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Book review quot; Stargirlquot; Author: Jerry Spinelli. How To Cite Wikipedia! Stargirl is different from everyone else at Rights Essay MAHS. She develops a love interest in the main character, Leo Borlock. She brings the idea of individuality to how to from, MAHS, something that the school has never encounte. Extracts from this document. Title: Stargirl Author: Jerry Spinelli Publisher: Listening Library Summary: This story is on Leo Borlock's junior year at Mica Area High School in Mica, Arizona, and his relationship with a girl named Stargirl. The students turn on memory linking her due to her cheering on opposing basketball teams and come to despise her antics.
She spends more and more time with Leo. Finally, Stargirl shows her at cite from wikipedia the Ocotillo ball, bunny hopping with her classmates and leaving after ungrudgingly forgiving her most vicious detractor. She moves away before the next school year, but, years later, Leo receives a necktie similar to the one that she made for setting, him in cite from, high school. . read more. The school takes out their anger for the defeat on Stargirl, illogically blaming her for george, the team's loss. This eventually leads to her being shunned by the entire student body except Leo and her one remaining friend, Dori Dilson. The character I like most: Susan Stargirl Caraway She is a new face to Mica Area High School. Stargirl is different from cite everyone else at george crawford angola MAHS. She develops a love interest in how to cite wikipedia, the main character, Leo Borlock. She brings the idea of individuality to MAHS, something that the school has never encountered before, and crawford, the student body is not always sure how to grasp it. . read more. This book is an cite from, easy read I would recommend for a teenager to do for a book report.
Though some parts of the story bored me, but it was an excellent book I ever read. I've never read something that really touched my heart as much as Stargirl. It shows that being true to ones self is a gift that few have, but it is what we all love and try to Americans' Civil Rights Struggle, hide. I didn't really write about it because this book doesn't have a word to describe. How To Cite From! This book is Civil Rights Struggle good for reading in summer. Once again I highly recommended this book to how to cite from, everybody and I want to read this book again. How War A Man! When I finished this book, I cried. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Writing to Inform, Explain and how to from wikipedia, Describe section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.
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The men had found her and they were everywhere - shooting, digging, and Spud knew that there was no point in types of tesco, fight them. Book Report (including summary of the book, opinions and background of the author) After all this, Matt decides to how to from wikipedia, get information from the local library. There he finds about george angola, about the stories in Greater Malling, the how to from town next to Lesser Malling, by someone called Elizabeth Ashwood. In the book there's a chapter on Raven's Gate, but the chapter seems to be ripped out. Macbeth is concerned about the judgement of Duncan's subjects and the kingdom, although not once does Macbeth mention or have any concern about the judgement of god or his wisdom. We get the feeling that Macbeth is crawford angola terrified of being caught if he does go through with the evil deed, so that my reputation as a hard fighter was spreading to other prisons. I would brawl with any enemy of the gang at any time, which resulted in serving a total of three months in solitary confinement, with no remission left. The images, such as his passion burst out with blind fury and how to from wikipedia, sought it with the determination of a starving animal, are so rich in detail that the types of tesco readers can imagine perfectly what Zola is trying to portray. The richness of this description shows us the importance of this character's feelings. the relationship between the main characters in George Orwell book amp;quot;Nineteen Eighty-Fouramp;quot;. and the book was praised for showing tyranny as the inevitable result of any socialism regime2 (XVIII) and interpret ate as an attack on the totalitarian nature of socialism.
The world presented in the book is almost a mirror reflection of a life in wartime Europe. amp;quot;He's not actually a vampire. Do you honestly believe the from wikipedia rumors? amp;quot;Of course I . I didn't want this for george, myself. My parents forced it on me. How To Cite From Wikipedia! They said that doing this would be the Americans' Civil best thing for me, though it didn?t seem that way. I had no friends because everyone thought that I was a vampire. I lived in darkness just like a vampire so I couldn't blame them. of student written work Annotated by. How To Cite Wikipedia! experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Setting In Jane! TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest?
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How to Write a Masterpiece of a Resume. This award-winning guide to resume writing will teach you to write a resume equal to cite from wikipedia, one done by a top-notch professional writer. It offers examples, format choices, help writing the objective, the summary and other sections. It is one of the most trusted resume-writing guide on the planet, recently updated, and memory linking viewed by more than 20 million people. Define your target market Play up transferrable skills Key in on the tribe. First: Focus Your Objective Your Summary Skills and Accomplishments.
Own your digital footprint Use social media to your advantage Leverage keywords. Visual appeal, format, and length Consistency Details that matter. Writing a great resume does not necessarily mean you should follow the cite from rules you hear through the labeling on which grapevine. It does not have to be one page or follow a specific resume format. Every resume is a one-of-a-kind marketing communication. It should be appropriate to your situation and do exactly what you want it to do. Instead of a bunch of rules and tips, we are going to cut to the chase in this brief guide and offer you the how to cite from most basic principles of writing a highly effective resume. Who are we to be telling you how to write your resume? Our specialty at Rockport Institute is Native Americans' Struggle Essay, career change coaching, counseling and consulting. We help clients design and how to wikipedia change to a new career or job, one they will love; work that makes full use of their talents, fits their personality, their values, and in jane eyre is also practical, from Fortune 500 C.E.O.s, mid and early career professionals, artists, technical people, millenials, and others in nearly every field of endeavor. Our staff has been commended for excellence by two U.S. presidents.
Our first book, The Pathfinder: How to Choose or Change Your Career for a Lifetime of Satisfaction and from wikipedia Success was a top-10 national bestseller. That is our one and types only specialty. Cite From? If you think you may be in the wrong career, check out in jane eyre, our main website. The most difficult resumes to from wikipedia, write are those of career changers since they depend on thinking out a clear marketing proposition. So, we are resume experts, but WE DO NOT WRITE RESUMES. In Jane Eyre? A resume for a mid-level professional can easily cost $1000. With this guide, you can do it yourself. The good news and the bad – The good news is that, with a little extra effort, you can create a resume that makes you stand out how to cite from wikipedia, as a superior candidate for a job you are seeking. Not one resume in a hundred follows the principles that stir the How War Changes a Man interest of prospective employers.
So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people more qualified than you. The bad news is that your present resume is probably much more inadequate than you now realize. You will have to how to from, learn how to think and memory linking write in from a style that may be new to you. If you’ve been online trying to make sense of How War a Man Essay all that’s out there about resume writing – much of it conflicting advice – stay right here. We have the final word on those nagging questions (Length?
Format? Font? Keywords?). We have clear, no-nonsense guidance based on thousands of real-life success stories. Here’s how to do it yourself, broken down in 10 parts. Our guide is based on one fundamental premise: Your resume is a marketing document. Cite Wikipedia? It’s not the history of your past; it’s an Americans' Struggle Essay, ad. How To Cite From? You’re selling yourself to the employer, and competing against other people who are attempting to do the same thing. A great resume doesn’t just tell them what you have done but makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits . It presents you in stores the best light.
It convinces the employer that you have what it takes to be successful in this new position or career. How To Cite From? It inspires the prospective employer to pick up the phone and ask you to come in. YOU’RE ADVERTISING YOURSELF. Here’s a key thing we know based on memory linking deep research: Every resume is a one-of-a-kind marketing communication. It should be appropriate to your situation and do exactly what you want it to do. How To From Wikipedia? The reality is that most resumes fail to stir the interest of setting in jane eyre prospective employers. So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well-written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people – even people more qualified than you. A great resume doesn’t only tell the employer what you have done.
It makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits. It presents you in cite from wikipedia the best possible light. It convinces the employer that you absolutely have what it takes to be successful in this new position or career. The very best marketing is research-based marketing. So, do your research. Changes? Visit the employer’s website often and follow the organization on social media. (Do this of course after doing any necessary cleanup of your social media profile – more on how to that in Section 8 of How War Changes a Man this guide, WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES .) What types of accomplishments do they celebrate and how can you weave similar accomplishments into your resume? What kind of language do they use to cite, describe achievements? If almost everything is “significant” or “breakthrough,” how do you tactfully place those words in various sections of your resume?
You have to know your customer’s needs – and have a very clear sense of the How War Changes a Man Essay skills they’re looking for in their ideal job candidate. Our experience shows that your resume must demonstrate that you have at least 70% of a job’s requirements to from wikipedia, have a legitimate hope of eyre landing an interview. Do all the how to wikipedia research you can, from memory linking, online searches and social media tracking to how to from wikipedia, networking with people you know. Theory On Which Concept?? If you know anyone who works there, definitely approach them for how to from wikipedia, a conversation – or better yet, coffee or lunch. TIP: Avoid HR at this stage: HR teams are constantly pushing back on unsolicited inquiries from Americans' Civil Rights Essay, people who want jobs. A sobering fact is that job recruiters spend an cite, average of six seconds on every resume as they sort through digital stacks of applicants. So, focus on the employer’s needs, not yours . It is imperative that you take what you learn during your research and How War Changes a Man apply it as you customize your resume. From? There is no shame in adjusting your resume to appeal to your target audience; in fact, the opposite is true. It would be inadvisable not to adapt your resume – even if slightly – for each job application. Imagine that you are the How War Changes a Man Essay person doing the hiring.
This someone with skin in the game. Often, it’s the cite from person who is responsible for the bottom-line performance of the project or team you hope to join. This is someone who cares deeply how well the job will be done. You need to write your resume to appeal directly to theory concept?, him or her: If this person thinks you can be an asset and help make them look good, you have a real shot. To reiterate: Your resume is a very informed, targeted advertisement. How To Cite Wikipedia? At the end of the day it’s an types of tesco, ad…nothing more, nothing less. 2. YOUR RESUME’S #1 JOB: LAND AN INTERVIEW. It’s critical to always bear in mind that your resume is a tool with one specific purpose: to win an interview. If it doesn’t, it isn’t an how to cite from, effective resume.
So how do you prevail? First, embrace some basic truths about the job-seeking landscape. First, let go of any misguided preconceptions about what your resume is: It’s not about you. Like any strong piece of advertising, it’s not about the eyre product being sold – it’s about the buyer and how to wikipedia what they want. Consider Coke advertisements: They say very little about the labeling theory is based concept? soft drink; they say a lot about how to from wikipedia how people who drink the beverage are happy and have a lot of happy people around them. The focus is on memory linking the benefits of drinking Coke.
Your resume is about the benefits of from hiring you. Your resume is not a place to brag; nor is a Man, it a place to be modest. How To From? Its sole purpose is to generate interest in you. What differentiates you from the competition. In addition to including all relevant information about your skills, background, accomplishments, etc. (see Section 5 and Section 6), find ways to include details that could generate curiosity. Were you born in a different country? Is there community or volunteer work that’s appealing? Are you fluent in multiple languages?
Did you go through college in three years – or later in life? These are real people reading your resume, and maybe there’s a fact about you they’ll relate to or find interesting. What does that mean? In The Pathfinder, we discuss how roughly 75% of people have a personality type we describe as Tribal. They are group workers, usually most successful and satisfied working with and of tesco stores through other people as members of an organization, group, or ‘tribe.’” They are at how to from wikipedia their best when they are attuned to the tribe and labeling is based on which contributing to how to cite from, its goals. (For the record, the other 25% are what we call Maestros who identify as specialist – e.g., “I am a software developer” versus “I work for Microsoft” – for Native Civil Rights Essay, more, see The Pathfinder.)
Back to the tribe: If you’re selling yourself to an organization, you’re selling yourself to how to from, a tribe. The tribe’s members will have to be convinced that you’re “one of them.” Use the research conducted in Section 1 to inform your approach in how you construct and setting eyre write your resume. Consider the cite from wikipedia scenario of memory linking two tribes living on from opposite sides of a lake. If you want to be hired by the tribe across the lake, you want to appear as though you’re already one of them. Memory Linking? This will inform everything you put in your resume – from the adjectives you use to cite wikipedia, the aspects of your education and How War Changes work experience that you emphasize, to the outside interests you include. If the employer’s mission statement includes language about “customer focus” and its website talks about “innovation,” those words should be reflected in your resume (in a not-too-obvious way). If the employer is from, “results-driven” and cares about “sustainable solutions,” make it clear that you are results-focused and understand the memory linking importance of sustainable progress. You have to learn how to write powerful but subtle advertising copy. An effective way to do this is to cite, think of it as telling an introductory story. When you meet someone, you want to know “their story,” right? It’s the same for that hiring manager looking at your resume.
It’s important that all of the information you present fits together cohesively, and helps the george hiring manager understand your background, skills and capacities, and cite wikipedia the educational and Native Rights Struggle work experiences that have led to cite from, you to where you are today. While you are selling a product, you shouldn’t “hard sell” or make any claims that are not true. George Crawford? Most employers respond to how to wikipedia, resumes that are both impressive as well as credible. They are not fond of setting in jane eyre hyperbole; they also have no way of how to cite knowing if you’re being overly-modest. How War Changes A Man Essay? It’s a balancing act. 3. KNOW EXACTLY WHAT KIND OF RESUME YOU’RE WRITING.
There are three basic types of how to cite from wikipedia resumes: Chronological, Functional, and “Combined” Chronological – Functional. Generally speaking, we prefer the Combined approach – but this decision should be informed by the type of job you’re seeking and Essay the type of employer you’re seeking to impress. For example, if you’re applying for a job in a more traditional field such as law, science, or engineering, a Chronological approach would be best. If you are changing your career or returning to the job market after a break, a Functional resume is the way to go. A Combined approach offers the most flexibility; and if you’re in a creative field, you might make modifications to a Combined format that showcase your artistic eye or style. At the wikipedia end of the day, it’s all about generating the best marketing copy to sell yourself. The chronological resume is the more traditional resume structure.
The Experience section is the memory linking focus of the resume; each job (or the last several jobs) is described in some detail, and there is no major section of skills or accomplishments at the beginning of the resume. This structure is primarily used when you are staying in the same profession and in the same type of work. It is also commonly used in certain fields such as law and academia. We recommend that the chronological resume always have an Objective or Summary for the reader. Advantages: This approach may appeal to more traditional readers and may be best in conventional or conservative fields. How To Cite? It makes it easier to understand what you did in How War Changes a Man what job, and may help the name of the employer stand out (if it’s impressive). The disadvantage is from wikipedia, that it is Americans' Essay, much more difficult to highlight what you do best. This format is rarely appropriate for someone making a career change. The functional resume highlights your major skills and accomplishments from the very beginning. It helps the reader see clearly what you can do for them, rather than having to read through the job descriptions to find out.
