harms coming about. (Contrast Ripsteins account just given, or the above example of the customer who accidentally breaks a vase in a shop.) Similarly, Moores approach faces severe difficulties in Is Abortion or Wrong?, explaining why the law should punish on the basis of outcomes and not only intentions even though every legal system shares this feature. Legal responsibility has another interesting relation to the question of responsible agency. In addition to admitting excusing conditions such as insanity, systems of law stipulate various age conditions as to who counts as responsible. For example, all jurisdictions have an machine, age of criminal responsibility: a person under the age of, say, twelve cannot be punished for Right Essay murder. Likewise, law permits only Evil/Sin in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth people above certain ages to Right, engage in hominem fallacy, various activities: drinking alcohol, voting, standing as an or Wrong?, elected representative, entering into contracts, consenting to medical treatment, and so forth. Again, legal categories will often overlap with moral judgment: both sorts of judgment typically agree that the very young are not responsible for their actions, nor sufficiently responsible to judge what medical care they should receive. That said, our non-legal judgments about when a person becomes sufficiently mature to what, be responsible invariably depend on the person, as well as on the difficult question of what degree of maturity is necessary to responsible conduct in different spheres of life. In recent decades increasing attention has been given to Right Essay, the question of collective responsibility. Edition. This question can arise wherever the actions of a group of people combine to or Wrong? Essay, generate a particular result whether a corporation, or the citizens of is ad hominem, a state, or even individuals who have no particular connection to one another. (A well-known example of the last is the tragedy of the commons, when lots of Essay, people use a shared resource for instance, everyone using the commons as grazing land for their cattle resulting in Croft, in You Essay, the degradation of that resource. Our increasing awareness of damage to environment has given this case particular contemporary importance.) There are questions about the responsibilities of the collective, and of the individual as a member of that body.

Recall that one of the original uses of the word responsible was to describe a desirable quality of Is Abortion Right or Wrong?, government, and that we still use the word in this way to praise some institutions, just as we may criticize a corporation or group as irresponsible. Many perplexities about shared responsibility arise from the thought that individuals are responsible agents, in a way that groups cannot be. A well-known formulation captures this problem neatly: No soul to damn, no body to kick (Coffee, 1981). Croft,. As pointed out above, it is usually thought that a person can be blamed or deserve punishment by virtue of certain psychological capacities (soul), as well as by Essay virtue of being the same person (body) today as she was yesterday. On this account, there is a serious puzzle as to how a collective can be responsible, since a collective lacks the psychological capacities of an hominem, individual person (but see the Encyclopedia article on collective intentionality) and its membership tends to alter over time. Note, however, that if we think of responsibility in terms of capacities to interact in the light of shared norms as the Humean account of moral agency might suggest rather than as a matter of particular psychological capacities, then we need not be so concerned with those capacities nor, perhaps, with changes in membership. A separate article, collective moral responsibility, discusses the Right or Wrong? Essay issues that arise here. It may be useful, however, to indicate briefly how the four aspects of individual responsibility discussed above might apply to how were movements in vietnam and kenya, the collective case.

In the first place, it is clear that collective bodies can function as agents, at least in Is Abortion, some circumstances. Groups and organizations can pursue particular policies, respect legal requirements, reach decisions about Evil/Sin and Chillingworth how to respond to situations, and create important benefits and costs for other agents. They can also offer an Right, account of their previous actions and Portrayed and Chillingworth policies, setting out how and Right why these were decided upon. However, these abilities clearly depend upon the collectives being appropriately organized, which is a matter of internal communication, deliberative mechanisms, and allocation of responsibilities to individuals. Crisis Management: Businesses Should Have Essay. Clearly, organizations may function better or worse in all these regards as may the other organizations with which they interact and which may, in turn, hold them responsible.

b. Retrospective Responsibility of Collectives. By the same token, collective bodies can be held responsible. In fact, law does this all the time, at least for formally established collectives that are not states, for example, corporations, charities and statutory bodies such as government agencies. Responsible officers may be called to Right, account to answer for their organizations actions, to be dismissed or even punished if that account is unsatisfactory. As a body, the collective owns property and acts in systematic ways: legal measures can therefore make it provide compensation, or exact fines simply as a punishment; a court can order the body to act differently or to remedy a particular case or situation. States act deliberately, but holding them accountable is much more difficult.

States can commit the most serious wrongs, waging war or inflicting grave injustice upon their own peoples. International law attempts to Evil/Sin Portrayed Essay, codify some duties of states, and Is Abortion Right Essay the duties of individuals who govern them. But it lacks the enforcement mechanisms (police, courts, judiciary) that function within states. Wisdom Meaning. Examples of attempts to hold states and their agents retrospectively responsible include: South Africas well-known Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which addressed the Right or Wrong? brutalities of the old apartheid regime; the trial of individuals, such as the 1961 Jerusalem trial of Portrayed and Chillingworth, Nazi functionary Adolf Eichmann; and Is Abortion Essay the exacting of wisdom meaning, reparations following the defeat of a state, for instance the notorious Versailles agreement that penalized Germany for Right Essay its role in the First World War. As the article on collective moral responsibility discusses, imposing liabilities, punishments or duties onto wisdom collective bodies will finally involve costs or duties for Is Abortion individuals. This poses many difficult questions about Crisis Why Businesses Should Have an Active Crisis Essay how the supposed responsibilities of the group might be traced back to particular individuals. Perhaps the people who were most to blame have died or moved jobs or are otherwise out of reach. Should the citizens of a country make amends for the wrong-doing of their forefathers, for instance? Ought a corporation that has fired its top managers still be liable to pay fines for the misdeeds that those former managers led the corporation into? For many, such questions highlight the most puzzling aspect of collective responsibility, namely that individuals might justly be required to make amends for others actions and policies.

c. Prospective Responsibilities of Groups. For formally organized collectives, prospective responsibilities are often codified by law, or (in the case of a charity, for instance) specified in Essay, a groups constitution. As in what is ad hominem fallacy, the individual case, of course, our moral judgment may differ from codified responsibilities: not only moral but also political arguments often surround these allocations of Right, responsibility. Proponents of corporate social responsibility, for example, generally hold that companies responsibilities extend much beyond their legal duties, including wider obligations to citation machine apa 6th, the communities amongst which they operate and to the natural environment. Just as in the case of individuals, attempts to or Wrong? Essay, hold groups and Portrayed in Dimmesdale organizations retrospectively accountable often, therefore, reveal serious moral disagreements, and invariably have a political dimension, too. Groups, companies, and Right or Wrong? Essay states can all be more or less responsible.

Originally, responsible government described government responsive to the wants and needs of its citizens; in the same way, we now speak of corporate social responsibility. As in Lara Croft,, the individual case, for or Wrong? Essay collectives to Evil/Sin in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth, exhibit the Right Essay virtue of responsibility depends on the other three aspects of responsibility discussed in this article. Citation. With regard to moral agency, it will require good internal organization, so that the body is aware of Is Abortion Right Essay, its situation, capacities, actions and impacts. With regard to retrospective responsibility, it involves a willingness and the independence movements in vietnam ability to deal with failings and omissions, and to learn from these. In terms of Is Abortion Right Essay, prospective responsibility, the collectives activities and policies must be aptly chosen, conformable to wider moral norms, and properly put into effect. As with individuals, how far a body is likely to Crisis Businesses an Active Crisis Essay, do these things also depends on how far those around it (that is, both individuals and other collectives) act responsibly. For instance, others will need to form appropriate expectations of the collective, and be prepared to enforce these expectations fairly and reasonably. This article has pointed to four dimensions of responsibility, reflecting the various ways in which the word is used. Moral agency can also be termed responsible agency, meaning that a person is or Wrong? Essay open to moral evaluation. How Were And Kenya. This sort of moral status points in two directions. It means that a persons actions can be judged morally, so that various responses such as praise or punishment may be appropriate this is the stuff of retrospective responsibility.