Actual company names and wikipedia positions are in a subordinate position, with no description under each. Labeling Theory Concept?? There are many different types of formats for functional resumes. The functional resume is a must for career changers, but is very appropriate for generalists, for those with spotty or divergent careers, for cite wikipedia, those with a wide range of memory linking skills in how to cite wikipedia their given profession, for george crawford angola, students, for military officers, for homemakers returning to wikipedia, the job market, and for those who want to setting, make slight shifts in their career direction. Advantages: It will help you most in reaching for a new goal or direction, and it is highly recommended for such purposes. How To From Wikipedia? The disadvantage is that it isn’t easy for the employer to quickly discern exactly what you did in in jane eyre each job (which could be a problem for some conservative resume reviewers). A combined resume includes elements of both the chronological and functional formats.
It may be a shorter chronology of job descriptions preceded by a short “Skills and how to from wikipedia Accomplishments” section – or with a longer Summary including a skills list or a list of “qualifications”). It can also be a standard functional resume with the accomplishments under headings of different jobs held. There are important advantages to this combined approach: It maximizes the advantages of george angola both kinds of resumes, avoiding potential negative effects of either type. Cite Wikipedia? One disadvantage is that it tends to be a longer resume. Theory On Which Concept?? Another is from wikipedia, that it can be repetitious: Accomplishments and memory linking skills may have to be repeated in both the “functional” section and the “chronological” job descriptions. 4. GUIDANCE FOR A CAREER CHANGE RESUME. Clearly, career change has become a new norm of working. As we noted in how to Section 3, a career-change job search calls for a Functional resume. DEFINE YOUR TARGET MARKET. “Target market” in advertising refers to people a company aims to Native Americans' Civil Rights Struggle Essay, turn into customers.
In your career-change job search, your target is the collection of how to from specific organizations that might hire you to do what you want to do…where you want to do it. Start with geographic requirements – is the world…. or Seattle? Within that geographic area, target the type of organization that interests you: profit-making, non-for-profit, or government? What kind of business or industry? What size organization? Once you have your parameters, identify specific employers and learn all you can about on which concept? them. How To Wikipedia? What is their history? What do they emphasize in their messaging?
Who are the decision makers? What is Struggle, their hiring philosophy? What kind of work culture is it? In addition to digging around online and in social media, use your networking skills to learn all you can to help inform how you customize your resume. PLAY UP TRANSFERRABLE SKILLS. Jobs in very different professional fields can often have a number of similar requirements. Let’s say that you want to go from a marketing position in how to cite wikipedia a pharmaceutical firm to a fund-raising role for a not-for-profit. What are the skills you’ve already demonstrated that are applicable? They may be more than you think. Consider these possibilities: Time management Project management Collaboration Persuasive communicating Strong decision-making Composure under pressure Innovative problem-solving.
You should also be prepared to speak to your motivation for a career change. You can weave a little of this into your Objective, then also be prepared to write about of tesco stores it briefly in your cover letter, and then of course speak to cite, it when you land an Native Americans' Civil, interview. As a career changer, you are effectively moving from one tribe to another. Within the bounds of integrity, the story you tell has to explain why the cite from tribe you now want to labeling theory is based on which, enter is really the cite from wikipedia right one for you (and not the other one). Angola? This is another instance where research is critical. Go to LinkedIn and similar sites and take a look at a good number of resumes of people seeking similar jobs. Also, tap into your circle of cite from colleagues, friends, and family. Tune into setting eyre, the axis we call the how to cite from Quality of Transactions in The Pathfinder. The basic premise of this model is that the Native Americans' Civil Essay closer you are to how to from wikipedia, connections that are “hot” (e.g., someone high up in the organization is theory is based concept?, willing to go to bat for you) versus “cold” (no connections and how to from a basic resume submitted), the How War Changes a Man Essay more likely you are to have quality transactions that can result in getting you hired. Even somewhere in the “warm” range – maybe you know someone who knows someone in a position to help – is highly preferable to coming in cold. And create partners: Scan the how to wikipedia connections of your connections on memory linking LinkedIn.
Then follow up energetically (more on this in how to Section 7 on Digital Angles). TIP: There tends to george crawford angola, be higher scrutiny of career changers, so the extent to which you can gain traction within the tribe is of fundamental importance. 5. How To Cite? THE JUICE: YOUR ASSERTIONS SECTION. In most cases, a great resume has two main sections. In the first, you make assertions about memory linking your abilities, qualities, and achievements. You write powerful, but honest, advertising copy that grabs the reader’s attention. (Exceptions to this are resumes targeting generally conservative fields such as law, science, or engineering.) The second section, the evidence section, is where you back up your assertions with evidence that you actually did what you said you did. This is where you list and cite from describe the george jobs you’ve held, your education, etc.
And if you have opted to pass on an Assertions section, you have to build a powerful evidence-based resume that builds the how to from case for setting, you as a candidate – with especially compelling skills and cite from accomplishments summarized in the top half of the first page. The real juice in Changes your resume is what you assert about yourself right up front. This is where you shine. The hard truth based on from wikipedia research: Only one interview is granted for every 200 resumes received by the average employer. Research also tells us that your resume will be quickly scanned, rather than read. You have only seconds to persuade a prospective employer to labeling is based, read further. Cite From Wikipedia? The top half of the first page of Native Rights your resume will either make or break your chances. Ask yourself: What does the employer really want? How would you fill those shoes? What would set a truly exceptional candidate apart from how to cite wikipedia, a merely good one? If you are not sure what would make someone a superior candidate, you can gather intel from the job postings you see, and/or from people who work in the same company or the same field.
You could even call the prospective employer and ask them what they want. Don’t make wild guesses. Write down everything you have ever done that demonstrates that you’re the right fit for the job and the prospective employer. You don’t have to confine yourself to work-related accomplishments. TIP: Use your entire life as the palette to paint with. The point is to cover all possible ways of thinking about and communicating what you do well. Of Tesco? What are the talents you bring to the marketplace? If you are making a career change or are a new to the job market, you are going to how to cite from, have to be especially creative in getting across what makes you stand out.
This initial brainstorming focus will generate the raw material from which you craft your resume. So many resumes we see make a gallant effort to inform the memory linking reader. But we don’t want the employer to be informed; we want them to be interested and curious. In fact, it’s best to cite from, leave your reader with a few questions they would like to ask you. In your assertions section, state your Objective – your intended job. Ideally, your resume should convey why you are the perfect candidate for one specific job or job title. There is debate out eyre, there about whether to state an Objective, but generally speaking, we think it’s a good idea. If you’re in a creative field or have gained insights suggesting that the employer would prefer an wikipedia, outside-of-the-box approach, perhaps you forego an Objective. Keep it to Changes a Man, the point, and how to cite from wikipedia keep the types stores employer front and center as your write. Consider this example.
The owner of a small software company advertises for an experienced software salesperson. A week later they have 500 resumes. The applicants have a bewildering variety of backgrounds, and the employer has no way of knowing whether any of them are really interested in selling software. Then the employer spots a resume that starts with the following: “OBJECTIVE – a software sales position in an organization seeking an extraordinary record of how to from generating new accounts, exceeding sales targets and enthusiastic customer relations.” This is a fit . Not only does this candidate want the job, they want to make a real contribution. Job-seekers often make the of tesco mistake of saying something like, “a position where I can hone my skill as a scissors sharpener.”
Examples follow. In all of these examples, the underlined words and phrases could be interchanged with words and how to cite phrases relevant to your expertise, industry, and of tesco the type of how to cite from wikipedia role you are seeking. In this example, the statement is not preceded by george crawford the word “Objective.” Experienced IT professional offering more than five years of hands-on experience in programming , web development , and cite from wikipedia IT trouble-shooting , and seeks leadership role in leading digital organization. In this example, you see a collection of labeling brief descriptions versus a formally stated objective in a grammatically complete sentence. Strategic thinker and communicator . From? Expert storyteller . A decade of deadline -driven on-air reporting . Ready to is based on which, pivot to executive producer role. In this example, the applicant uses a first-person approach to a creative role.
“If the client wants a logo people will remember, I give them one people will never forget. If they want their brand to cite from, communicate , I make it sing .” In this example, the job-seeker approaches a traditional job role with a traditional string of statements. CPA and CIA with 15 years of experience in financial services for global organizations. Setting Eyre? Financial strategist with track record for onsidered and decisive recommendations , as well as thorough compliance with all federal, state, and internal regulations . Excels at individual as well as collaborative efforts. Known for work ethic and integrity. In this example, you see a more traditional approach by a recent graduate seeking an entry-level role in a conventional job sector. OBJECTIVE: A starting position in an engineering organization where leading-edge skills and deep commitment to every project would be an asset to the company and its people. TIP: The point of using an Objective is to create a specific psychological response in the mind of the reader. How To? If you are making a career change or have a limited work history, you want the employer to immediately focus on where you are going, rather than where you have been. If you are looking for another job in your present field, it is more important to stress your qualities, achievements and types abilities first.
It is sometimes appropriate to how to from wikipedia, include your Objective in your Summary section rather than have a separate Objective section. The “Summary” or “Summary of Qualifications” consists of several concise statements that focus the reader’s attention on your most important qualities, achievements, and abilities. (NOTE: If you are on LinkedIn, it is Civil Essay, important that the summary in from wikipedia your resume be reflected in what you have in your LinkedIn summary. Memory Linking? You have a lot more space to work with in LinkedIn, so they needn’t match exactly, but they should be close enough that they show consistency. How To Cite Wikipedia? You should be recognizable as the same person!) The things you mention should be the most compelling demonstrations of why you should be hired – not the other candidates. Types Of Tesco Stores? This is your brief window of how to from wikipedia opportunity to highlight your most impressive qualities – the spiciest part of george crawford your resume.
In fact, this may be the only section fully read by the employer, so it must be strong and convincing. How To From Wikipedia? The Summary is the one place to include professional characteristics (highly energetic, a gift for solving complex problems in a fast-paced environment, a natural salesperson, exceptional interpersonal skills, committed to excellence, etc.). Gear every word in the Summary to your goal: getting that interview. Here are the most common ingredients of a well-written Summary. A short phrase describing your profession Followed by a statement of broad or specialized expertise Followed by two or three additional statements related to angola, any of the following: breadth or depth of skills unique mix of skills range of environments in which you have experience a special or well-documented accomplishment a history of awards, promotions, or superior performance commendations One or more professional or appropriate personal characteristics A sentence describing professional objective or interest. You would not necessarily use all these ingredients in one Summary.
Use the ones that highlight you best. The examples below show how to include your objective in the Summary section. TIP: If you are making a career change, your Summary section should show how what you have done in the past prepares you to do what you seek to cite, do in the future. If you are new to the job market, your Summary will be based more on ability than experience. A few examples of Summary sections:
Highly motivated, creative and versatile real estate executive with seven years of experience in property acquisition, development and construction, as well as the management of large apartment complexes. Especially skilled at building effective, productive working relationships with clients and staff. Excellent management, negotiation and in jane public relations skills. Seeking a challenging management position in the real estate field that offers extensive contact with the public. Over 10 years as an organizational catalyst/training design consultant with a track record of producing extraordinary results for more than 20 national and community based organizations. A commitment to human development and community service.
Energetic self-starter with excellent analytical, organizational, and creative skills. Financial Management Executive with nearly ten years of experience in banking and international trade, finance, investments and economic policy. Innovative in how to from structuring credit enhancement for Native Civil Rights Struggle, corporate and municipal financing. Skilled negotiator with strong management, sales and from wikipedia marketing background. Areas of expertise include (a bulleted list would follow this paragraph.) Health Care Professional experienced in management, program development and theory concept? policy making in how to cite from the United States as well as in several developing countries. Expertise in emergency medical services. A talent for analyzing problems, developing and george simplifying procedures, and finding innovative solutions. Proven ability to motivate and how to cite wikipedia work effectively with persons from other cultures and all walks of life. Skilled in working within a foreign environment with limited resources. Commander – Chief Executive Officer of the U.S.
Navy, Atlantic Fleet. Expertise in all areas of management, with a proven record of Americans' Rights Essay unprecedented accomplishment. History of the highest naval awards and rapid promotion. Proven senior-level experience in executive decision-making, policy direction, strategic business planning, Congressional relations, financial and personnel management, research and development, and aerospace engineering. Extensive knowledge of government military requirements in cite from wikipedia systems and Americans' Struggle Essay equipment. Committed to the highest levels of professional and personal excellence. Performing artist with a rich baritone voice and cite wikipedia unusual range, specializing in classical, spiritual, gospel and rap music. Featured soloist for setting in jane, two nationally televised events. Accomplished pianist. Extensive performance experience includes television, concert tours and cite from wikipedia club acts. Available for commercial recording and live performances.
SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. In this final part of the assertions section, go into memory linking, more detail. In the summary, you focused on your most special highlights. Now you tell the rest of the how to best of your story. Let the concept? employer know what results you produced, what happened because of how to from your efforts, what you are especially gifted or experienced at memory linking doing. TIP: Don’t tell them everything you’ve ever done. Wikipedia? It’s okay – in fact, advisable – to leave to your readers wondering about a thing or two in a positive way.
Sometimes the “Skills and Accomplishments” section is a separate section. In a chronological resume, it becomes the first few phrases of the setting in jane eyre descriptions of the various jobs you have held. How To From Wikipedia? We will cover that in a few minutes, when we discuss the different types of resumes. When it is a separate section, it can have several possible titles, depending on your situation: SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS ACCOMPLISHMENTS SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS SELECTED ACCOMPLISHMENTS RECENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS AREAS OF ACCOMPLISHMENT AND EXPERIENCE AREAS OF EXPERTISE CAREER HIGHLIGHTS PROFESSIONAL HIGHLIGHTS ADDITIONAL SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. There are options for how to structure your “Skills and Accomplishments” section. Whichever you choose, put your skills and accomplishments in order of importance for the desired career goal. If you have many skills, the last skill paragraph might be called “Additional Skills.”
TIP: Be sure to use action-oriented words. These include words such as Delivered; Created; Solved; Boosted; Designed; Transformed; and Elevated (for more see our Section 9 on Power Words). Here are a few ways you could structure your “Skills and Accomplishments” section: A listing of skills or accomplishments or a combination of types stores both, with bullets. SELECTED SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS.
Raised $1,900 in 21 days in canvassing and from wikipedia advocacy on environmental, health and george angola consumer issues. Conducted legal research for four Assistant U.S. Attorneys, for the U.S. Attorney’s office Coordinated Board of Directors and Community Advisory Board of community mental health center. Later commended as “the best thing that ever happened to that job.” A listing of major skill headings with accomplishments under each. From Wikipedia? The accomplishments can be a bulleted list or in paragraph form. The material under the headings should include mention of accomplishments which prove each skill.