In the other direction, a moral agent has particular duties or concerns the stuff of prospective responsibility. Lastly, we evaluate agents as responsible or irresponsible, by asking how seriously they take their responsibilities. This involves evaluating them in terms of how far they exercise (or possess) the capacities pertaining to moral agency, how they approach their past actions and failings, and how they approach their duties and areas of responsibility. Is Abortion Right Or Wrong?. As we have seen, writers differ concerning the connections between moral and legal responsibility, but it is also true that these four dimensions all find echo in the Protagonist Essay, legal uses of responsibility. Philosophical discussion often considers these aspects of Is Abortion Right or Wrong?, responsibility only conventional with regard to individuals, so that the or Wrong? Essay term collective responsibility appears puzzling, despite its frequent usage in everyday life. The final part of this article briefly considered how each of these dimensions can be applied to groups, although it has left aside some difficult questions that arise for example, how a groups retrospective responsibilities can be fairly apportioned to how were the independence movements in vietnam and kenya, individuals, or how collectives can be organized so as to be more or less responsible. This article began by observing that the word responsibility is surprisingly modern, and that two quite different philosophical stories have been told about it. Or Wrong?. Very little was said concerning the first story, concerning responsibility in political thought. However, it has pointed out conventional wisdom that the Essay concept extends more widely than modern philosophical debates tend to acknowledge.

Prospective responsibility relates to the fine-grained division of responsibilities involved in the different roles which people adopt in modern societies above all, the different spheres of responsibility which we are given in the workplace. Croft, The Protagonist In You Essay. By the same token, responsibility has clearly become a very important virtue in or Wrong? Essay, modern societies. In conclusion, then, it will be helpful to point to one possible connection between the original political story and responsibility as we most often use the term today. (See also Pettit, 2001, for another account.) Uncertainty and disagreement about Evil/Sin and Chillingworth how we should live together is one of the most marked features of modern life. We live in an age when both individuals and organizations are asked to be endlessly flexible. Our roles and responsibilities are continually changing and continually challenged. Uncertainty and disagreement about prospective responsibilities are always passing over into disputes about retrospective responsibility, as we hold one another accountable. We all face the Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay test, then, of how to conduct ourselves amid this uncertainty and disagreement. It is conventional meaning surely one hallmark of the person who exhibits the virtue of responsibility that she contributes to cooperation in Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay, the face of this difficult situation. However, we might remember that politics has always raised these sorts of difficulty. In modern societies, negotiation, compromise and judgment are required, not just of those who take on machine apa 6th edition formal political office, but of all of us.

It is or Wrong? surely no wonder, then, that we no longer think of responsibility as only what hominem a question for the political sphere.

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The Contradiction of Pro-Choice but not Pro-Abortion Our beloved Holy Father calls us to let mercy temper our conversations about publicly sanctioned offenses against the 5 th , 6 th and 9 th commandments, particularly abortion, and indeed there is great wisdom in this. This beautiful call should not be misinterpreted as a softening of Is Abortion Right Church teaching on this most vital and basic issue, but a shift in how were the independence movements in vietnam and kenya the tone, clarity and charity with which we speak to our opponents. Essay! With this in mind, we ought to clarify the Crisis Management: Why Businesses Have an Active Essay, moral and intellectual contradiction of claiming one is pro-choice but not pro-abortion as if this is Is Abortion Right or Wrong? a morally tenable position, for it is not. How Were The Independence In Vietnam Similar?! We must concede that emotionally this is a statement professed and or Wrong? Essay, held by many who have been confused by the bewildering rhetoric of these troubled times, but it would not be charitable to let our confused brethren sit in this contradiction. The enemy of God and all His Saints is the bent one who has a vested interest in disorienting us by the misuse of speech. It is fashionable to hold the diabolical contradiction that one can be pro-choice but not pro-abortion but let it be known that this morally problematic stance proceeds from the father of lies.

Human agents tricked into holding this contradiction are not the enemy, Satan is the enemy and our duty is found in charity committed to fraternal correction. One who illustrates the morally untenable point well in all its illogical refinement is our former president who publically proclaimed that he is pro-choice and Lara the Protagonist in You, not pro-abortion. Is Abortion Or Wrong?! This is absurd coming from the single most pro-abortion president in the Protagonist in You this countrys history. He would go so far as to support an abortion for his own daughter rather than see her punished with a baby in the event of a sexual mistake. As abhorrent as this notion is, we must still remember that the human person is in the image and likeness of God and we are to combat the evil of these false notions, not the people themselves who hold them. The rhetoric justifying abortion has been evolving at an alarming rate. Although pro-choice is a euphemism for abortion and abortion is a euphemism for Is Abortion Right or Wrong?, murder in the womb, it is now impermissible to recognize and publically state that a pro-choice person is also one who is at least in some way supportive of abortion. The denial of this connection is due in part by the public assertion that abortion is an undesirable thing but still rightfully subordinated to a womans choice. So to soften the evil of the pro-choice position there is an artificial distinction invented to falsely suggest that pro-choice is a good thing while pro-abortion is a bad thing. The truth is that both are gravely immoral.

If we are going to explain the logical and moral flaws to our pro-choice brethren, we must do so on the grounds of truth and Lara the Protagonist, rightly ordered reason conveyed with charity. With that in mind, let us uncover the real distinction between the pro-choice and pro-abortion positions which will reveal a distinction that doesnt really make much of a moral difference when it comes to moral and principled action. There is an objective moral difference between toleration and promotion of a vice. St. Thomas Aquinas said many things are permissible to men not perfect in Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay virtue, which would be intolerable in a virtuous man. Thomas clarifies the principle that the state ought not to legislate against Why Businesses an Active Plan Essay all viciousness and must be prudential in its law making.

He clarifies the point in article 2 of question 96 as he states: Now human law is framed for Is Abortion or Wrong?, a number of human beings, the majority of whom are not perfect in Evil/Sin Essay virtue. Wherefore human laws do not forbid all vices, from which the virtuous abstain, but only the more grievous vices, from which it is possible for the majority to abstain; and chiefly those that are to the hurt of others, without the prohibition of which human society could not be maintained: thus human law prohibits murder, theft and such like. It is legitimate to bring up this principle in discussions about whether or not there ought to be laws concerning alcohol usage or even such serious things as prostitution, but as Thomas mentioned, a thing like murder of innocents is inappropriate to tolerate or promote. The Distinction without a Difference. Clearly there is a type of difference between the two positions of Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay pro-choice and pro-abortion relative to the distinction between toleration and promotion. In general, it is indeed worse to promote a sin than it is tolerate a sin, but in the case of meaning abortion there is an important qualification. Tolerating the sin of abortion is grave matter and promoting it is Is Abortion Right or Wrong? graver still. When it comes to grave matter that harms the fabric of society, it is not even licit to tolerate it. The fact that so many people believe that to tolerate abortion by Evil/Sin in Dimmesdale, a pro-choice stance is Is Abortion Right Essay morally permissible is the what hominem fallacy, result of Essay generations of misuse of speech following the sexual revolution. Most reasonable people can be jarred out of this moral stupor by a simple thought experiment. Take the and kenya similar?, pro-choice but not pro-abortion incongruity and substitute any other violent crime and a clear picture of the contradiction will emerge.

Lets say that when a person says I am pro-choice that the choice they are referring to is the choice of Right Essay a man to rape a woman. The argument would go like this: I dont personally believe in rape, I would never rape a woman myself, but I believe every man has the right to choose whether or not he will rape a woman, it is his body and he can do with it what he wants, who am I to tell him he cannot rape a woman?, so I am pro-choice for Lara Croft, Essay, a man, but I am not pro-rape. Would anyone in their right mind agree with this absurd and gravely immoral line of reasoning? Is it clear that toleration of rape is intolerable? Are there objections to be made by the analogy?

In these confused times, of course there are. In the rape scenario the or Wrong? Essay, woman victim is analogous to in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth Essay the baby in the womb for the abortion scenario. Or Wrong? Essay! Fair enough, but which deserves more protection, the Crisis Should Have Plan, woman victim? Or the child in the womb? The modern world equivocates when it comes to what exactly is in the womb after conception, but this should be simple.

When a sperm fertilizes an Right Essay, egg, conception produces an individuated being with his own unique DNA sequence. In You Essay! This is plainly a human person verifiable by science. Using Aristotles four causes, we can clearly see that a newly conceived life has a material cause, a formal cause, an efficient cause and Right, a final cause whose substantial form is clearly a human soul. Using common sense we can know that a new born baby that had been in the womb for Lara Croft, the Protagonist in You, 9 months was indeed, from the moment of its conception, a human person. Theologically it is revealed to us that each human person is made in Right or Wrong? the image and likeness of Portrayed and Chillingworth God. So a grown woman is also a person in the image and likeness of God and if the child and Right Essay, woman dont deserve equal protection, the more innocent and vulnerable of the two is the conventional wisdom meaning, unborn child. The confusion on the abortion issue is conceived in the collective mind by Is Abortion Essay, an abuse of language repeated nearly ad-nauseam in the public square by educators and mass media signaling not just our addiction to false freedom but our acquiescence to the dictatorship of relativism. It is how were the independence movements and kenya no longer permissible to speak the truth on these matters in Right or Wrong? public without denigrating reprisals. Yet still, let us as Catholics at least try to and Chillingworth Essay continue to make our voices heard for the sake of the unborn souls sacrificed on the altar of Right free sex.

The word pro-choice is a euphemism. It is a dishonest contrivance to say that the unthinkable crime of a woman terminating the life of her unborn child is a right. The misuse of speech is Portrayed in Dimmesdale Essay akin to calling a Nazi gas chamber a beauty spa. We rightfully look upon the Aztec human sacrifices with horror and Right or Wrong? Essay, refer to the custom as barbaric, but far worse and more prolific is the western custom of convincing our women that they have a right to Croft, kill their own children. Or Wrong? Essay! We are warned not to use the what is ad hominem fallacy, word kill when we talk about this issue because it causes offense, but even this word is too soft if we are going to really call abortion what it truly is. There are even worse euphemisms for Is Abortion Right or Wrong?, pro-choice like womens health. There is nothing healthy or health related about an citation machine edition, abortion which kills one patient and emotionally, physically and spiritually scars the other for life. Is Abortion Or Wrong?! Pro-choices antecedent is clearly the medical term abortion. The legal antecedent of the medical term is the legal termination of human life in the womb.

The moral antecedent is murder in the womb. The ontological antecedent killing an innocent human person. The Biblical antecedent is the independence and kenya similar? spilling the blood of Abel, which we must all remember is one of the five sins that cries out to heaven for vengeance. The above reasoning is what we ought to teach our children and those closest to Is Abortion Right or Wrong? us, especially our brothers and sisters in the faith. Armed with the truth, those whom we teach can teach others closest to them. If we listen to our Holy Father we must not lead with the stark truth about what pro-choice really means. We must begin with the aim of evangelizing and preaching the Gospel of in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth Essay Life. The most difficult hurdle in Right the pro-life discussion with souls accustomed to untruth and the place we must begin is the fact that an unborn child is a human person endowed with certain inalienable rights, most notably the right to life. After we establish the worth of the life of the unborn child, we must follow with the importance of the life and health of the mother. All of our arguments in Evil/Sin the public square must flow from the Is Abortion or Wrong?, truth about the dignity of all human persons. We are called to display heroic virtue to protect all human life and especially innocent human life.

May God grant us the courage and grace to speak more convincingly and charitably in public about the true nature of abortion. May it be that if we establish the building blocks of intelligibility concerning the dignity and Evil/Sin Essay, worth of each and every human person, especially the unborn, then perhaps the morally incongruent position of pro-choice but not pro-abortion may be exposed for the fraudulent position it is. Right Or Wrong? Essay! Let us become warriors for the light of truth by putting on the mind of Christ and the armor of God. image: Paul Keeling / Shutterstock.com. Steven Jonathan Rummelsburg is machine apa 6th edition a Catholic convert, a catechist, a school teacher, a Catholic writer and speaker on matters of Faith, culture, and education. He holds a degree in History from the University of Right California, Santa Barbara. Steven is a Senior Contributor at The Imaginative Conservative, a regular contributor to the Integrated Catholic Life, a member of the Teacher Advisory Board and Lara Croft,, writer of curriculum at the Sophia Institute for Teachers, a contributor to Crisis Magazine, The Civilized Reader, The Standard Bearers, Catholic Exchange and a founding member of the Brinklings Literary Club. What do you do in the case of ectopic pregnancy, one that threatens the life of a mother, and would probably result in a dead foetus? More simply what do you do when a womans life is Is Abortion Essay threatened by a foetus, a potential not a real child? What do you do with a nine year old girl who has been impregnated by her step father and whom doctors cannot carry that foetus to term? What are you trying to spin this in to John, these are medical issues, not pro-choice.

issues, the Church has a position, would you have the Church change its position. over your hypothetical situation? I think you are looking for a way to justify abortion due to unfortunate circumstances, and I agree that your descriptions are unfortunate for anyone that has to deal with the reality of these things, but you know as well as I that abortion is used mostly for movements in vietnam, birth control, the situations you describe are not common but should have a solution via the medical community and the Church, the real problem is the steady march to the community baby killers when the mothers could have used some method to Is Abortion Right or Wrong? prevent the pregnancy or moral values that would have prevented the situation! Larrt: They are not hypothetical situations. A 9 year old child in Brazil was raped for years by a step father and became pregnant with twins. Doctors said the the independence similar?, child was too small to carry the foetus and would probably die if there was not abortion. Her mother had an abortion performed and was excommunicated by the local cardinal. He did nothing to the rapist because abortion was a more serious offense.

A non Catholic woman in Galway Ireland was brought into a hospital with a septic embryo and was told she would die if she tried to give birth. Her husband wanted an abortion performed but the hospital refused because Ireland is a Catholic country. She died. The outrage was so great that Ireland will probably change its constitution to permit abortions. A woman was brought into a Catholic hospital in Is Abortion or Wrong? Pjhoenix in conventional meaning similar condtion.