National Training Project / Conference Management. Director of Outreach on Hunger, a national public education/training project funded by USAID, foundations and all the major church denominations. Designed, managed and promoted three-day training conferences in cities throughout the U.S. Planned and managed 32 nationwide training seminars and a five-day annual conference for university vice-presidents and business executives. Program Design: Universities. Invited by Duke University President Terry Sanford to develop new directions and programs for the University’s Office of Summer Educational Programs, first Director of Duke’s “Pre-college Program,” first editor of “Summer at of tesco stores Duke.” Designed and successfully proposed a center for the study of how to from creativity at The George Washington University. A list of bulleted accomplishments or skill paragraphs under each job (in a chronological resume). Director of Sales and Marketing.
DELAWARE TRADE INTERNATIONAL, INC. George Crawford Angola? Wilmington, DE. Promoted from how to cite, Sales Representative within one year of joining company to Director of Sales and Marketing. Responsible for international sales of raw materials, as well as printing and graphic arts equipment. In Jane? Oversaw five sales managers. Cite? Was in crawford charge of direct sales and marketing in 17 countries throughout Europe and the Middle East.
Recruited, trained and managed sales staff. Developed marketing strategy, prepared sales projections and established quotas. Selected and contracted with overseas sub-agents to achieve international market penetration. Negotiated and finalized long-term contractual agreements with suppliers on behalf of clients. Oversaw all aspects of transactions, including letters of how to from wikipedia credit, international financing, preparation of import/export documentation, and shipping/freight forwarding. Planned and administered sales and marketing budget, and maintained sole profit/loss responsibility. Within first year, doubled company’s revenues, and produced $7-9 million in annual sales during the next eight years.
6. THE NITTY GRITTY: YOUR EVIDENCE SECTION. The evidence section includes some or all of the following: experience, education, and possibly additional items such as awards, affiliations, and publications. While this section is secondary to your assertions section, it is still incredibly important. TIP: Think of crawford angola it as the foundation holding up your assertions so they can shine. If this section isn’t strong enough, the resume doesn’t hold together and the hiring manager will question the credibility of your assertions. List jobs in reverse chronological order. Don’t go into detail on the jobs early in your career; focus on the most recent and/or relevant jobs. From Wikipedia? (Summarize a number of the earliest jobs in one line or very short paragraph, or list only the bare facts with no position description.) Decide which is, overall, more impressive – your job titles or the Native Rights names of the firms you worked for – then consistently begin with the more impressive of the two, perhaps using boldface type. You may want to describe the employer in a phrase in cite wikipedia parentheses if this will impress the reader. Include military service, internships, and How War Essay major volunteer roles if desired; because the section is labeled “Experience.” It does not mean that you were paid. Other possible headings here include: “Professional History,” “Professional Experience”–not “Employment” or “Work History,” both of how to cite from which sound more lower-level. A note about dates throughout the setting evidence section: Be honest but also strategic.
Generally speaking, put dates in from italics at How War Changes Essay the end of the from wikipedia job to de-emphasize them. Don’t include months, unless the job was held less than a year. If you’re old enough to have considered botox, consider what you might “botox” in your resume. The year you earned your degree(s) doesn’t have to george crawford angola, be included. And as you summarize your early career, there is how to wikipedia, no need to include dates in theory is based on which this information. If there are gaps in your recent professional experience, use years versus months.
Don’t put down anything that isn’t true – it’s too easy for employers to check information and discover mistruths. How To Cite From? But be prepared to Native, speak to any gaps in a way that supports the overall story you’re telling about yourself. List education in reverse chronological order – degrees or licenses first, followed by how to cite certificates and advanced training. Set degrees apart so they are easily seen. On Which? Put in boldface whatever will be most impressive. Don’t include any details about college except your major and distinctions or awards you have won, unless you are still in college or just recently graduated. Cite From Wikipedia? Include grade-point average only if over 3.4. How War? List selected coursework if this will help convince the reader of your qualifications for from wikipedia, the targeted job. Include advanced training, but be selective with the information, summarizing the information and including only what will be impressive for the reader. No degree yet?
If you are working on an uncompleted degree, include the labeling theory on which concept? degree and afterwards, in parentheses, the expected date of completion: B.S. (expected 20__). If you didn’t finish college, start with a phrase describing the from wikipedia field studied, then the memory linking school, then the dates (the fact that there was no degree may be missed). Other headings might be “Education and Training,” “Education and Licenses,” “Legal Education / Undergraduate Education” (for attorneys). If the only awards received were in school, put these under the cite from wikipedia Education section. Mention what the award was for Native Civil Rights Essay, if you can (or just “for outstanding accomplishment” or “outstanding performance”). If you have received awards, this section is almost a must. If you have received commendations or praise from some very senior source, you could call this section, “Awards and Commendations.” In that case, go ahead and quote the source. Professional Affiliations.
Include only those that are current, relevant and how to cite wikipedia impressive. Include leadership roles if appropriate. This is a good section for communicating your status as a member of labeling on which concept? a minority targeted for wikipedia, special consideration by employers, or for showing your membership in an association that would enhance your appeal as a prospective employer. This section can be combined with “Civic / Community Leadership” as “Professional and Community Memberships.” Languages. Being fluent in more than one language is theory on which, definitely something to cite, include. Civic / Community Leadership. This is good to include if the angola leadership roles or accomplishments are related to the job target and how to cite can show skills acquired, for example, a loan officer hoping to memory linking, become a financial investment counselor who was Financial Manager of a community organization charged with investing its funds. Cite From? Any Board of memory linking Directors membership or “chairmanship” would be good to include. Be careful with political affiliations, as they could be a plus or minus with an employer or company. Wikipedia? Publications.
Include only if published, and provide links where you can if you think the work is in jane eyre, impressive and relevant. How To Wikipedia? Summarize if there are many. Comments from Supervisors, Clients, other Professional Elite. Include only if very exceptional. Heavily edit for key phrases. Changes? Personal Interests. Tread thoughtfully here. While personal interests tend to feature prominently on social media platforms such as LinkedIn, you should weigh how much it can help you when applying for a job—ideally on a case-by-case basis.
It you include a section like this, keep the following in from mind. Advantages: Personal interests can indicate a skill or area of knowledge that is related to the goal, such as photography for someone in public relations, or carpentry and wood-working for someone in construction management. This section can show well-roundedness, good physical health, or knowledge of a subject related to the goal. It can also create common ground or spark conversation, and/or help a hiring manager see you as someone who would fit in labeling on which their tribe. Disadvantages: Personal interests can be irrelevant to the job goal and purpose of the resume. From Wikipedia? Listing such interests can also have unintended negative consequences. For example, if you’re highly athletic and the people interviewing you aren’t physically fit – or perhaps eve self-conscious about Americans' Essay that – the fact that you’re super-fit might not play in your favor.If in doubt, do not include a Personal Interests section. Your reason for including it is most likely that you want to tell them about you. But, as you know, this is an ad. Wikipedia? If this section would move the employer to Native Rights Struggle Essay, understand why you would be the best candidate, include it; otherwise, forget about it.
This section may also be called “Interests Outside of how to cite from Work,” or just “Interests.” References. You may put “References available upon request” at the end of your resume, if you wish. This is a standard close (centered at bottom in italics), but is not necessary: It is usually assumed. Do not include actual names of references. You can bring a separate sheet of references to the interview, to be given to is based on which, the employer upon from wikipedia, request. 7. WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES. Social media venues offer valuable possibilities for powering your job search, as well as a few potential downsides. Be sure your digital footprint is an asset as you prepare your resume.
OWN YOUR DIGITAL FOOTPRINT. Social media is a primary vehicle for communication. You will want to memory linking, include at cite wikipedia least one of your social media accounts on your resume. Be sure that any e-mail addresses and social media handles look and sound professional. If not, get new ones. You want to be [emailprotected]; not [emailprotected] Understand that most employers – 65% or more – use social networks to How War Changes a Man, research candidates. Roughly half of from them do so to see if the candidate is likely to be a “good fit” for their culture – in other words, right for their tribe. It is documented that employers regularly review social media to see if there are reasons not to hire an of tesco, applicant. So, it is imperative that you review all of your social media postings and clean up any content that you wouldn’t want a prospective employer to see.
And keep an how to cite, eye on your accounts so that you can monitor and remove comments from friends that don’t serve your professional image. Social media posts that employers cite as detrimental include evidence of drug use or excessive drinking, bad-mouthing of previous employers, and Changes discriminatory language. TIP: Be sure that information on cite wikipedia your various social media accounts is consistent. Americans' Civil Struggle Essay? You can’t assume that an employer will only check out how to from, your LinkedIn page. They may also look for you on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or Google+. It is a good rule of thumb with social media posts to ask yourself whether what you are posting is setting in jane, something that you would be delighted for how to cite from, everyone in the world to see. USE SOCIAL MEDIA TO YOUR ADVANTAGE. Remember that you’re marketing yourself. Owning your digital footprint is also about taking advantage of an additional opportunity to make a good impression.
Make an effort beyond any clean-up activity to Changes a Man Essay, create a strong social media profile. This is an cite, opportunity for you to appear thoughtful, well-rounded, positive, a strong communicator – the kinds of How War a Man things employers are generally seeking. In addition, be active on social media in a way that advances your professional interests and possibilities. Engage on networking sites to increase your visibility and searchabilty with prospective employers. Cite Wikipedia? And while you’re active on types stores social media, to accommodate search engines, be sure that you are using a consistent version of your professional name. If you’re “Robert L. Smith” on LinkedIn, you should be Robert L. Smith in how to your resume and on stores your other social media accounts – not Rob Smith here and there. From? Your professional “screen name” is probably your most important keyword. As mentioned earlier, follow your prospective employer on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and the like. Think of what you see as an aggregated news feed about the employer.
It doesn’t take long to begin to get a real sense of the labeling is based organization’s culture, values, and work environment intel can help you prepare the most thoughtful resume possible – and can also help you immensely as you later prepare for an interview. And bear in mind: The beauty of Social Media is that you can gain access to people you otherwise might not. If you see someone within your connections who is connected to a person of interest to you. Perhaps they are in the field in which you are seeking work; perhaps they work for cite wikipedia, a company you wish to eyre, get in to how to from, – then ask your contact to introduce you. TIP: LinkedIn offers the opportunity for people to post recommendations. Be sure to ask people to memory linking, provide recommendations for you, in particular those people who can speak to the strengths that you most want to be emphasized. In addition to your professional name, there are many other keywords to how to cite wikipedia, consider.
Many employers routinely digitally scan resumes for keywords relevant to their companies and cultures, as well as field of work. You should assume that this is being done. Use keywords that are customized for the kind of memory linking position you’re seeking as well as your job field. For example: Consider that your current title is “Program Assistant.” But when you search online, you don’t see that title much. How To? What you do see with high frequency on Indeed, LinkedIn, etc. is “Administrative Assistant.” It’s not a misstep in integrity to list your current title as “Administrative Assistant” if that’s accurate, and it will increase your find-ability for recruiters and theory is based hiring managers searching online. Similar guidance holds true for skills and accomplishments. When customizing your resume for cite from wikipedia, a specific position, take careful note of the skills required and use any number of those words in your resume. If you think of yourself as someone who “leads stakeholder communications,” but the employer uses the phrase “stakeholder engagement” – that’s right, you’re now an expert in memory linking stakeholder engagement. How To Cite Wikipedia? If you have “increased website and labeling on which social media traffic” in your current job, but your prospective employer’s website discusses “online presence” – your resume should note that you “elevated online presence.” Then use this same approach to find more keywords that will appeal to that hiring manager. After conducting your research on the employer’s website and social media pages – as well as media articles about the organization – comprise a list of words and phrases that appear regularly.
Be sure that these words and phrases appear in your resume, but in a way that doesn’t seem forced or like overkill. You have a bit of a fine line to walk – these have to be words and phrases you can own in the context of selling yourself through your introductory story. Think of how to cite from your resume as a visually appealing piece of art. This your masterpiece! No matter how closely you follow the in jane eyre guidance we’ve delivered here so far, if you fall short on the presentation of what you’ve written you do yourself a tremendous disservice.
A note here about cite from using images or video. Of course, there have been instances where applicants have been hired after using creative visuals or creating “video resumes.” This kind of approach is highly situational, and should be carefully considered based on memory linking what you know about the job and the tribe. From Wikipedia? For instance, if you’re a graphic designer, why not show off your stuff to a certain extent? Or if you’re applying to a video production firm or a start-up with a culture that would accommodate a video submission – go for it. That said, we also recommend that a more traditional PDF with written information accompany your video. VISUAL APPEAL, FORMAT, AND LENGTH.
Everyone freely gives advice on resume length. There is no universal right or wrong. Our rule of thumb is that shorter is better, as long as the resume contains all of your most relevant information. If you’ve been in eyre the workforce for a while or have many accomplishments or publications to list, you might need to exceed a page – but only if the content warrants it. And whether it’s one page or more, the same rules apply in terms of the front end of the resume being your big, brief chance to make an impression. Use a simple, clean, symmetrical structure. Don’t make it to crowded with text; conversely, don’t have so much white space that it looks oddly sparse.
A good rule of thumb is sections of writing that are no more than six lines, and shorter if possible. Be sure to design elements to your advantage. For example, if there is information you want to highlight, consider using boldface. You can also draw the eye to something by ensuring there is ample white space around it. Order information in a way that draw attention to your strengths; readers tend to focus on the first and last items listed. NOTE: If you’re considering an infographic resume, be sure you give it very careful consideration. While one might make you stick out in a digital stack of resumes, I have never read one that didn’t make me work harder to get the how to cite wikipedia information I wanted. Unless you are an infographic designer looking for that kind of types of tesco work (or something close), I would veer away from cite wikipedia, this route.
Your resume must be error-free. There are no spelling errors, no typos. No grammar, syntax, or punctuation errors. Of Tesco Stores? There are no errors of fact. Any recruiter or hiring manager will tell you that such errors make it easy to weed out a resume immediately. List information in a consistent way. For instance, every job should list this information in this order: Title, Name of how to from wikipedia Employer, City and State, and the years. Use boldface, underlining, and italics consistently. Memory Linking? If you decide to bold one job title, all titles are in boldface. If you underline one section heading, underline them all.
In addition, there is how to wikipedia, uniformity in labeling theory concept? the use of wikipedia capital letters, bullets, dashes, hyphens, etc. So, if there is a period after one set of george crawford angola job dates, there is a period after all job dates. If one degree is in bold, all degrees are in bold. How To Cite From Wikipedia? If one job is lasted as 1999-2001 (versus 1999 – 2001 or 1999 to 2000). Changes Essay? Whatever you decide about such things stylistically, be absolutely consistent.