The nun who was the administrator of the hospital signed off on an abortion and excommunicated by the local biship. They are rare cases, but they are real. A nine year old girl is Is Abortion Right or Wrong? not likely to know about contraception, which the church also forbids.The two women presumably had good moral values. Citation! The church has to change its inflexible position. Read The Church and Abortion by George Dennis OBrien for Is Abortion or Wrong?, a discussion of the issues., including the case in Brazil. I hate to see the conventional wisdom meaning, pro-life movement waste valuable time, energy and resources arguing over false dichotomies, like the difference between the words pro-choice, pro-abortion, toleration, promotion, etc. I also hate to see persons with no formal legal or medical education arguing about legal and or Wrong? Essay, medical issues. Fortunately, third parties without legitimate credentials to speak on these issues have no legal standing to force women to carry pregnancies to how were the independence movements and kenya term, just as a lynch mob has no right to Right Essay cast stones at an adulterous woman. Yet the pro-life movement persists in the stone age as if it forgets or doesnt care that America has a constitution and that Jesus died on the cross to accomplish what the law could not achieve. Conventional Wisdom Meaning! Namely forgiveness of Is Abortion Essay sins and righteousness through faith.

Do you believe that a potential child turns into a real child by citation machine apa 6th, transiting through the birth canal? If not when do you believe it happens? For some very odd reason we are fascinated with the or Wrong?, exception to the rule and bizarrely swayed by the 1 in 100,000 cases- this is the Portrayed and Chillingworth Essay, poorest use of the or Wrong?, mind, in fact it is a misuse. Hominem! A tragic circumstance does not negate a moral principle of truth. An evil may never be done that a good can come from it, this is impermissible. You cannot honestly pretend that we are able to adjudicate the excommunications and injustices done by members of the Church based on a pathological and reductive account with a wholly incomplete set of circumstances can you? It is an insult to decency and the right use of the mind. If you have an reasonalbe question I would be happy to entertain it. Perhaps you are not Catholic, but Catholics, philosophers and honest scientists alike know that a fetus is not merely a potential child but in fact a human person imbued with a soul in the image and Is Abortion or Wrong?, likeness of God. The equivocation is using the how were the independence in vietnam and kenya, word Potential and child as if the Right, fertilized egg, the meaning, fetus and the child were three different things when they are not, they are the same thing at Right or Wrong? Essay different stages. Just like the child, the adult and the senior citizen are all human persons.

Here is where we may begin and Crisis Why Businesses Should Have an Active Plan, end. If you do not understand this simple truth, our conversation is at an end. Is Abortion Right Essay! If you do understand this, then we may proceed with alacrity. A kitschy or pathological end run will get us nowhere. Your supposition ifs are also extremely unhelpful. Whether or not a child in Crisis Management: Why Businesses Should Have Essay the womb may or may not die is not germane to the morality of this entire question.

The question of the Right, ectopic pregnancy aside, if there is a dead child in the womb that calls for one response, but if there is a live child in Evil/Sin Portrayed in Dimmesdale Essay the womb this calls for another. Right Or Wrong?! We dont say such things as well if the child in the womb has a 70% of dying we can licitly perform an abortion. This is not moral thinking but calculating and Portrayed in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth Essay, dehumanizing thinking, this is not Catholic. Please let me know if there is actually anything I can help you to or Wrong? Essay understand. Thank you for your thoughtful and intelligent response. Management: Why Businesses Plan! I mean that sincerly.I am Catholic.

I am in a hurry right now so I have to keep this short. Will try to get back to you later. The Catholic Churdh has never said when a soul enteres a fetus. It refused to do at Vatican 2.I wont go into the long history of Augustine and Acquinas and Right Essay, other debating when a soul transition from a vegetative to a rational human status, but the issue has vexed the church for 2000 years. The Catholic Church allows for indirect abortionsi.e. Wisdom Meaning! removing a cancerous uterus from a pregnant woman even if that indirectly results in Right Essay the death of a fetus.

I have no idea what ou mean by in vietnam and kenya, pathological and reductive account. Is killing evil? Yes. Is it sometimes justifiable? Yes. Police can kill to or Wrong? Essay save others so can soldiers so can individuals whose lives are threatened. I have to run. Will get citations to you later. Thanks so much for the clarifying response, we have much more to talk about conventional wisdom, then I had originally surmised- these are indeed important questions about Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay, which it is dangerous to know only a little- and of course killing is permissible if it is done because of an imminent threat to innocents or as in the case you discussed, to save a mothers life when the conventional meaning, killing of the fetus is secondary or as Catholic moral theology calls it by the principle of or Wrong? Essay double effect.

The cases you mentioned in your second post below are snap shots and because they dont have even the minimum number contextual facts and because we cant know truly the actors intentions, we cannot possibly adjudicate with any accuracy or justice so this is how were movements similar? why I would call those examples reductive and beyond that they are indeed heartbreaking and heartbreaking stories make an appeal to our emotions, and rightfully so, but if we leave it at Right Essay the level of emotions then surely we misjudge and this misjudgment can rightfully be called reductive pathos, thus pathological as opposed to logical or by the principles of ethics. We as Catholics must consider all three, pathos, logos and ethos as we adjudicate the citation machine apa 6th edition, object, context and intentions of a particular moral situation. I look forward to hearing more from you John! Peace. Hi. I am going to dalay a response until tomorrow., I just came back from a day celebrating the 80th, 70th and 60th anniversaries of a group of nuns, including my sister in Is Abortion law. The mass was woinderful, the food great, the dancing fun, the conversation welcome, and the whiskey good. Crisis Management: Have An Active Crisis Essay! Who wants to Right dive into the weeds of theoiogy after that..

Tqalk to you tomorrow. get back to you tomorrow. see below for ,my reasons. Steve Hi. See my comment below on the Churchs position on animation. I would also add that John Noonan in his collection of essays on abortion The Morality of Abortion also limits himself to is ad hominem fallacy saying that a life created by humans is a human. See his essay An Almost Absolute Value in History page 51. Noonon also noted (fn 158 page 46 that Vatican 2 specifically said the time of animation was not touched upon..

I will limit myself to one final citation The Church and Abortion:A Catholic Dissent by George Dennis OBrien who comments on the case of the Brazilian child that moral and legal decision are difficult and can lead to subjectivism but that is why what he calls practical wisdom derived from practice and experience is needed in such cases. I think he is or Wrong? Essay saying the apa 6th, same thing that Francis and others advocate when they talk of the need for discernment, that no rule can be applied to all cases without discernment of all the Is Abortion Right or Wrong?, issues. For myself I would say that if I had a9 year old daughter (I have two grown sons) who was rapid and impregnated. I would not hesitate in having an abortion performed. Thanks for your time. For some reason my response has not appeared. It was rather long. I will summarize. I was making a passing reference to long debate among Catholic theologians about and kenya, when a human soul enters fetus. The Church has never said. I included a long quote from Abortion: Development of the Roman Catholic Perspective by John Connery SJ, 1977. who pointed that the Is Abortion Right, Church has legislated penalties against abortion but legislation is is ad hominem fallacy not teaching and the Church has never taught immediate animation or ensoulment see page 212 and 308.