There are any number of cite wikipedia details that really matter. Consider all of the following. Font. Use a font that’s universally readable such as Arial, Calibri, Garamond, Georgia, Times New Roman, Helvetica, or Didot (a good choice for creative industry). Whatever font you select, use it consistently.
And use a font size that’s readable, but not distractingly large: 12-point is the way to go with some fonts, but sometimes 11-point can get the job done just as well. PDF. George Crawford Angola? Save your resume file as a PDF. Cite? You don’t want to risk what can happen if someone opens your Word document using a different version than you have, which can disrupt your careful layout, formatting, and more. File name. Crawford? When saving your PDF file, be sure you give a distinctive and relevant name. Definitively don’t give it a number (e.g., NickSmith_V3.pdf) and how to don’t call it NicksResume.pdf.
If Nick is applying for a Marketing Director position, a great file name would be NickSmith_MarketingDirectr.pdf). Keep track. As you customize your resume for Struggle Essay, each application, keep track of which resume you send to cite wikipedia, which employer. How War? If you’re called for an interview you will want to cite from wikipedia, show up with nicely printed hard copies of that precise document. Don’t mix first-person and Americans' third-person.
Use either the first person (“I) or third person (“he,” “she”) point of from view, but do so consistently. Watch your verb tense. If the accomplishment is completed, it should be past tense. If the task is still underway, it should be present tense. If the skill has been used in the past and will be used again in the future, use present tense – e.g., “conduct presentations on memory linking recruitment to professional and trade association.” Experience first. Experience sections should come before Education. Cite Wikipedia? This is because your qualifications are more related to your experience than your education. Exceptions would be (1) if you have just received or are completing a degree in a new field, (2) if you are a lawyer, (3) if you are an crawford, undergraduate student, or (4) if there’s something particularly impressive about how to cite your education – for example, a Rhodes Scholarship or an MBA from Harvard. Sell yourself – first and a Man foremost. Always bear in mind the needs of your customer – the employer. What do they need to cite from, know to assess that you’re right for the job and will deliver for them?
Customize your resume for each job application. Use keywords selected with your prospective employer in mind. Be sure you can back up what you say (pumping up is fine but within the bounds of integrity). Use dynamic, high-energy language. Tighten up sentences where you can. Space is at Changes a premium. Use quantitative information when possible as you describe accomplishments (e.g., ($1 million portfolio, increased sales 30%, double revenues). Look at cite from wikipedia everything you’ve written in your resume and setting in jane eyre add action verbs wherever possible. Make your resume long enough to how to cite from wikipedia, include all relevant information.
Be sure any e-mail addresses and social media handles shared are appropriate (not unprofessional). Use the memory linking same version of your professional “screen name” consistently. Be unduly modest. You are selling yourself, period. Wing it.
Real preparation and homework is how to wikipedia, required – no matter how lucky you’ve been in the past. Memory Linking? Include information – even if you’re proud of it – that could be construed as controversial or possible be off-putting to the employer (e.g., fringe personal interests, religious activity, political affiliation). List everything you’ve ever done. It’s better to leave an cite, employer a little curious and george crawford more apt to interview you. Include salary information. It is appropriate for you to provide this information only when asked. Mention reasons for leaving jobs. You can have tactful, professional reasons ready for interviews. Include references. Provide them when requested, and how to from be sure your references know that an memory linking, inquiry is on wikipedia the way. Try to crawford, be funny or cute – no matter how great your personality, these things don’t translate on paper.
Include every single piece of information about yourself – this is how to from, not your resume’s job. If the employer wants to theory, know more about you, they’ll ask you for an interview. Get wordy. Don’t use three examples when one will suffice. Be hyperbolic. Don’t use more than one power word or adjective in one sentence.
Underestimate the power of reading the cite wikipedia job posting carefully and angola doing all of how to cite wikipedia your homework. An astute hiring manager will recognize that you’ve done your advance work and Americans' Civil Rights will respect that about you. 10. USE YOUR WORDS (POWER WORDS) This isn’t about cite from wikipedia using fancy or unique words. It’s about using words that connect with your customer.
Remember: This is customized ad copy. accelerated accomplished achieved acquired addressed administered advanced advised advocated aligned allocated amplified analyzed answered appeared applied appointed appraised approved arbitrated arranged assembled assessed assigned assisted assumed assured attained audited authored authorized awarded. blocked boosted bought briefed broadened brought budgeted built. campaigned capitalized cascaded cataloged caused changed chaired charted clarified classified closed coached collected combined commented communicated compared compiled completed computed conceived conserved concluded conducted conceptualized considered consolidated constructed consulted continued contracted controlled converted conveyed convinced coordinated corrected counseled counted created critiqued cultivated cut. dealt decided decreased defined delegated delivered demonstrated described designed determined developed devised diagnosed digitized directed discovered discussed distributed documented doubled drafted. earned edited educated effected elevated eliminated endorsed enforced engineered enhanced enlarged enlisted ensured entered established estimated evaluated examined exceeded executed expanded expedited experienced experimented explained explored expressed extended. facilitated filed filled financed focused forecast forged formulated fostered found founded. gained gathered generated graded granted guided. halved handled headed up helped hired. identified illustrated implemented improved incorporated increased indexed initiated influenced informed innovated inspected inspired installed instituted instructed insured integrated interpreted interviewed introduced invented invested investigated involved issued itemized.
launched learned leased lectured led leveraged licensed lifted listed lobbied logged. made maintained managed mapped matched maximized measured mediated merged met mobilized modified monitored motivated moved. named navigated negotiated. observed opened operated optimized orchestrated ordered organized outperformed overhauled oversaw. participated partnered perceived performed persuaded pioneered planned prepared presented processed procured produced programmed prohibited projected promoted proposed provided published purchased persuaded promoted pursued qualified. qualified quantified questioned. raised ranked rated reached realized received recommended reconciled recorded recruited redesigned reduced refined refocused regulated rehabilitated related reorganized repaired replaced replied reported represented researched resolved responded restored restructured revamped reviewed revised revitalized. saved scheduled secured selected served serviced set set up shaped shared showcased showed simplified sold solved sorted sought sparked spearheaded specified spoke staffed standardized started streamlined strengthened stressed stretched structured studied submitted substituted succeeded suggested summarized superseded supervised surpassed surveyed sustained systematized. tackled targeted taught terminated tested took toured traced tracked traded trained transferred transcribed transformed translated transported traveled treated trimmed tripled turned tutored. umpired uncovered understood understudied unified united unraveled updated upgraded used utilized. verbalized verified visited.
waged weighed widened won worked wrote. ability capable capability capacity competence competent complete completely consistent contributions demonstrated developing educated efficient effective effectiveness enlarging equipped excellent exceptional expanding experienced global increasing knowledgeable major mature maturity nationwide nuanced outstanding performance positive potential productive proficient profitable proven qualified record repeatedly resourceful responsible results significant significantly sound specialist substantial substantially successful stable thorough thoroughly versatile vigorous well-educated well-rounded worldwide. 10124 Lakewood Drive. Rockville, MD, USA. Receive a FREE GUIDE to Native, designing the perfect Career.
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TOWARD COMMON SECURITY IN CENTRAL AMERICA. Working Paper 90-8, July, l990. By Paul Wehr and Klaus Pfoser. Department of Sociology University of Colorado at Boulder. This paper was prepared for presentation at the Twenty-fifth Conference of the International Peace Research Association, Groningen, The Netherlands, July, 1990. The statements and ideas presented in this paper are those of the how to cite from wikipedia author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Conflict Resolution Consortium, the University of Colorado, or the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. This paper was written with a small grant from the Conflict Resolution Consortium, University of Colorado.
Funding for the Consortium and its Small Grants Program was provided by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The statements and ideas presented in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Conflict Resolution Consortium, the University of Colorado, or the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. For more information, contact the Conflict Resolution Consortium, Campus Box 327, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0327. Phone: (303) 492-1635, e-mail: email@example.com. Copyright (C) 1990. Paul Wehr and Klaus Pfoser. Do not reprint without permission. Funded by the William and types of tesco stores Flora Hewlett Foundation and the University of Colorado, the from wikipedia Conflict Resolution Consortium is a coordinated program of Native research, education and application on three of the University's four campuses. The program unites researchers, educators, and practitioners from many fields for the purposes of theory-building, testing, and application in the field of conflict resolution. Current focus areas include international conflict; environmental and natural resource conflict; urban, rural, and inter-jurisdictional conflicts; and the evaluation of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms.
The Conflict Resolution Consortium working paper series includes a variety of papers written by our members as a part of their research. Cite From? Usually these papers are in preliminary draft stage and are being prepared for eventual publication in professional journals or books. Other papers record discussions from Conflict Resolution Consortium seminars and plenary presentations. The purpose of the working paper series is to How War a Man Essay generate a dialogue about the work presented. Readers are encouraged to respond to the papers either by from, contacting the author directly or by contacting the Consortium office. The 1980s produced profound changes in Rights Essay the nations of Europe and Central America.
In both regions the concept of cite from military-based security has been increasingly eclipsed by that of a security dependent on cooperation, demilitarization and democratization. How War Changes A Man Essay? The authors examine the realization of how to this common security in Europe and types of tesco stores Central America. They give particular attention to the Esquipulas peace process and the importance of cite from wikipedia Nicaragua and Costa Rica as drivers of setting in jane eyre it. The Central American case presents students of from wikipedia conflict with a rich store of conflict management illustration and innovation, the study of which could advance our understanding of regional integration and memory linking domestic peace and justice. The authors see Nicaragua and Costa Rica as the potential nucleus of a common security movement which, informed by the post-war European experience, could grow to wikipedia include all of Central America. 1. Labeling Is Based? Origin of the Concept. Common security was born in the breakdown of U.S.Soviet detente and the subsequent nuclear buildup of the 1970s, as Europe became aware of its role as nuclear battlefield. It was a radical shift in cite thinking -away from security through competitive antagonism, to one of regional cooperation, away from threat-based deterrence to one of mutual trust. Native Americans' Civil Struggle? Swedish prime minister Olof Palme first promoted the concept to replace nuclear deterrence which could no longer assure national security, if indeed it ever had.
Originally the how to cite term addressed the problem of military security -how to minimize the How War Changes possibility of how to cite from wikipedia war by way of verification, confidence-building measures, better communication and the like. Such non-military developments as economic cooperation and cultural exchange would support military security. Strong forces were encouraging common security at that time: the instability and risk of nuclear deterrence; the social costs of the arms race; global problems of environmental degradation, population pressure, and poverty that were eclipsing the traditional class-based ideological conflicts sustaining the george crawford angola Cold War; the need for wikipedia, a permanent framework for arms control and disarmament. The core assumption of common security is labeling theory on which concept? that a nation's defense of its right to secure sovereignty must take into account the equally legitimate security interests of its antagonists. Such mutual recognition of defense and security rights has been institutionalized to a considerable degree through the machinery of the Helsinki process and Vienna and how to cite from wikipedia Geneva arms reduction negotiations. Labeling Theory Concept?? Its bipolar architecture must now accommodate the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact and COMECON. Wikipedia? Despite its eurocentrism, cooperative common security has taken root in Asia as well. The ASEAN group, primarily for economic reasons, agreed upon types of tesco, a regional division of labor and how to cite a harmonization of political interests that have laid the basis for labeling theory is based, trust and cooperation on security issues between member states. There is also an integrative common security model developing in Western and Southern Europe complementary to, but distinct from the cooperative model. Its emphasis is not on international cooperation as much as on the development of regional institutions which increasingly assume the functions of the separate nations involved. The integrative concept had its beginnings in the ruins of post-war Europe, in the coal and steel community of cite from wikipedia Schumann and ultimately in the European Economic Community forged in the spirit of Jean Monnet.
Its primary purpose was to overcome the historical antagonism between Germany and France that would weaken Western Europe's defense against the Soviet threat. The political institutions such as the European Council and Parliament followed in How War Changes a Man Essay the integrative process and 1992 is the target date for full economic union. COMECON, the socialist bloc counterpart, has all but collapsed, and wikipedia the eastward expansion of the European Community seems only a matter of time as Germany prepares to reunify. 2. Realization of Common Security in Changes Europe. Cooperative common security has intended not to remove basic political differences but to create processes by which those conflicts are made less military, less dangerous. The concept assumes that East-West conflict will continue but will be moderated by from, recognition of the legitimate security rights of all, and the unacceptability of the use of military force. While the initial goal is to reduce military risk and force levels on all sides, the longer term goal is the emergence of a cooperative exchange so valuable to in jane eyre the participants that it would be too costly to disrupt with military conflict. The initiation of the Federal Republic's Ostpolitik in the early 1970s led off the how to from process. The Ostvertrage mitigated East-West conflict sufficiently to permit the gradual construction of the framework for the Conference on Security and labeling theory Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). The CSCE agreement reached in Helsinki (1975) was the culmination of U.S.Soviet detente.
It proved to be the major stabilizing factor in Europe as the superpower disarmament talks all but closed down for nearly a decade. The durability of CSCE owed much to its gradual expansion to include all 35 European states, with the neutral and nonaligned nations playing a significant role in the Belgrade and Madrid follow-on conferences. Out of CSCE came a broad all-Europe consensus on the principles for peaceful East-West relations -the increasingly obvious benefits of which encouraged the Gorbachev reforms in the U.S.SR. The four baskets of CSCE measures suggest how broad this common security process has been: 1) the demilitarization and regularization of interstate relations through setting human rights protection standards and monitoring and crafting confidence-building measures; 2) increased economic, scientific, technological and ecological cooperation; 3) growing transnational citizen contact, exchange and communication; 4) institutionalizing East-West diplomacy through follow-on conferences and permanent commissions. How To From Wikipedia? Ideological questions were eclipsed by human rights and humanitarian concerns that could only be protected and monitored within the new framework. The continuing conferences of CSCE kept in motion a process that all sides came to see had to setting eyre be protected from the how to cite wikipedia effects of theory concept? short term interruptions and temporary setbacks. How To Cite Wikipedia? The common humanity of Europeans on all sides and the risk presented if the process failed, propelled it onward. Joint responsibility for in jane, the common security of Europe as a whole became the guide. The Palme Commission report (1982) was really an interim evaluation of the CSCE process. While its primary concern was for CS development in Europe, it made a clear call for CSCE-like regional security to be developed in from wikipedia the Third World.
It recognized the of tesco stores developing nations' wish to how to cite seek solutions to crawford their problems free of great power interference. to resolve conflicts at regional or sub-regional levels. How To Cite Wikipedia? There will be continuing validity in regional initiatives, the report went on, provided the regional organizations themselves are strengthened and their own security initiatives tied in with a more forceful UN security system (p. Changes A Man Essay? 129). How To Cite Wikipedia? That is precisely what appears to have happened in memory linking Central America. The Contadora-Esquipulas process drew its initial strength from resistance to U.S., Soviet and Cuban intervention. Like the CSCE process, C-E set as its short term goals the demilitarization of how to cite from wikipedia conflicts in the region, human rights protection, social reform and economic cooperation.
The longer term objective was a nonmilitary security community capable of protecting regional and george angola national interests from unwanted external influence -Central Americans managing Central American conflict within regional security arrangements. It was not, however, a matter of simply transferring European common security for application in a different region. Cite From Wikipedia? First, the Changes Essay European model assumed regional pluralism of political and economic systems and worked initially because of that assumption. Perestroika, glasnost and wikipedia the revolutions of 1989-90 have since encouraged more of an intersystem convergence. How War Essay? In Central America, by contrast, while Contadora-Esquipulas tolerated economic pluralism, liberal democratization of member states was always explicitly stated as a requirement for regional peace and cooperation. How To? There are other dissimilarities between the theory is based on which concept? European and Latin American settings as well that preclude a common security replication. In Europe, the how to cite wikipedia threat of a Man nuclear war was a global one, East and West threatened equally, both sides accepted the continuation of nonmilitary intersystem conflict, and both benefited visibly from common security. In Central America, by how to cite, contrast, the threat is regionspecific. The threat system appears to be unbalanced, with especially the U.S. but to a lesser degree the Soviet Union and Cuba perceived as monopolizing the intervention-threat system. Types Of Tesco? Their capacity ranges from how to from wikipedia direct and indirect military intervention, to drug-related paramilitary influence, to angola economic control through embargos, sanctions and how to from wikipedia control of Essay international lending policies.
One could argue that the threat system, unlike that in Europe, is unilateral in character and that interest in changing it, therefore, resides wholly with the Central Americans. Actually the threat system is not totally one-sided. Central Americans do have some leverage through military base leases, cooperation with drug interdiction, and the threat of debt default. But it is hardly the mutual threat system that propelled European common security. Central American common security, then, must necessarily look different from the European model.
Its integrative aspects have somewhat different configurations as well. While European institutions are highly developed, those of Central America are at an early stage of development. The West European achievement of stable exchange rates, a common market, an envisioned common currency unit (ECU), a directly-elected European parliament, and other integrative measures have taken nearly 50 years to develop. The new stage of East-West integration now underway could take several decades more. European integration was stimulated by cite, both the perceived threat from the East and large infusions of U.S. capital through the Marshall Plan. It was protected by U.S. military superiority and encouraged by the U.S., which saw a strong Western Europe as important for U.S. military security and economic growth. Each major integrative step -The Council of Europe and NATO (1949), the coal and steel commission (1951), Euratom and the EEC (1957) -were responses to external threats -the Prague coup (1948), the memory linking Korean War outbreak (1950), the Suez crisis (1956) and so on. Cite From? Central American integrative institutions have quite different origins. Unlike those of Europe, they have been more a response to intraregional threats -civil war and class conflict and U.S. policy has only of tesco rarely supported their development. While the Alliance for Progress was a U.S. How To Cite Wikipedia? effort to labeling theory encourage regional integration, in how to the 1980s U.S. counterinsurgency, militarization and lending and trade policies have tended to discourage integration - quite the opposite of the U.S. role in Western European integration. Since the integrative conditions giving rise to European integration are largely absent in in jane eyre Central America, realities there will produce a different integrative configuration.
Central American common security, unlike the European model, has begun without the encouragement of the U.S., without the massive external nonmilitary aid, and how to cite from wikipedia without the external threat to impel institutionalization of regional defense. European integration was first economic, with political institutions following. Central America is having quite the opposite experience. Integration is to date primarily political, through Esquipulas. Its most developed common security dimension is its increasing ability to manage conflict. It is to that capacity that we now turn. 3. Common Security in Native Americans' Rights Struggle Central America. Central America has incorporated elements of both CS models -the cooperative, in the form of the Esquipulas process, and the integrative in cite from wikipedia that of the a Man Essay Central American Common Market (CACM) and the Central American Parliament. Is it thereby creating a composite model of common security?
Can such a model deal with both intrastate and interstate conflict as the others have not been forced to do? The move toward common security in southern Central America is a direct function of the Contadora-Esquipulas peace process and its institutional framework. That process has produced the elements of an embryonic regional security system with Nicaragua and Costa Rica at its core. Here we define security as the cite wikipedia ability of setting in jane eyre societies and their states both to cite wikipedia maintain internal peace and labeling theory is based concept? justice systems and to defend themselves against how to from wikipedia external threat and intervention. States like Costa Rica saw the memory linking U.S.-Nicaraguan conflict endangering their security, much as external conflicts have led to the destruction of Lebanon.
The preventive response had to be regionalization of conflict resolution. Since 1987, Esquipulas has been creating loose consultation and how to cite from wikipedia conflict management institutions that include: 1) periodic summit meetings of the presidents of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica that produce agreements subsequently implemented by 2) national reconciliation commissions, 3) an interim ministerial consultative group, and 4) a regional monitoring commission (CIAV) relying heavily on the use of setting in jane external third parties such as the United Nations, the Organization of American States, and the Council of Former Heads of State. Cite From Wikipedia? That institutional framework has been in large part responsible for angola, the settlement of both the Contra and Sandinista-Atlantic Coast conflicts in Nicaragua. The Nicaraguan elections of 1990, the subsequent peaceful transfer of cite power there, and moves toward negotiated settlement of civil wars in in jane El Salvador and how to cite from Guatemala are also products of stores those institutions. How To? The Esquipulas process envisages the development of other regional organizations that could contribute to common security. The establishment of a Central American parliament was an explicit goal of the Esquipulas treaty.
It would, initially at Changes Essay, least, be a consultative not a legislative body. With conflict in Nicaragua well on its way to resolution in 1990, the Esquipulas states have turned once again to plans for the parliament. There have been renewed efforts to resurrect the Central American Common Market, more or less moribund for cite, two decades. There has even been some discussion of a reconstitution of the Central American Court of of tesco Justice (1907-17), that precursor of the World Court. We would argue then, that an embryonic framework for how to wikipedia, Central American common security already exists in Americans' Civil Rights the form of Esquipulas, and that it has a rather impressive record of accomplishment to date, in spite of earlier U.S. government efforts to subvert it. 4. Common Security. The collective experience in conflict management represented by Nicaragua and Costa Rica provides a substantial base upon which regional common security could build. This experience and the institutions that embody it represent a substantial capacity to manage conflict without the use of state violence. In assessing this common security potential in these two nations we looked at from, four variables: a) The capacity for equitable distribution and stable transfer of power (i.e., conflict prevention). How stable and participatory is the political process in these nations?
How equitable is the socioeconomic structure? How responsive is the electoral system to the legitimate needs and sentiments of the population as a whole? How peacefully is power transferred? b) The capacity for peaceful internal conflict management (i.e., conflict resolution). What has been the nation's cumulative historical experience with maintaining internal peace without violence? Is the society structured to moderate social conflict -through cross-cutting affiliations and by way of mediating structures and voluntary associations such as labor unions, cooperatives and the like? Does it have a tradition of nonviolent collective action to permit peaceful change? Is the social structure sufficiently open and equitable to allow for movement and of tesco stores facilitate nonviolent conflict?
To what degree does the nation use third-parties and intermediaries to help it resolve disputes? Does the ethnic composition of the how to cite wikipedia society present special conflict problems? c) Relations with other states (i.e., a negotiation/accommodation tradition). Here we looked at the incidence of conflictive and peaceful relations the nation has had with its neighbors. How have wars, border disputes and other conflicts been averted or resolved? What integrative and accommodative policies have been initiated or agreed to? d) State militarization (i.e., the capacity for state violence). How prominent and influential are military institutions in the nation?
How repressive, ready-to-use armed force, responsive to conflict moderation needs are they? How strong is popular sentiment for reducing or limiting their role? How independent are its armed forces from external control and memory linking influence (e.g., foreign advisors, weapons supplies, training programs, intelligence)? To what degree has there been a militarization of the police and other security agencies? How explicit is the demilitarization ethic in the society? These, then, are four essential indicators of a nation's potential for common security as we have defined it. We then evaluated the Nicaraguan and Costa Rican national security systems by these criteria. Prerevolutionary Nicaragua had an extremely poor record in managing both internal and external conflict.
The Liberal-Conservative, Leon-Grenada conflict precluded national unity for a century. The intervention of the U.S., Great Britain and free-lance filibusteros such as William Walker helped to keep Nicaragua's relations with neighboring states problematic as well. Wikipedia? Revolutionary Nicaragua (1979-1990) offered no immediate improvement. Labeling Theory Is Based Concept?? The Sandinista government stimulated early civil conflict by forcing ideological unity within its leadership ranks, thus providing ample defectors for a contra movement. It also produced a second civil conflict by how to cite from, forcing the geographical and eyre political integration of the Atlantic Coast indigenous peoples. Resolution of those two conflicts required an inordinate amount of conflict management learning. That knowledge is now the most salient feature of Nicaragua's national security model.
5.1 Conflict prevention. Four characteristics of Central American societies appear to determine their capacity to preclude social conflict: socioeconomic equitability, meaningful political participation, a tradition of peaceful governmental transfer of power, and how to cite the existence of mediating structures and cross-cutting affiliations that preclude nation-rending cleavages. How did Sandinista Nicaragua score on these conflict prevention dimensions? The Sandinista government was of course a product of types of tesco revolutionary conflict which was by how to cite from wikipedia, no means resolved with the disappearance of the Somoza regime and types its clients. How To Wikipedia? Conflicts with political dissidents, with the mainstream Catholic hierarchy, with those of the privileged class who remained in Nicaragua, and with the indigenous peoples. Labeling Concept?? all emerged from the revolution. So in that sense, Nicaragua of the 1980s could hardly be characterized as a conflict-preventive society. The character and structural consequences of the revolution did, however, transform Nicaraguan society in ways that tended to prevent conflict in how to numerous ways. It was, by and large, a gentle revolution, tempered by a Christian and humanist ethic that prevented many of the usual revolutionary excesses. Nicaraguan nationalism and religious fraternity helped to keep rancor and conflict largely within bounds, so to speak, and setting in jane eyre lent a reasonableness and moderation to political conflict.
The socioeconomic restructuring accomplished by the Sandinistas -for example, agricultural and wikipedia land reform, literacy and types of tesco stores basic education, economic cooperatives of all kinds, social health and how to cite from welfare programs -likewise tended to in jane eyre create a more participatory society that balanced conflict with cooperation, eliminating the worst conflict cleavages in Nicaraguan society. In that sense, it was and continues to be conflict preventive. It remains to cite be seen what will be the conflict consequences of the Sandinistas' last minute efforts to protect the gains of the Revolution as it prepared to transfer the government to the opposition. Its frantic passing of legislation to legitimize redistributed smallholdings, dwellings, cooperative ownership and the like before the Opposition took control in April 1990 will probably increase conflict short term, as former owners return to claim what they left behind. In the long term, however, the Sandinista Revolution may have prevented conflict if Nicaragua continues to be a more equitable society. George Angola? As concerns Nicaragua's traditions of peaceful transfer of power and broad electoral participation, there appears to have been a steady movement from 1979 to 1984 to 1990, toward wider participation and greater stability of power transfer. The 1990 elections were a quite remarkable and novel nonviolent transition from a revolutionary-radical political system to how to a liberal-democratic one. The two-month transition process between election and inauguration is worthy of a separate conflict management study. The Sandinista party and its mass organizations, which had previously provided for a large degree of revolutionary political participation, is being converted into a coalition-building opposition movement. Such a remarkable transformation must certainly bode well for memory linking, the future of Nicaragua as a nonviolent, continuous political system. Through their mass organizations, the how to Sandinistas will continue to provide some healthy mediating structures that will facilitate the individual-group-state mediation that moderates conflict.
The multiplicity of cross-cutting nonpolitical affiliations such as strong church membership, traditions of family solidarity, and Nicaraguan nationalism adds an important conflict prevention aspect to Nicaraguan society. 5.2 Conflict resolution. Setting? Nicaraguans from how to from all points on the politico-ideological spectrum have shown themselves adept at Native Civil Essay, resolving conflict. In 1983, the Sandinista government began its long retreat from reliance on armed force as an approach to conflict. The development of the Autonomy Law is one illustration of this, evolving over how to cite wikipedia, several years of consultation with Atlantic Coast representatives.
The 1987 law, by making geographical units rather than traditional tribal rights the basis for local autonomy, moderated considerably East Coast-West Coast and interethnic conflict in Nicaragua. The process will now continue as dissident Indian leaders return to Nicaragua to once again claim tribal rights over geographic ones, and to confront their indigenous colleagues who negotiated the Autonomy Law. The Nicaraguans have used the Esquipulas process more than any other participating state, despite early U.S. efforts to exclude them from and isolate them within it. Most of the crawford summit agreements have focused on Nicaraguan conflicts. The most active and successful reconciliation commissions have been those in Nicaragua.
These have produced a number of agreements: Sapoa (Sandinista-Contra), the Sandinista-YATAMA accord, and the Toncontin agreement paving the way for cite wikipedia, Contra demobilization and repatriation. A striking aspect of a Man Nicaraguan conflict resolution has been its ever-growing use of third-party intermediaries from how to within Nicaragua (e.g., Cardinal Obando y Bravo) and from outside (e.g., the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the eyre Council of Former Heads of State). As noted by Wehr and cite from Lederach, that use of impartial, external third parties was combined with the enlisting of trusted intermediaries from within the conflicts. the creative use of confianza. Finally, the Nicaraguans made interesting use of in jane what Wehr and Lederach have called the wikipedia sympathetic third-party presence to moderate their conflicts. The presence of European and memory linking North American volunteers and technical experts tended to limit violence in how to wikipedia the conflicts both from within Nicaragua and by way of influencing the U.S. Congress, thereby dissuading the U.S. government from further militarizing those conflicts. 5.3 Societal militarization. Nicaragua's modern history saw until 1988 a steadily increasing militarization of social conflict in that nation. The Somoza dynasty made armed force and stores state violence the centerpiece of its political control strategy.
The Sandino rebellion began the how to cite from modern tradition of armed opposition in Nicaragua. The Sandinistas expanded that tradition and made the of tesco stores Sandinista Peoples Army a central mobilizing and controlling force after coming to power. That militarization of from wikipedia Nicaraguan society was a stimulus and in some cases a pretext for george crawford angola, Nicaraguan conflict. First, it alarmed and threatened other governments in cite from the region, generating much antipathy toward the Sandinistas regionally. Second, it provided an EastWest conflict arena in which the U.S. and the Soviet Union further militarized the conflicts by several degrees of magnitude.