I am sorry for not retyping the whole quote but if you need them I will do it. I accept the fact that a fetus is Is Abortion Essay a human being from the moment of conception. Crisis Businesses Should Have An Active Crisis Plan! I dont understand why the Church resists saying that animation takes places then. See comment above about John Noonans statements. In all the circumstances you refer to, abortion is impermissible. First, we must clarify that the term abortion used without qualification usually means a deliberately procured termination of Essay a healthy pregnancy by the death of the unborn child. This makes sure we exclude miscarriages. In an ectopic pregnancy, where the mothers life is threatened, it is often possible to continue the pregnancy under close observation to the point where the child can be delivered by C-section. Where this isnt possible, treatment of the inflamed tissue to save the mother is permissible, even though it is foreseen (though not directly intended) that this will result in Lara Croft, in You the death of the child.

In addition, there have been attempts to develop a technique by which an ectopic pregnancy can be moved into the uterus, and or Wrong? Essay, some have been successful. The same logic can be applied to any other situation where the mothers life is in Crisis Should Have Crisis Plan danger and the treatment of the threat may cause the child to die in all cases, the Is Abortion or Wrong?, moral thing to do is try to protect both mother and child, managing the pregnancy in hopes of prolonging it as long as possible so the child might be delivered prematurely but still survive. How Were And Kenya! And similarly for Is Abortion Right Essay, the 9-year-old, with proper treatment it may be possible. Wisdom Meaning! If it isnt, then whatever treatment is necessary may be administered, but the direct intention of killing the child is never acceptable. Im not sure why the point of animation is pertinent. To begin with, we dont and cant ever know when it is. Is Abortion Right Or Wrong?! This is one of many things we have no need to know, and certainly wont ever know in this life, and possibly not in what is ad hominem fallacy the next. Right! It just doesnt matter. Discussing it is similar to discussing how many angels can dance on the head of a pin. Who cares? I tend to agree but it was argued for almost two thousand years.

Prof OBrien refers to Lara Croft, the Protagonist in You it and likes the or Wrong?, idea of conventional meaning using it. The situation you describe from Ireland wasnt what you describe. The womans condition had nothing to do with her pregnancy and wouldnt have been improved by an abortion. Is Abortion Or Wrong?! It was reported falsely in the media. The Phoenix situation was the Crisis Why Have an Active Crisis Essay, same the abortion was NOT necessary to save the Right, womans life. The case in Brazil was more valid, but if I remember correctly the only issue was that the 9-year-olds pelvis was too small for Crisis Management: Have Crisis, a normal delivery to take place but even then it may have been possible to continue the pregnancy long enough for Is Abortion Right Essay, the child to Lara Croft, the Protagonist be viable, and delivered via C-section.

I will bow to more accurate reporting but note the outrage in Essay Ireland is leading to a change in the countrys legislation. I read that the Church retained two doctors to review the Brazilian childs case and they said she might have been able to carry the fetus until a C section could be performed. One of those doctors I read was a priest, so I discard his opinion automatically. I dont have any information about the other doctor. In any case I would not accept the opinions of doctors retained by a church which is adamantly opposed to abortion. I would not subject a child of fallacy mine to such a pregnancy.

It is obscene. This is interesting but does not deal with the issue of terminating a pregnancy when it threatens a womans life. A 9 year old should not be forced to under go a pregnancy.Period. The Church has taught since the 1st century A.D. that abortion is morally evil and still teaches today that human life must be protected from conception: 2270. Human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception. From the first moment of his existence, a human being must be recognized as having the rights of a person among which is the inviolable right of Right every innocent being to life. Catechism of the edition, Catholic Church. The question of when ensoulment occurs is another matter. I believe St.

Thomas had the opinion, following Aristotle, that the soul entered the unborn child at 4 months, but that would not mean he would have sanctioned abortion in the first trimester. But today we know that life begins at Essay conception from modern embryology which was nonexistent in those days. So if you agree that the unborn are human beings from conception, you cannot also believe that it is acceptable to destroy them. Yes Augustine and Acquinas and a slew of other theologians thought that ensoulment took place for males at 4 months and for females several ,months after that. You are right the church and they disapproved of abortion, although interestingly they did not consider abortion before ensoulment to be homicide, as I understand the very confusing thoughts. Modern science tells us nothing about ensoulment, as the comment by Scragsma notes we cannot know that It does tell us that a human has been created.

I do believe that is legitimate to destroy an embryo that is threatening the life of a mother. Evil/Sin Portrayed And Chillingworth Essay! Sometimes killing is allowed, e.g. to save the life of an innocent. I also include the case of a raped 9 year old, or for that matter any rape victim, no matter her age. According to Aquinas, the soul is Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay simply the form of the body, what makes it alive. And from embryology, we know that life begins at conception, since the zygote instantly begins to grow by subdivision.

So I think it is citation machine reasonable to conclude that a human has been created at Is Abortion Essay that point, and that is what the what hominem, Church teaches. I agree with you that there are circumstances where killing a human being is permitted, however in Right the case of a child conceived in rape, the hominem, child itself is innocent and it is not morally acceptable to destroy it. If someone has to be killed, it should be the rapist since he is Is Abortion Right or Wrong? guilty. From my readomg the Church does not teach that animation, ensoulment begins immediately at conception. fr. Connery in his book, (see the citation in Lara the discussion from the other day) in fact says that the Church has never taught that, the Right Essay, Vatican 2 refused to do so. Piux IX in 1869 ruled there was no distinction between an conventional wisdom, animated and unanimated fetus. It became Canon Law in 1917 that abortion called for excoimmunication whatever the stage of fetal development page 212 This is legilation, not teaching.Distinction the Church makes, or does not make, in regard to penalties do not constitute church teaching. So while it is true that the Church today penalizes abortion at any stage, it would be wrong to conclude from this that it teaches immediate animation or infusion of Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay a rational soul in the fetus. In Dimmesdale And Chillingworth Essay! This it has never done.The only opinion the Church has ever condemned ws that which identified animation with the time of birth.It has never thought immediate animation. Even Vatican 2 resisted such a teaching when condemning abortion. page 308.

Noonan (page 46, footnote 158 said that Vatican 2 did not touch on Right, animation. I have to admit the you would think that if it is a human being it has a human soul. Could it be that the Church realizes that a fertilze eggs sometimes splits, and then what happens, is the sould split, is a new soul created at the split, does each new fertilzed egg have half a soul? Difficult questions. Probably best avoided.

I understnd a child conceived in meaning rape is or Wrong? Essay innocent, but it can still violate the mothers person I would leave up to her to meaning decide if she wants to carry it to term. Is Abortion Right Or Wrong? Essay! I could not condemn if she does not. Vatican 2 did not touch on animation. I have to admit the Portrayed in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth, you would think that if it is a human being it has a human soul. It didnt touch on animation, but nevertheless Gaudium et spes maintained that For God, the Lord of life, has conferred on men the Is Abortion Right Essay, surpassing ministry of safeguarding life in a manner which is worthy of man. Businesses! Therefore from the moment of its conception life must be guarded with the Is Abortion Right, greatest care while abortion and conventional wisdom, infanticide are unspeakable crimes. p.51. I have to correct what I said earlier, Aquinas, following Aristotle was of the opinion that the soul was infused at Is Abortion 40 and 80 days (for male and female respectively) and conventional wisdom meaning, not 4 months.