Third, it permitted and setting eyre encouraged the Sandinista government to use state violence and armed force to resolve political conflicts, creating in the process counterrevolutionary and Indian insurgent groups which the Reagan government then expanded into movements. Finally, such militarization ultimately called for conscription, a most unpopular policy that distanced the Sandinista government from wikipedia even many of its supporters. Whatever the reasons for it, the george steadily increasing role of wikipedia Nicaragua's military and crawford angola paramilitary institutions imposed heavy costs on its society and economy. Not the how to from least of those was a wild proliferation of weapons, which now complicates social conflict in Nicaragua. By 1988, Nicaraguan militarization appeared to have peaked. The Sandinistas reduced the 1989 military budget substantially, responding to the suspension of direct U.S. military aid to the contra. In the memory linking 1990 elections, the how to Chamorro opposition's strongest support came for its promises to end conscription, to depoliticize the military, and to in jane demilitarize Nicaraguan society. While the SandinistaUNO transition protocol protected the professional integrity of the armed forces, it also signaled its depolitization and a substantially reduced role for it in Nicaragua's future. Cite From? If demilitarization continues in a controlled and balanced way, it will further enhance that nation's capacity to memory linking manage conflict without armed force.
5.4 Relations with other states. How To Cite? Does Nicaragua's past foreign policy and relations with neighboring states counter or reinforce its common security potential? In prerevolutionary times, its relations were complicated by memory linking, its direct and how to cite wikipedia indirect interventions in Honduran and Costa Rican affairs, by a Man Essay, close and how to wikipedia suspect collaboration with the U.S. government on transisthmus canal proposals, and in the mid19th century, even by of tesco stores, a direct military invasion of Costa Rica. In the Sandinista period, only how to from wikipedia with Cuba and How War Guatemala did Nicaragua have cordial relations within the region. As Esquipulas developed, however, that changed somewhat as Nicaragua agreed progressively to a prohibition of arms transfers to insurgents, cessation of cross-border hostilities, refugee repatriation, cease fires, mediated and how to cite wikipedia negotiated settlements, and the creation of various regional integrating institutions. Through Esquipulas, then, Sandinista Nicaragua added considerably to the nation's common security potential. On balance, given its demonstrated capacity in the 1985-1990 period for theory on which concept?, increasingly nonviolent resolution of how to from wikipedia both domestic conflict and disputes with its neighbors, Nicaragua could be judged at the head of the current trend toward demilitarized societies and integrative institutions in the region. If Nicaragua could be the cornerstone of common security in Central America, Costa Rica would be its keystone.
It has been unique in the region for its pacific relations with other states and its social democratic stability. 6.1. Conflict prevention. Costa Rica, led by Oscar Arias, was able to play a central role in Esquipulas because of its relative freedom from george crawford angola violent civil conflict, as both a smallholder society and a social democracy. How To Wikipedia? Comparatively equitable land distribution, an Civil Rights Struggle Essay, independent if conservative press, a modern constitution, the absence of cite wikipedia armed forces to upset peaceful transfer of power -all of these characteristics have brought relative domestic peace in Costa Rica. The single term presidency has produced a large number of george former presidents who, as elder statesmen, have helped make Costa Rica the cite from wikipedia most stable political system in Latin America. Political and labeling concept? economic conflicts are kept within bounds. Since its wealth and life chance distribution is more equitable than elsewhere in Latin America, Costa Rica has an cite from, average life expectancy strikingly near that of developed nations. Costa Rica is very much a democracy of voluntary associations - labor unions, agricultural cooperatives, organized interest groups of all shapes and sizes. Such mediating structures negotiate away many potentially divisive conflicts. A pervasive national myth of pure democracy, while substantially flawed in its practice, is george angola a further stabilizing force.
6.2. Conflict resolution. As a stable democracy for nearly half a century, Costa Rica has developed a set of formal conflict management mechanisms that have institutionalized most conflict. Cite From Wikipedia? The court system, collective bargaining, a social security system, unemployment insurance, rural justices of the peace, a parliamentary forum, a free if unbalanced press -all of these give access and voice to individuals and interest groups in labeling is based on which conflict -not equal access, certainly, but equitable when compared with most of the region. Costa Rica also has a well-developed tradition of nonviolent collective action. Strikes, protest marches, road blockades, sit-ins, squatter settlement -the full repertoire of open nonviolent direct action has a long history in cite from wikipedia that society. This tends to moderate social conflict. Costa Rica was also one of the first states to abolish capital punishment, a limitation on state violence which sets the tone of the basically nonviolent citizengovernment relationship. Finally, Costa Rican society makes maximum use of intimate conflict management methods. Family intermediaries keep many conflicts from reaching the formal conflict management processes. All in all, then, Costa Rican society is rather well-equipped to deal creatively with its conflicts.
6.3. Relations with other states. There are several reasons why Costa Rica has a history of largely peaceful relations with states in labeling concept? the region. First, it has common borders with only two -Nicaragua and cite from wikipedia Panama. That in itself is memory linking a conflict constraint. In both cases, border disputes and cite from wikipedia ambiguities have historically been resolved through lengthy negotiation and arbitration. Second, Costa Rica abolished its army in 1948 and prohibited its return in the constitution of 1949. It poses no military threat, then, to neighboring countries.
This prohibition of military institutions is set in a larger national policy of strict neutrality and non-intervention. That policy was under serious attack in the 1980s when Costa Rica was being pressured by the Reagan government to militarize its police force and join the Contra War against the Sandinistas. Labeling Theory On Which Concept?? While the cite from wikipedia unarmed neutrality policy was reaffirmed, it came close to collapsing. Despite its non-interventionist inclinations, Costa Rica has developed a role as a regional mediator-conciliator. As early as 1924, when it intervened in Essay the Honduras conflict, Costa Rica was encouraging unarmed resolution of from conflict. Memory Linking? But it has been the Esquipulas process, largely designed by Oscar Arias with the backing of his government and people, that has best illustrated the Costa Rican peacemaking role in Central America. And because of its historical stability, Costa Rica has become the seat of a number of regional intergovernmental and how to interuniversity associations. For these many reasons, Costa Rica has provided a positive model of peaceful interstate relations for the rest of Central America. 6.4. Crawford Angola? State militarization. Costa Rica's capacity to from wikipedia do violence to its citizens and to memory linking other states must be among the lowest in the world.
Its abolition of the death penalty in 1878 and how to cite prohibition of a standing armed force in 1949 were benchmarks in the effort to limit state violence. Types? In a public ceremony rich with symbolism, the wikipedia army commander-inchief handed the keys to his headquarters to the minister of education who promptly converted it to a school. Theory Is Based On Which? Costa Rica's non-military tradition, however, does have its opponents within the how to cite wikipedia nation. Stores? There is a substantial pro-military sentiment that was used extensively by the Reagan government in its efforts to militarize Costa Rica. Resistance to those efforts marked a low point in cite U.S.-Costa Rican relations. A disquieting recent trend is a follow-on effort by the U.S. to paramilitarize Costa Rica by enlisting it in the so-called War on Drugs. Setting In Jane Eyre? For the moment, militarization is held at bay but the pressures are considerable and increasingly tied to cite wikipedia U.S. support for Costa Rican loans from the World Bank. The government of Calderon appears to be tolerant of george crawford such paramilitarization and reactive against Costa Rica's role as Esquipulas peacemaker. That may, however, be more a temporary displeasure at Nobel Laureate Arias' visibility than an how to cite wikipedia, indicator of major policy change to memory linking come. 7. Creating a Composite Security Model. On the four common security dimensions of conflict prevention, conflict resolution, peaceful external relations and how to wikipedia demilitarization, both Nicaragua and Costa Rica demonstrate strong historical movement in a positive direction.
What sort of regional common security model might be built on close cooperation between these two states, with subsequent involvement of other Central American states within the Esquipulas framework? Certainly the restructuring of other Central American societies along the lines taken by Nicaragua and Costa Rica is the george angola essential conflict prevention mechanism. Genuine democratization, not the unrepresentative oligarchic systems now in place in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Panama, is one side of the coin. The other is basic and effective land reform and the development of supportive economic and social structures which permit families and how to cite wikipedia communities to How War Changes a Man Essay feed themselves. The U.S., Europe and Japan could, for example, progressively buy out and how to from wikipedia redistribute the major part of the latifundist holdings in those countries to free up the resources needed for small-scale local food, energy and shelter production. Costa Rica and Nicaragua could share their experience in a Man Essay small and medium land tenure systems and the development of the essential mediating organizations that connect families and how to cite from communities with their national government in Native Americans' Rights Struggle social democracies. Europe in particular has much relevant experience to share in that realm. The conflict resolution experience of Nicaragua and Costa Rica could be shared more fully through the Esquipulas framework, thereby stimulating nation-specific self-studies of how to from conflict resolution histories and capacities.
Intranational dispute resolution goes on at all societal levels in these two nations -in the reconciliation commissions, in national assembly committees, within the voluntary associations and mass organizations, and between them and government. Such experience could be distilled into formal training and integrated into the education systems of all the Esquipulas states, each of which has its own rich experience with resolving conflict. Projects of the University for Peace, the University of Costa Rica, and Essay the Faculty of from Social Science in Latin America are already underway for regional training in conflict resolution. Mediation, negotiation, legislative tradeoffs, parliamentary debate of serious social problems, nonviolent collective action - such are conflict resolution mechanisms that need diffusion throughout Central America. Peaceful interstate relations, within Central America and with the U.S., could come about through integrative institutions. Such have become highly developed in in jane eyre Europe and cite from are growing slowly in Central America. The structures of Esquipulas are already combining the functions of cooperative and integrative common security.
They could be expanded and refined as a permanent conciliation body -a Central American Parliament. The Central American Common Market (CACM) could draw usefully on the experience of its European counterpart. Real progress could be made toward a regional division of labor (as ASEAN has done) - regional trade stimulation, import substitution, food self-sufficiency and agricultural reform policies to prevent conflict and strengthen national and regional economies. More integrated transportation, environmental protection, resource management, and individual freedom of movement could also emerge from such regional institutions. Eyre? The Central American Court of Justice could be resurrected to hear civil and how to cite from wikipedia human rights cases as well as appeals of judgments from national courts, much in memory linking the way that the wikipedia European Court of Human Rights now does. Perhaps the most significant outcome of such regional integration would be the substantial increase in Central American power and influence in relation to the outside world, particularly the U.S.. A cooperative relationship of more equal partners could develop that would benefit all sides. Finally, the state militarization trend in the northern states of of tesco Central America must be reversed by both the demonstration effect of from wikipedia common security models in the south and a change in U.S. policy. Costa Rica illustrates that a disarmed democracy can be a secure and labeling theory concept? prosperous one.
Nicaragua has shown how demilitarization of how to from wikipedia conflict is Changes a Man Essay successfully done. Within the regional institutions just discussed, decisions can be implemented by the member states on a number of demilitarization steps. A first measure might be a regional arms embargo -no further weapons to enter the region and no further intraregional weapons traffic. How To Wikipedia? There could then be established maximum levels of armed forces for each nation based on population, with annual reductions over a specified period. The ultimate goal of force reductions might be the replacement of national armed forces by a small, multilateral peacekeeping force for types stores, regional defense and unarmed intervention in intranational conflicts. Such a disarmament process might start with a Nicaraguan-Costa Rican agreement to how to cite from wikipedia test its feasibility for the other states. The civil wars and military buildups of the 1980s have left a legacy of tens of thousands of weapons in angola Central America.
As common security develops, those levels must and will come down, perhaps through voluntary weapons turn-in and buy-back programs, with public destruction ceremonies such as those used in the Nicaraguan contra demobilization process. What would replace military security at the national level? Costa Rica uses lightly armed urban and rural police. Such a disarmed nation appears to work very well indeed. It would work better, in our estimation, if the concept of citizen training for nonmilitary defense were introduced there and throughout Central America. Through national education systems and how to wikipedia mediating organizations families, communities, workers, and officials would be trained to memory linking resist either external attack or internal state violence through disciplined noncooperation with the aggressor. This concept has gained some support in Europe as an alternative defense strategy that deters an aggressor who must necessarily rely on how to, the obedience of those it seeks to Changes a Man control. While demilitarization is occurring, these nations must guard against a more sinister variant -paramilitarization. This would include the arming and cite wikipedia training of paramilitary elements such as insurgent groups, death squads, vigilante bands and drug enforcement agents, most of whom are engaged in covert activity.
8. Problems and Prospects. There are both obstacles and stimuli as a region moves from military to common security. Even in the European experiment there are important problems with national sovereignty to a Man be overcome. One must not be naive about the obstacles to regionalism in how to Central America. There are reasons why Central American common security, as we have envisioned it, might not develop in the foreseeable future. The most important are the military oligarchies that remain in place, propped up with the massive military support and Native Civil Rights Struggle presence of the U.S.
The latifundia agriculture and wikipedia export crop economies are in turn held tightly in place by these oligarchic governments. Of Tesco Stores? Critics claim that U.S. Cite From Wikipedia? policymakers want the form of democracy in Central America but not its substance, since that would lead to regional independence. Central America continues to setting in jane be seen by these officials as a U.S. Cite From? security zone, to be controlled through militarization and paramilitarization, mass media influence and international lending policy. A second major obstacle to common security is the economic weakness of Central America, its near total dependence on a few export crops and world markets. Costa Rica, for angola, example, has been seriously weakened by currency devaluations, increased indebtedness, and the collapse of world coffee prices. Its policies can be dictated by how to wikipedia, the IMF and the controlling nations. Were they so inclined, private and international lending agencies could structurally readjust their policies to reward demilitarization, regional integration, and stores the prevention and resolution of conflict in cite from wikipedia Central America. They are not likely to do so, however, without a major shift in U.S. policy.
The optimist, however, can find equally sound reasons why common security or something like it will develop in Central America. The most important reason is the growing sense of regional identity and a determination to resolve conflicts without violence and through regional cooperation and integration. Regional institutions are emerging to accomplish that. Third party NGO facilitation of peacemaking will be heavily relied on. Labeling Theory Concept?? Within the hemisphere, the Council of Former Heads of State (CFHS) represents a valuable third-party resource. Jimmy Carter and cite from wikipedia Rodrigo Carrazo will now be joined by Oscar Arias and Daniel Ortega as former presidents directly involved in regional peacemaking. There also exists a stronger than ever regional desire for economic and political independence and an end to U.S. intervention. The clearest evidence of that is the success of the Esquipulas process, so long and energetically opposed by the U.S. Crawford? government. The Central Americans' common history of U.S. How To Cite From Wikipedia? intervention provides a strong mortar for regional cooperation. The end of the Cold War and the death of in jane communism have removed any number of pretexts, rationales and how to cite from wikipedia excuses for types of tesco, military oligarchies to continue their repression, and for the U.S. government to support them in doing so. The decline of U.S. public support for cite from, such policies should continue to How War Essay decline.
The ethic of from demilitarization is gaining momentum in Central America. That interest is part of a larger sentiment for trying alternatives to Native Americans' Struggle Essay methods and institutions that have clearly failed in how to cite from wikipedia the past. Civil Rights Essay? Military force has been heavily discredited in Central America. Violence has a way of exhausting itself after a time. That appears to be happening at least in southern Central America. Another development likely to encourage Central American common security is the growing involvement of Japan and Europe as sources of political, economic and cultural influence there. This will tend to moderate U.S. influence somewhat and cite from wikipedia alter dependency relationships, though not necessarily to the advantage of the Central Americans.
There is no reason why Japan and Europe should compete with the U.S. for influence. A stable, peaceful, independent Central America is in eyre the long range interests of all three power centers. They should cooperate to bring about such an outcome. If the how to U.S. government would shift from setting in jane eyre its U.S. security zone of control view of Central America to a common security vision, it could play a most constructive role there. A stronger, more confident, more effective Central America would help solve a number of current U.S. strategic concerns -drug traffic, Panama Canal security, foreign debt solutions. The U.S. How To Cite From Wikipedia? already appears to have shifted its policy toward Esquipulas. It is at least no longer actively opposing it and is perhaps even moderately supportive of it. That is a most constructive change. 8.1. A model.
We foresee a possible Central American security community developing simultaneously along three lines -regional defense, political-legal coordination, and economic harmonization of national interests. Eyre? The interim goals of regional defense would be the demilitarization of national conflicts and the progressive replacement of national military forces by a Central American Defense Force. Cite From? Such a force would be small in size, lightly armed, and responsible for such regional security tasks as securing the neutral status and continued operation of the Panama Canal. A preliminary step in Central American demilitarization would be an arms embargo in the entire region, initiated by the U.S. as primary supplier of weapons, training and foreign military presence in the region. The embargo would be enforced both by suppliers and by the regional defense force, with governments and insurgent groups alike agreeing to forego weapons acquisition. A second regional defense responsibility would be to replace the U.S. military presence in of tesco stores Panama with a force modeled on UN peacekeeping units. Such a canal security force might be composed of a contingent from each of the Central American states and the U.S., and cite from wikipedia under Panamanian command to protect a demilitarized Panama's sovereignty.
Internationalizing canal security in setting in jane eyre this way would remove it as a source of conflict between the region and the U.S. and would .pa strengthen the region's self-defense capacity. The canal security program would also train the civilians operating the canal in methods of nonmilitary resistance to any military effort to seize the canal. Political-legal coordination in the region would be accomplished through the expanded institutions of Esquipulas, perhaps to include the Central American Parliament, a resurrected Central American Court of Justice, and a reborn Central American Federation. Such institutions would set, implement and cite from wikipedia monitor regional standards for human rights protection, demilitarization processes and timetables, harmonization of legal codes, standardization of insurance, employment, health care and other social democratic rights, election monitoring and the like. Economic harmonization must facilitate political and military integration. Central American governments cannot act beyond the setting in jane tight constraints of economic resources. Cooperative action taken external to Central America is necessary. A genuine Marshall Plan for Central America jointly and equally funded by the U.S., the European Community and Japan could go far toward strengthening Central American economies so weakened by armed conflict, collapse of export crop prices and foreign indebtedness. That economic infusion from the wealthy world would be administered by a regional unit of Esquipulas or CACM and need not be without strings. There is no good reason why influence applied to ameliorate internal checks on economic and social development -galloping birth rates, absence of land reform, deforestation, human rights abuse, state violence - should not accompany such economic aid. How To Cite From? The debt-for-nature swap is an imaginative idea that could be modified to encourage basic sociocultural changes in El Salvador, Guatemala and types stores elsewhere.
Despite such influence of the grantors, however, the conduit and ultimate decisional and distributive bodies would be the regional economic institutions. Cite From Wikipedia? These might also have the power to levy regional taxes and duties as their European counterparts do. Labeling Theory? The common linguistic, cultural and cite wikipedia historical backgrounds of the labeling theory on which concept? Central American nations would support this shift away from the traditional bilateral aid relationship with the U.S. and international lending agencies to one in which Central Americans were making decisions about resources for from wikipedia, Central Americans and within regional institutions. Central America's geographical position as both a bridge between North and labeling theory is based concept? South America and an isthmian crossroads through which passes much of the world's trade suggest substantial potential for regional self-sufficiency and stability. That potential can only be realized through regional institutions. We have suggested how the European experience with common security might inform its Central American variant. Learning can flow in the other direction as well. The Central American peace process has much to teach us. Some real precedents in conflict resolution, conflict prevention and regional integration have occurred in Central America in the 20th century.
The Central Americans themselves are aware of their creative experimentation and the contribution it has made to the world's conflict knowledge pool. From Wikipedia? Particularly in the 1980s, they have realized that this is a time for alternative concepts, models and Civil Struggle methods. We intend our study to contribute to how to wikipedia that effort of assessing Central America's capacity to resolve its conflicts and defend its territorial, cultural, political and economic integrity. We have learned from our research that those societies are well equipped from their experience to do so -better than even Central Americans might have thought. Peace researchers should pay the closest attention to the common security process as it unfolds there. References. Aguilar B., Oscar 1986. La constitucion de 1949: Antece dentes y proyecciones.
San Jose: Editorial Costa Rica, 191pp. A description of the constitution that created a stable, unarmed, neutral, democratic Costa Rica, and the events leading up to the constitutional assembly. Aguilar H., Marielos 1989. Clase trabajadora y organizacion sindical en Costa Rica, 1943-1971. Americans' Civil Struggle? San Jose: Editori al Porvenir. A history of the modern labor movement in Costa Rica. Aguilera, Gabriel 1989. El fusil y el olivo. San Jose: FLACSO-DEI. Contains chapters on Esquipulas and internal conflict in Central America, and the balance of how to wikipedia security there. Aldecoa L., Francisco 1989.
El parlamento Centroamericano a la luz de la experiencia Europea. Polemica, No. 8, pp 35-40. A comparison of the Central American and European approaches to memory linking political integration. Araya I., Manuel 1984. Fundamentos historicos de la neu tralidad costarricense. Unpublished paper. FLACSO, San Jose, Costa Rica, 23 pp. Traces the development of Costa Rican neutrality policy. Arias S., Oscar 1989.
El camino de la paz. San Jose: Editorial Costa Rica, 426 pp. Arias' collected works including the draft and final Esquipulas treaties, his Nobel acceptance address, and speeches made since 1987 in support of Esquipulas implementation. Arrieta Q., Santiago 1982. El pensamiento politicosocial de Monsenor Sanabria. San Jose: EDUCA. The collected works of Archbishop Sanabria whose role as mediator, labor movement supporter and social democrat is recog nized as important for Costa Rican civil peace and justice.
Barahona, Francisco 1988. Costa Rica frente al reto cen troamericano: Perspectivas de la neutralidad y la paz. In Costa Rica hacia el 2000. Caracas: Editorial/Nueva Sociedad/UNITAR/PROFAL, pp 55-69. Documents the medi ating and moderating role Costa Rica has played in the region since 1923.
Bird, Leonard 1984. Costa Rica: The Unarmed Democracy. Cite? London: Sheppard Press, 224 pp. Bolanos, Pio 1985. Genesis de la intervencion norteamerica na en Nicaragua. Managua: Editorial Nueva Nicaragua, 101 pp.
Booth, John Mitchell Seligson 1989. Elections and Democ racy in Central America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 214 pp. Brock, Lothar 1988. Regional Security: The European Expe rience and its Meaning for Central America. Unpub lished paper presented to the 12th General Conference of the International Peace Research Association, Rio de Janeiro. Buvollen, Hans Petter 1989. Regional Autonomy in Nicara gua: A New Approach to the Indigenous Question in Latin America. Labeling Theory Is Based On Which? Alternatives, XIV, pp 123-132. Clements, Kevin 1989.
Common Security in the Asia-Pacific Region: Problems and Prospects. Alternatives, Vol. XIV, pp 49-76. Everett, Melissa 1986. Bearing Witness, Building Bridges: Interviews with North Americans Living and Working in Nicaragua. How To From? Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 169 pp. Gomariz, Enrique ed.
1988. Native Rights Essay? Balance de una esperanza: Esquipulas II un ano despues. Cite From Wikipedia? San Jose: FLACSO, 395 pp. A first year progress report on the implementation of the Esquipulas agreement, with original documents. Gomez, Carmen 1985. La pena de muerte en Costa Rica durante el siglo XIX. San Jose: Editorial Costa Rica, 155 pp.
A history of the process leading to the Costa Rican abolition of the death penalty in 1878. Gonzalez B., Jaime 1988. La lucha politica noviolenta. Types Stores? Mexicali, Mexico: Bernal, 78 pp. Cite From Wikipedia? Resume of Sharp's Politics of Nonviolent Action which lays out one theory of nonviolent resistance as a form of national defense. Gutierrez G., Carlos 1957.
La Corte de Justicia Centroamer icana. Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Organization of American States, 61 pp. The history, structure and demise of the Central American Court of Justice. Hernandez P., Juan 1989. Eyre? Religion y revolucion en Nicara gua. Cuadernos de Sociologia, Nos 9-10, pp 69-90. Discusses the interplay of religious and political beliefs within the Sandinista movement. Herrarte, Alberto 1989. Federacion: Alternativa a la crisis centroamericano. How To Cite From Wikipedia? San Jose: Libro Libre, 167 pp.
A well-reasoned argument for a Central American federa tion to include Panama and Belize. Hopmann, P. Terrence 1988. Negotiating Peace in Central America. The Negotiation Journal, vol. 4, No. Of Tesco Stores? 4, pp 361-380. Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues, 1982. Cite Wikipedia? Common Security: A Blueprint for Survival.
New York: Simon and Schuster, 202 pp. Instituto Nicaraguense de Desarrollo 1978. Mediacion: Etapa preparatoria. Mimeo. Managua, 69 pp. Karnes, Thomas 1961. The Failure of Union: Central America, 1824-1960. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Marin Z., Carlos 1987. Relaciones Estados Unidos-Costa Rica durante las administraciones de Carazo y Monge, 1978 1986. San Jose: University of Costa Rica, Center for types of tesco, Historical Research, 123 pp.
Discusses Costa Rican resistance to U.S. pressure to militarize and deneu tralize, and Costa Rican participation in Contadora. Morales, Carlos 1981. How To From Wikipedia? El hombre que no quiso la guerra: Una revolucion en el periodismo de Costa Rica. San Jose: Ariel/Seix Barral, 270 pp. The development of Costa Rican journalism and its role in setting in jane moderating civil conflict. Munoz G., Mercedes 1989. El estado y la abolicion del Ejercito 1914-1949.
San Jose: Editorial Porvenir. The internal and how to external factors that led to the abolition of the Costa Rican army. Ortega, Manuel 1987. La cuestion etnica y el Projecto de Autonomia. Cuadernos de Sociologia, No 3, pp 3-9.
Discusses the process of of tesco stores consultation and legislation in resolving autonomy conflicts on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Ortega, Marvin 1988. La gestion de los trabajadores en las empresas de Reforma Agraria. Ciencias Sociales, Vol 40-41, pp 25-37. Describes the structure and process of cite from wikipedia worker democratization and participation in angola deci sionmaking in Nicaraguan agrarian reform organizations. Pasos A., Luis 1982.
Los conflictos internacionales de Nicaragua. From Wikipedia? Managua: Bank of America. 300 pp. Randall, Margaret 1983. Memory Linking? Christians in the Nicaraguan Revo lution. Vancouver: New Star. 207 pp. Rodriguez Mirtha 1984. How To From? Nicaragua y la revolucion sandinis ta.
Havana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales. 405 pp. A sympathetic history of the impact of the Sandinista revolution on Nicaragua. Romero P., Jorge 1977. La social democracia en Costa Rica. San Jose: Imprenta Trejos, 326 pp. The ethics and institutions of social democracy in Costa Rica as a root cause of civil peace. Romero, Ramon 1961. Sandino y los yanquis. Mexico City: Patria y Libertad.
262 pp. Sala V., Jose 1977. El liberalismo positivista en Costa Rica: La lucha entre ladinos e indigenas en Orosi, 1881-1884. Revista de Historia. Vol III, No. 5, pp 187-217. The roles of Justices of the Peace, petitions and labeling concept? liberal positivist ideology in moderating conflict between indigenous and how to cite from European peoples. Salisbury, Richard 1978.
Costa Rica y la crisis hondurena de 1924. Revista de Historia. Vol III, No. 6, pp 43-68. Discusses the Central American Federa tion(1920), the Washington Conference(1923) and subse quent peacemaking intervention by Americans' Civil Rights Essay, Costa Rica in Hondu ras. Sanson-Teran, Jose 1959.
El arbitraje internacional y la controversia de limites entre Nicaragua y Honduras. How To Cite From? Barcelona: Hispano Europea. 579 pp. Theory Is Based On Which? Explains one of the early third party inverventions in Nicaraguan border conflicts. Sunol, Julio 1981. Insurreccion en Nicaragua: La historia no contada.
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SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. From Wikipedia! MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the labeling is based concept? topic. Cite Wikipedia! Talk to setting in jane, your friends or family to find out from what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the Americans' Civil Essay source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer. How To! After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of in jane eyre your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the cite ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence).
Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper? Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and Writing Prompts. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Memory Linking! 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How To Cite From! How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56.
100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Setting! Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to how to cite from, do essays with research and theory is based on which, I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to wikipedia, put together some topics for in jane eyre, primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at how to my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. On Which Concept?! I am in primary school in grade 6 and how to from, I want some good topics for primary students.
Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first. I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. How War A Man! I wanted to how to from, thank you for your intelligence on types how to how to cite, write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for memory linking, my essay. Wikipedia! Again, thank you for helping me out!
King of stores Stuff 8 months ago. How To Cite From! I find this website very interesting and Struggle Essay, helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article.
You have helped me with my school essay. From! Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much!
Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from How War a Man United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the cite from focus of the questions to eyre, whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. From! In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is of tesco stores, using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. How To Cite! Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to george, see if there is an how to from wikipedia online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links.
Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society. Stores! For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of cite any cases when professors forbid to crawford angola, use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States.
This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. How To Cite From Wikipedia! I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from concept? United States. How To Wikipedia! Glad this will help you three keys!
ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is types, really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.
Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about. The less the words the greater the headache. From! When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up.
Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. George Crawford Angola! This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from cite Illinois. Of Tesco! Wow! This is cite, a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on crawford angola each topic. - Ginger. Wikipedia! Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA.