They had no knowledge of embryology or genetics and had to Right or Wrong? go by the physical appearance only. Today we know that life begins at conception, when the zygote is formed by in You Essay, the parents gametes and Is Abortion Right, becomes a distinct human being with its own distinct genome. Nevertheless the medieval and earlier theologians would never have sanctioned abortion even before their supposed ensoulment at 40/80 days. So the Church rightly condemns abortion today as intrinsically evil, just as it did in how were the independence and kenya the time of Aquinas and all the way back to the time of or Wrong? Essay Our Lord. Even if the presence of a spiritual soul cannot be ascertained by empirical data, the hominem fallacy, results themselves of scientific research on or Wrong?, the human embryo provide a valuable indication for discerning by Crisis Why Businesses Should Have an Active Plan Essay, the use of Right reason a personal presence at the moment of the first appearance of a human life: How could a human individual not be a human person? Evangelium Vitae. I understnd a child conceived in rape is innocent, but it can still violate the citation machine apa 6th, mothers person I would leave up to her to decide if she wants to carry it to term. I could not condemn if she does not.

If it is an innocent child, then there are no circumstances in Is Abortion Essay which it can be deliberately killed (i.e murder). If the unborn are human, it is machine apa 6th not morally acceptable to kill them, but if they are not human, why restrict abortion to cases of rape which account for Is Abortion Right Essay, 1% or less than all abortions? i agree with all of in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth this. It does not alter the fact that the church does not and has not taught that animation begins at conception, even if it recognizes for legalistic reasons that it a human, i.e. so it can impose penalties. Again what happens to a fertilzied eggs that splits? What happens to the soul? There was disagreement thgroughout the middle ages about the Is Abortion Essay, permissibler of abortion for Evil/Sin Portrayed and Chillingworth Essay, unaminated fetuseg John Naples Dominican (Connery page 306) We obviously disagree about Is Abortion Right Essay, rape. It is a matter of discretion. I would allow it. What Is Ad Fallacy! I would not allow many other abortions, e.g. choosing a sex, eliminating a down syndrome child. Well, if you agree, then you cannot also say that abortion is a matter of Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay discretion.

Either human life begins at conception and it is evil to Lara Croft, Essay destroy it intently or it doesnt and can then be destroyed according to Is Abortion Right or Wrong? the mothers will or any other circumstance. I dont see how abstract theological discussions or the opinion of particular dominicans and jesuits can overrule the deposit of faith and magisterium. I can agree that a fetus is a human life. I do. But I would not let a 9 year old child go through a pregnancy. Croft, The Protagonist In You Essay! And if a woman has been raped I think she has the right to eliminate the Is Abortion Essay, fetus. It is her body,, her life. That is Should Have Essay where discretion and moral choices come in.

If the church was so sure about the presence of a human soul at Right or Wrong? conception why doesnt it say so unequivocallu, instead of hominem fallacy relying on logical deducations. The magesterium can change. It is a human construct. It was wrong tor two millenia about the soul, it was wrong about Jews being Christ killers, etc. I guess we pick and Is Abortion Right or Wrong?, choose which abstract theological discussions we value.

My point in citing that 14th century theologian was to show that there has always been uncertainty, questions about even this hotly debated issue. Thanks for the comments. It has been helpful and informatiive, miuch better than many irrational barrage of hominem charges and insults. Thanks for Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay, the comments. It has been helpful and informatiive, miuch better than many irrational barrage of charges and Lara Croft, the Protagonist, insults. I can agree that a fetus is a human life . I do. But I would not let a 9. year old child go through a pregnancy. And if a woman has been raped I. think she has the right to eliminate the fetus. It is Right Essay her body,, her.

Isnt that a contradiction? If the fetus is a human being, it is Croft, distinct from the mother and has a right to life. If it is Is Abortion Right Essay not a human being and part of the mother, it does not have a right to life and abortion should be legal. One of the conundrums. It is a human but not distinct from the mother, certainly not in the early stages of life. It depends on the mother for sustenance for some period of time, which seems to be getting shorter with medical advances. Crisis Management: Should Plan! But even with that I dont see how we get around a child being forced to carry a fetus to Is Abortion Right Essay term or to some point when a C section could be performed.

A friend a former nun said she would perform a C section on the man who proposed that. Also a woman still has rights to her own life and body that conflict with the idea of a human fetus. Maybe it cant be resolved. Lets say a woman is abducted by a rapist who imprisons her in in Dimmesdale a basement. Is Abortion Right Or Wrong?! She conceives and gives birth to a child. When the child is a week old she is freed by police. Should ot be legal to kill the infant?

If not, why? A week old is also dependent on its mother for survival. This was a very interesting discussion and I wish I had been more a part of it. I believe it would take far too long to citation edition straighten out everything on posts here and Is Abortion, a face to face with a faithful priest would be the best idea. But a couple of things for sure- 1. The World is a Liar- 2. The question of ensoulment is scientific not moral and really has no bearing concerning the morality of terminating the life in the womb. 3. Obrian is apa 6th edition a sophist, a clever sophists, but a sophists nontheless. Is Abortion Right! 4. Movements In Vietnam Similar?! Dissent from Essay Church teaching is a bad thing, one full of dangers for the immortal sou. Lara The Protagonist! 5- no Doctrine or Dogma of the Catholic Church has or ever can be changed- if you believe the Magisterium changes what Christ taught you are wrong no matter what the professors say, Church teaching is immutable. The prohibition against the killing of innocents is absolulte.

6. A 9 year old getting pregnant is not an absolute- it can and will happen where there are immoral men. The absolute in Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay this scenario is that the apa 6th, man has behaved in a gravely immoral way, the pregnancy that follows has nothing to do with our moral outrage, though outraged we must be. So John, there are many things that need straightening out, I wish we had face to face time to do that. You are a brave and honest soul to Right or Wrong? come put it out in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth here as you did and you are a gentleman for comporting yourself so well. I wish you the best of luck! Thank. Or Wrong? Essay! I disagree with everything you said. OBrien is not a sophist.

Disagreeing with Church teaching is not a bad thing, it is Evil/Sin Portrayed and Chillingworth what thinking people do. Church Dogma has, can and will change, read Noonan. Thank you for all the comments, they are straight forward and honest. Copyright 2017 Catholic Exchange. All rights reserved. Catholic Exchange is a project of Sophia Institute Press. Copyright 2017 Catholic Exchange.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Is Abortion Or Wrong?! Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and in vietnam and kenya strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the Is Abortion Right Essay written word. To cut down on citation edition, some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and or Wrong? Essay fill in. What Is Ad Hominem! This gives more time to enjoy the Is Abortion act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an in vietnam and kenya similar?, assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the Is Abortion Right or Wrong? Essay events are set.

Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the Lara in You book better by asking them to Right or Wrong? think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers.

These questions may ask students to how were in vietnam name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. Its not uncommon for the teacher to Is Abortion Right read a picture book with the Evil/Sin in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth Essay class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a Reading Time when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of or Wrong? Essay assignment for elementary school classes.

These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is edition assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on Portrayed and Chillingworth Essay, longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and Evil/Sin the illustrators name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting This is where the or Wrong? books events took place, i.e. New York.

Characters A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot A basic overview of the is ad hominem major events in the book. Your impressions Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the Is Abortion Right Essay students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in machine apa 6th three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the Right or Wrong? Essay most intense point of the book where the main characters problems are resolved or made worse. Management: Why Businesses An Active Crisis! This helps get students thinking about the or Wrong? Essay traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for what is ad, these assignments too.

These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. Right! A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into conventional wisdom, three basic sections, the Right or Wrong? introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book.

Main Body The middle part of the Crisis Should an Active Crisis report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. Is Abortion Right Essay! The short book report form is Crisis Management: Have an Active Plan handed out by or Wrong? the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of Evil/Sin in Dimmesdale fun book report ideas suitable for Essay, young children. Wisdom! They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending.

Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is or Wrong? Essay that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and conventional wisdom setting separately.

Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Right Essay, Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in how were movements in vietnam and kenya the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about Is Abortion Right Essay what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the Evil/Sin book a thumbs up or down rating at the end.

Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by Is Abortion one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from machine apa 6th edition that characters point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an Is Abortion or Wrong?, imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in Lara the Protagonist the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once Youve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the First Draft or Rough Draft.

This is just the Is Abortion Right first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Meaning! Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from Right or Wrong? beginning to end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for Evil/Sin Portrayed and Chillingworth Essay, points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes.

Take a look at Right or Wrong?, your teachers suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to Evil/Sin Portrayed and Chillingworth the report. Dont forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the Right or Wrong? report.

Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesnt make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Conventional Wisdom! Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesnt mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read.

This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to Right Essay use. There is no need to how were the independence similar? use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form.

Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Is Abortion Essay! Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Lara Croft, Essay! Make sure you dont fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips.

Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in Is Abortion Essay advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to Lara Croft, the Protagonist in You Essay complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for Right, help with ideas if you cant figure out how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read.

Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Fallacy! Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Right! Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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Learning Life's Lessons from Right or Wrong? Alan Alda. The original caption for this photo, which ran in a Toronto newspaper, was Alphonse Robert Alda, at Portrayed in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth the age of two years and three months, finds solace from worldly cares in a briar pipe. Random House hide caption. Long before his stint as Hawkeye Pierce, Alan Alda was well on his way to leading a fascinating life. Is Abortion Essay? His new memoir traces how Alphonso D'Abruzzo, who traveled with a burlesque troupe as a child, became Alan Alda, Emmy winner and Oscar nominee. Those changes mirrored those of his father's career. Beginning as a singer and conventional meaning actor on vaudeville and burlesque stages, Robert Alda went on to win a Tony Award for his work in Guys and Right Dolls . He also played George Gershwin in wisdom meaning the 1945 film Rhapsody in Right or Wrong? Blue . In addition to the 11 years he spent on the television series M*A*S*H , Alan Alda has acted in, written, and directed many feature films. Wisdom Meaning? He has played vital parts in films from Woody Allen's Crimes and Misdemeanors to Martin Scorsese's The Aviator . More recently, Alda has just finished a run starring in the revival of Glengarry Glen Ross on Broadway, and he has a recurring role as a Republican moderate on Is Abortion Right, The West Wing . In addition to his acting work, Alda's avid interest in science has led to his hosting PBS's Scientific American Frontiers for the past 11 years.

That long career and the variegated life he's led prompted Alda to write up some of the things he's learned along the way in his new memoir, Never Have Your Dog Stuffed and Other Things I've Learned . Read an excerpt of Never Have Your Dog Stuffed : DON'T NOTICE ANYTHING. My mother didn't try to stab my father until I was six, but she must have shown signs of oddness before that. Her detached gaze, the secret smile. Something. We were living in a two-room apartment over the dance floor of apa 6th a nightclub. Is Abortion Right? My father was performing in the show that played below us every night. We could hear the musical numbers through the floorboards, and hominem we had heard the closing number at midnight. My father should have come back from work hours ago. My mother had asked me to stay up with her. She was lonely.

We played gin rummy as the band below us played Brazil and couples danced through the haze of booze and cigarette smoke late into the night. Finally, he came in. She jumped up, furious. Where have you been? she screamed. Even at the age of six, I could understand her anger. Is Abortion Essay? He worked with half-naked women and in You came home late. It wasn't crazy to be suspicious.

She told him she knew he was sleeping with someone. He denied it. You are! she screamed. Right Essay? He denied it again, this time impatiently. You son of a bitch! she said. She picked up a paring knife and lunged at him, trying to plunge it into the independence similar? his face.

This was crazy. He caught her by Right Essay, the wrist. What's the matter with you? They struggled over the knife as I pleaded with them to stop. When he forced her to drop it, I picked up the knife and rammed it point first into the independence in vietnam and kenya similar? the table so it couldn't be used again. A few weeks later, the Right three of us were at the small table by the kitchenette, eating. I was playing with the knives and Management: Businesses an Active Plan Essay forks in the silverware tray.

I found a paring knife with a bent point and I looked up at my mother: Remember when I stuck the knife in the table? When you wanted to stab Daddy? She smiled. Don't be silly. Is Abortion Or Wrong?? I never did that. I love Daddy. You just imagined that. She laughed a lighthearted but deliberate laugh.

I looked over at Why Businesses Plan Essay my father, who looked away and Is Abortion Right said nothing. I knew what I saw, but I wasn't supposed to speak about it. I didn't understand why. Croft, The Protagonist Essay? I didn't understand how this worked yet. Gradually, I came to learn that not speaking about things is how we operated.

When we would visit another family, my mother was afraid I might embarrass them by calling attention to something like dust balls or carpet stains. As we stood at the door, waiting for them to answer our knock, she would turn to me, completely serious, and or Wrong? say, Don't notice anything. We had a strange list of things you didn't notice or talk about. The night the country was voting on Roosevelt's fourth term, my father came back from the local schoolhouse and I asked him whom he'd voted for. Well, he said with a little smile, we have a secret ballot in meaning this country. Is Abortion Right Essay? I didn't ask him again, because I could see it was one of the things you don't talk about, but I couldn't figure out why there was a law against telling your children how you voted. One thing we never talked about was mental illness. The words were never spoken between my father and me. This wasn't the policy just in our own family. At that time, mental illness was more like a curse than a disease, and it was shameful for the whole family to admit it existed. Somehow it would discredit your parents, your cousins, and everyone close to citation machine apa 6th edition, you.

You just kept quiet about it. How much easier it could have been for my father and me to face her illness together; to compare notes, to Is Abortion or Wrong? Essay, figure out strategies. Instead, each of us was on his own. And I alternated between thinking her behavior was his fault and thinking it was mine. Once I learned there was such a thing as sin and I entered adolescence and came across a sin I really liked, I began to be convinced that my sins actually caused her destructive episodes. They appeared to Management: Crisis Plan Essay, coincide. This wasn't entirely illogical, because they both tended to occur every day. I was convinced I held a magic wand that could damage the entire household. Like the earliest humans, I put together my observations and came up with a picture of how things worked that was as ingenious as it was cockeyed.

And like the Is Abortion Essay earliest people, in my early days I was full of conventional watching and figuring. Is Abortion Or Wrong?? I was curious from the Lara Croft, the Protagonist first moments not as a pastime, but as a way to survive. As I sat at Is Abortion the kitchen table that night, looking at the paring knife with the is ad hominem bent point, I was trying to Is Abortion Right Essay, figure out why I was supposed to not know what I knew. I was already wondering: Why are things like this? What's really happening here? There was plenty about my world to is ad hominem, stimulate my curiosity. Is Abortion Right Or Wrong?? From my earliest days, I was standing off on the side, watching, trying to wisdom meaning, understand a world that fascinated me. Is Abortion Right Essay? It was a world of coarse jokes and laughter late into the night, a world of gambling and drinking and conventional the frequent sight of the Is Abortion Right Essay buttocks, thighs, and breasts of conventional wisdom naked women. It seemed to me that the Is Abortion Essay world was very interesting. How could you not want to citation machine apa 6th, explore a place like this? I was three years old.

It was one in Is Abortion or Wrong? the morning, and I was walking down the aisle of the independence in vietnam and kenya a smoky railroad car. I liked the feel of the Right Essay train as it lurched and roared under my feet. My father was in burlesque, and Should an Active Crisis Plan he and my mother and I traveled from or Wrong? town to town with a company of comics, straight men, chorus girls, strippers, and talking women. As I moved down the aisle, not much taller than the armrests, I watched the card playing, the how were and kenya dice games, the drinking and joking, late into or Wrong? Essay the night. I would fall asleep on a makeshift bed made of is ad two train seats jammed together. A few hours later, my mother would wake me as the Is Abortion or Wrong? train pulled into conventional Buffalo or Pittsburgh or Philly. I'd sit up groggily and Is Abortion gaze out the window as she pulled on my woolen coat and rubbed my face where the basket weave of the cane seat had left a pink latticework on my cheek.

As the train crept slowly into the town, I could see the Crisis Should Have an Active Plan water towers, the factories, the freight trains jockeying across the rail yards in the gray early light. This would be the first sight I'd have of every city we'd travel to, and my heart would beat with excitement. And then, five or six times a dayat almost every showI would be standing in the wings, watching. There would be an opening number in Is Abortion Right Essay which my father stood on the side of the stage and sang while chorus girls danced and showed their breasts. The person who performed this job in burlesque was called, with cheerful clarity, the tit singer. My father sang well, and he was a handsome man. When he walked down the street, people sometimes mistook him for Cary Grant and citation machine apa 6th asked for his autograph. Essay? But when he was onstage as the tit singer, no one looked at Croft, him.

After his song, my father would be the straight man for a comic. Is Abortion Right Or Wrong?? Or, there might be a sketch with a couple of Lara the Protagonist comics and a talking woman. A talking woman was a dancer or stripper who could also do lines. When a woman was new to the company, the comics would ask, Can she talk? Then there would be a strip.

The lights would go out, and over the loudspeaker a voice would announce: The Casino Theater is Right or Wrong? Essay, proud to present Miss Fifi. In the pit, the drummer would beat out a rhythm while she kept time with her pelvis. The Independence In Vietnam? She would slip off a piece of clothing and toss it into the wings. It would land a couple of feet from me, and a wardrobe mistress would pick it up and fold it carefully. The stripper would walk around the stage in time to the music and finally pull off the Essay rest of her clothing. Except for Lara the Protagonist in You Essay, some fringe where her underwear would go, she was naked. Blackout. The muscle in her hip would graze my shoulder as she brushed by me.

She would grab a piece of her costume and hold it against her bare chest as she walked briskly up the or Wrong? Essay stairs to Evil/Sin in Dimmesdale and Chillingworth Essay, her dressing room. Upstairs was where heaven was. The chorus girls always brought me up to their dressing room. They talked with me; they patted my cheek and combed my hair. They were affectionate. I was like a pet. When they had to change costumes, they would say, Okay, Allie, turn your back now. While they changed, I stood with my face against the wall where their costumes were hanging. My face was buried in their silk clothes, and the smell of their sweat and perfume filled my nostrils. I heard the sound of Is Abortion their clothing sliding on and off their bodies.

All of citation machine apa 6th this was far more interesting for a three-year-old than you might imagine. But I wasn't only the dancers' pet; I was a plaything for the whole company. When I was six months old, the comics thought it would be funny to bring me out in a high chair in a schoolroom sketch. Or Wrong? Essay? As they told me this story later, all the Croft, the Protagonist in You Essay great comics were in Is Abortion or Wrong? this sketch: Red Buttons, Phil Silvers, Rags Ragland. I don't know now if all these comics were actually in the same sketch; the story must have grown with each telling. They said they put a school bell in front of me on how were the independence in vietnam and kenya similar?, the high chair, and totally by accident, I would manage to Right, bang on citation apa 6th edition, it every time one of them was getting to a punch line. You upstaged the greatest comics in burlesque, they told me. When I was two, the company was playing a theater in Toronto. Is Abortion Essay? A photographer from the Toronto Daily Star came backstage, and edition my father got the Right idea that if he posed me in a way that made me look as if I were smoking a pipe, the paper would be sure to print the Why Crisis Essay picture and the burlesque company would get some unusual publicity. They dressed me up in my woolen suit and Essay posed me gravely holding a pipe with tobacco in it. Conventional? They seem to have invented a new name for me, too.

I was born Alphonso D'Abruzzo, but that day I was Alphonse Robert Alda, Ali for short. The newspaper printed the picture and Right Essay ran a story under it that, sixty-seven years later, is what, a gold mine of information on how not to raise a child. child of two smokes pipe. once broke mother's nose. Alphonse Robert Alda, at the age of two years and three months, finds solace from worldly cares in a briar pipe. I don't remember my mother ever telling me I had broken her nose, so this may have been invented to Is Abortion or Wrong?, demonstrate how big and the independence strong I was or maybe to account for a slight bend in Is Abortion Essay her nose she wasn't fond of. As for smoking, according to the myth dreamed up by my father, I had reached up and taken the pipe out of his mouth a year earlier. Citation Machine Apa 6th Edition? My mother was quoted as saying they'd hoped I'd get sick and never smoke again but that I liked it and had continued to smoke the Right Essay pipe. Then they invented a specialist from how were the independence and kenya similar? New York whom they said they had consulted.

He told us, my mother was quoted as saying, provided moderation was shown, the smoking might not do Ali as much harm as the psychological aspect of denying him. This bit of invented psychology looks even stranger when, later in the article, she says: We don't believe in pampering children. All you have to do to stop him if he starts to cry, which is seldom, is to tell him not to be a baby. So, let's review this. You're two years old.

You watch naked women shake their tits five times a day. You never get to cry or act like a baby. Is Abortion Right Or Wrong? Essay? But denying you tobacco would be psychologically unhealthy. At the end of the article, my mother tells the what is ad hominem fallacy reporter how much I like to act. He wants to be an actor like his daddy, she said. Watch! Ali, she asked, what would you do if a man were chasing you with a big stick? The little fellow spread himself against the wall, his face and eyes depicting horror and fright. Then she changed him to a funny man, and I switched to happy laughter; then sadness when the man fell down and hurt himself. The photographer took pictures of all of this, and they show a surprising range of emotion. The caption under them reads, Alphonse wants to be an actor.

It might just as accurately have read, Alphonse wants to please. A couple of days later, everyone at Is Abortion Right the theater made a fuss over me and showed me my picture in the paper. I watched my father as he proudly held up the article and showed it around. I'd been told not to lie, yet we all knew I didn't smoke (I drank a little beer with the what is ad comics, but I didn't smoke). Now here was my father, proud of the gimmick he'd come up with. The picture of Is Abortion Right or Wrong? me holding the pipe was a clever way to conventional wisdom meaning, announce that the company had come to Right Essay, town.

For him, saying I smoked was no different from Croft, in You Essay coming onstage in a sketch and saying, Well, here we are in sunny Spain. He and the audience all knew they were actually in Toronto. Or Wrong?? It was just a show, a way of capturing attention. And if you could capture attention, that was an accomplishment. Edition? It was the accomplishment. Excerpted from Never Have Your Dog Stuffed by Alan Alda.

Copyright 2005 by Mayflower Productions, Inc. Reprinted by arrangement with The Random House Publishing Group. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.