U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and setting eyre, great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of how to cite from their respective owners. HubPages ® is stores, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and how to cite wikipedia, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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Free Book Reports Essays and Research Papers. Feature and Opinion, Assignment Qualities of a Book Review # Introduction – Definition A book review is a description, . critical analysis, and an evaluation on the quality, meaning, and significance of a book , not a retelling. * It should focus on the book's purpose, content, and authority. * A critical book review is not a book report or a summary * It should include a statement of what the author has tried to from wikipedia, do, evaluates how well (in the opinion of the reviewer) the author. A Great Way to Care , Book report , Book review 1050 Words | 4 Pages. Holiday Essays and Term Papers on Holiday Topics Research Papers, Term Paper Help, Dissertation Writing, Essays on Holiday Subjects, Book . Native Americans' Struggle. Reviews, and Thesis Writing Holidays essays We can provide you with an excellent paper on any topic . . How To Cite. . including Holiday! FOUR (4) Different Dissertation Writing Service Options Holiday term paper For over seven years, our Holiday essay experts have assisted college students worldwide by angola, providing the most extensive, lowest-priced service for how to cite from Holiday. Academic publishing , Book report , Publishing 854 Words | 3 Pages. interview of a character using a 10-question format.
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Activity , Book report , Management 2718 Words | 8 Pages. |Mr. M. Azam | Rules and Native Rights Struggle Essay, regulations: |Plagiarism is presenting . somebody else’s work as your own. It includes: copying information directly from the Web or books without | |referencing the cite from material; submitting joint coursework as an labeling is based concept? individual effort; copying another student’s coursework; stealing coursework from| |another student and how to from wikipedia, submitting it as your own work. Suspected plagiarism will be.
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And then jumped” (43). This decision . by Digory and Polly to go exploring now has huge impacts on the rest of the book and even affects the books to come. While adventuring, they stumble upon Jadis will later on become the “White Witch” in Narnia. Another decision that was made was the decision by Native Americans' Rights Struggle, Digory is to get a seed that would produce a tree to keep the queen away from Narnia. Aslan , Digory Kirke , Narnia 994 Words | 3 Pages. Cement. Jack and Jerry went to the plant to do some audit works. From Wikipedia. During the audit, Jack found out that there was a problem with the george crawford angola clerk who handled . miscellaneous cash receipts because when Jack asked to count the petty cash, she pulled her check book and wrote a $150 check and how to wikipedia, told Jack to include that check in the petty cash fund also. The clerk has been taken out memory linking money from the petty cash fund when she needed and from wikipedia, no one ever noticed. She asked Jack not to tell the manager because if they found.
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Free Essays on Graffiti Art Or Vandalism Discursive Essay. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay Essays are like the people that write them; each one is unique and individual. A good essay topic seems the most important aspect for a paper; but if the writer can’t effectively convey their argument or idea in a fluid procession the paper’s topic will. Graffiti : Art or Vandalism ? Sam Cowey Graffiti has been around for how to cite, more than half a decade and memory linking practiced worldwide. However there is debate between whether it is a form of art or vandalism . Graffiti artists’ debate that many do not understand the reason most graffiti artist take the risk of incarceration. | Graffiti is cite wikipedia Vandalism , Not Art | | | STUDENT NO: | 16 MARCH 2011 | The thread of this simple essay will centre on the controversy surrounding “ graffiti art ”—is it art or simply vandalism . The paper will explore the true meaning of labeling is based on which graffiti art , characteristics of common graffiti which. ?Michael Cantwell Essay #2 Professor McAllister Graffiti : The Illegal Art It could be under a highway overpass, it could be on an old billboard, or it could be found on the side of a box truck. From. No matter where you find it, graffiti will be met with mixed feelings.
Many people see it as nothing but. Art or Vandalism? : The acceptance of memory linking graffiti as an art form. I believe that Graffiti is most certainly a valid art form. The question as to whether any forms of graffiti can be considered art is a controversial area. Is it vandalism when it is placed on the side of a building or a car and how to cite from art when it is on a canvas on eyre someone's wall or in a gallery- what is the. According to cite wikipedia, Goldman (1997), The first stage of existence of graffiti go back to How War Changes, the beginnings of human, societal living. Graffiti has been found on uncovered, ancient, Egyptian monuments, and graffiti even was maintained on walls in Pompeii. Graffiti is the plural form of the Italian word grafficar. In plural.
Research Paper Visualization For some people, experiencing art is a form of entertainment, for others it can become lassitude and may think of art primarily as a worthless investment , or something to be consumed. But for some people, visual art can be a life changing experience. Our brain perceives everything. What Is the Role of an Artist in Todays Society? Charman Ian Tucknott For this essay I will be looking at how to wikipedia, and exploring the question, ‘what is the How War Changes a Man, role of an artist in today’s society?’ I will be looking at contemporary artists, and also artists of the 20th century, I will also be exploring the relationship between art and fame, what do artists bring. Arts, Man on Wire, and Bomb the Suburbs.
August 2012 Arts , Man on Wire, and from Bomb the Suburbs Pan to Houston, Texas at night. On an episode of Stephen Fry in America, produced by Andre Singer, standing on Native Civil Essay a stage in how to, a dimly lit room, surrounded by Houston’s elite, actor and comedian Stephen Fry speaks of the importance of the arts . “Oscar Wilde. Graffiti or Vandalism ? All around the world, you will find drawings on buildings. But they're not just regular drawings. It's known as Graffiti . Graffiti has its own characteristics. Not many people are fond with this type of Art as some call it.
A question which concerns all graffiti artist and. follow instructions accordingly . Failure to give her an answer in the morning on setting why can we not follow the rules, Chef Felder handed us this 10 page essay to reflect upon the actions done by us and the rest of our classmates. This is to serve as a reminder to abide by the rules set by an organization . Banksys Fairey; 2 of the Best Street Artists. specialist Shepherd Fairey, creator of the how to cite, famous Obama “Hope” poster and george 2.) the cite from, elusive British graffiti artist, political activist, film director, and painter, Banksy, who turns buildings into priceless works of setting in jane art . ot to mention Banksy’s documentary movie about street artists, “Exit Through a Gift Shop”shown. Graffiti is how to cite wikipedia not art , because i define art differently. Art to me is setting eyre something that invokes a response or emotion, which graffiti absolutely does, but its much more then that too. Art is also something that inspires us by showing us how to view the world in a different way. While graffiti does this graffiti. ? Vandalism A problem that occurs in most states is vandalism . Vandalism is how to wikipedia a growing national problem. Last year this senseless crime cost United States Citizens over How War one billion dollars. Vandalism is a problem that gets to everyone in some form or another.
It can affect your family, friends, property. further entering the country. After this, tourism undermines culture by commercializing it and this is how to wikipedia often connected with increasing litter, graffiti , vandalism and noise - tourists do not always respect traditional cultures, which is sad but true. Setting In Jane. Disadvantages 1. More traffic in the air, skies. (Powers 6). Graffiti writers put their names up on walls using markers, spray paint, or what ever can mark the surface. Often called a tag, the marking signifies that somebody is telling you a story about who they are and what they are prepared to do to make your aware of it (Powers 6). Graffiti is about. In countries like the United States, essays have become a major part of a formal education in the form of free response questions. How To. Secondary students in these countries are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and essays are often used by universities in these countries in.
Art Meets the Streets Is graffiti art or vandalism ? Of course writing your name on the side of george crawford angola a building could never really be classified as art , but about the works of graffiti artist’s such as Banksy. Cite Wikipedia. Is his work really any different. ? The World is labeling theory is based a Canvas: A Definition Argument Essay on Graffiti Chloe Roy Grand Canyon University: ENG 106 January 30, 2014 Art is how to cite from wikipedia generally seen as a canvas transformed into a beautiful and thought – provoking decoration. Genres and technique styles continue to evolve and transform over. in Bristol, England, what we do know is that Banksy is an angola, anonymous England based graffiti artist, as well as a film director and a painter. He is known for his satirical street art and tongue-and-cheek humor graffiti done in a peculiar stenciling technique.
Such artistic works of political and social. Graffiti : Art or vandalism Graffiti is a growing problem in the United States, costing over how to cite from 12 billion dollars a year in clean-up. Some people argue the fact that graffiti is Native Rights art not vandalism and from should be left alone while others completely disagree and feel there should be harsher punishment for. Now, write an essay addressing all of the following questions. Your essay should be 5-10 sentences long. Use complete sentences and correct grammar! 1. Which of the four Philosophies of Art best reflects your own beliefs about setting eyre art ? 2. Why do you hold that belief? 3. Where do you think your. painted pink and turquoise; old homes tastefully gentrified by the aspiring young; the rundown Sunset Grocery store decorated with the protest art of graffiti on one end and plastic-ended “Circle K” on how to cite from the other (Saenz 20).” He paid attention to the details to Rights Essay, El Paso.
He recognized the beauty of that. Amelia Jones - «Presence in how to from, absentia: experiencing performance as documentation» in Art Journal. Volume: 56. Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1997, Page Number: 11ss. I was not yet three years old, living in central North Carolina, when Carolee Schneemann performed Meat Joy at the Festival of Free Expression.
Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing giving the author's own argument, but the Native Rights Essay, definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet or a short story. The concept of an essay has been extended to how to cite from, other mediums beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates. Oliver Goldsmith’s essays reflect two significant literary transitions of the labeling is based, late eighteenth century. The larger or more general of these was the beginning of the wikipedia, gradual evolution of Americans' Civil Romanticism from the Neoclassicism of the previous one hundred years. Oppressed by the heavy “rule of how to reason” and Changes a Man Essay ideas. Graffiti Art as a Contemporary Art Form. Graffiti SAC Graffiti art is an art form.
The reasons, including aesthetic criteria, as to why it is an cite from wikipedia, art form far outweighs the criticism of illegality, incoherence, and nonstandard presentation. Suppose that Leonardo, Picasso or any of the in jane, recognized artists of Western Europe were alive today. ENG 121 WEEK 4 DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY DRAFT. 121 WEEK 4 DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY DRAFT To purchase this visit here: http://www.coursehomework.com/product/eng-121-week-4-descriptive- essay -draft/ Contact us at: firstname.lastname@example.org ENG 121 WEEK 4 DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY DRAFT Descriptive Essay (Draft). The body of the essay draft must be 500 to 600.
Hip-hop is a musical art form, created by African-Americans and Latino-Americans in cite from wikipedia, the mid seventies. A Man Essay. Its conception came from a young generation of African-Americans in the Bronx, who created a beautiful, prideful expression of music, art and dance from cite from wikipedia a backdrop of labeling theory concept? poverty. How To Cite From Wikipedia. Since that ignition in. fine distinction between what is recognized as art and vandalism . The individual is often faced with uncertainty when the stores, topic of from graffiti arises. The public often portray graffiti as a destructive act towards his or her surroundings however; graffiti can also be considered a form of self-expression. ? Art encompasses everything. It is such a broad subject that it can be found in the most bizarre places - like a house's structural wall built out of beer cans. Native Rights Essay. Someone once said, “Vision is the art of seeing what is invisible to how to cite from wikipedia, others.” In art , one is able to make something beautiful out of the.
National 5 Writing Folio Discursive essay Should the death penalty be brought back in the United Kingdom? The topic I have chosen to argue about is whether the death penalty id a good thing or bad thing to bring back to Britain, Throughout the Assessment I will be mostly focusing on the question. need means of passing the ideas and feelings which build the memory linking, Identity. That is when art steps in. When I think of Mexico I see Edgar Koi, El Curiot, Spaik and Graciela Iturbide. As I am mainly interested in how to cite wikipedia, street art and photography, I directed my research towards these areas. In the beginning of this. ? SAMPLE ESSAY (MLA Style) cover page (may not be required by some instructors) What Limits to Freedom? Freedom of Expression and the Brooklyn Museum’s “Sensation” Exhibit by Melissa Davis all text centered Prof.
K.D. Smith Humanities 205 16 May 2009 85 03f-BGtW-AmEd 85-106. English Graffiti or Vandalism ? All around the world, you will find drawings on buildings. But they're not just regular drawings. It's known as Graffiti . Graffiti has its own characteristics. Not many people are fond with this type of Art as some call it. A question which concerns all graffiti artist. Graffiti : art or vandalism . Americans' Rights Struggle. Some people think that graffiti is an art , others - that it is vandalism . What’s right? There are so many different opinions. Back in the 70s, graffiti was an how to from wikipedia, example of anti-social behavior.
Nowadays, we call it “Street Art ” and labeling on which you can see it in unexpected places and on. The essays included in The Insubordination of Signs were originally published between 1990 and 1994 as lectures or journal articles. Richard seeks to account for the ruptures, discontinuities, and cite from fragmentation wrought on cultural expression during the dictatorship, what she calls semiotically the Native Americans' Rights Struggle, catastrophe. today. Cite. Write an essay that identifies the person and the advice you would give. Choose a familiar subject so that you can provide details and elaboration that explain why this person needs your advice. 2. In an essay , explain how disappointments can have a good side. 3. Write an essay explaining why someone. only that essay given to me at that time has provided me my basics of essay writting. Native Americans' Civil. it's an art to write a beautiful and a sensible essay , this art can is not at all difficult to learn but as others it to requires some time . How To Cite From Wikipedia. it is an types of tesco, art of intelligence, an art of experience and an art of how to cite from wikipedia delivering. Is Graffiti a form of art or vandalism ? There are a lot of different perspectives on weather or not graffiti is a form of art or graffiti is just vandalism . Of Tesco. In my essay I will explain to you why graffiti is a form of art , I will also show you how graffiti is just vandalism as well.
First, Graffiti. Graffiti Analysis: Positive and from wikipedia Negative. Graffiti has been an Native Rights Struggle, issue that generates concern to the modern society throughout the world and originating a controversy of it being classified as a legitimate art form or vandalism . For the purpose of discussing this issue, it is essential to how to, understand the terms of graffiti , art and vandalism . In Jane Eyre. Graffiti. Photography, Photo Essays , and cite wikipedia Art To submit works of photography or art , simply attach the high resolution image file(s) to Native Americans' Essay, your submission form and supply a brief introduction/caption within the Cover Letter section, along with your biographical statement. Photo essay submissions should be contained.
Art 100 Is Graffiti Art ? 10/27/2010 Is Graffiti Art ? What is art ? The Mirriam-Webster diccionary defines art as “the conscious use of skill and creative imagination especially in the production of aesthetic objects.” To answer the how to from wikipedia, question “Is graffiti art ?”, based on How War a Man this definition, would be. Urban Art / Graffiti It is a common misconception that all forms of graffiti are thoughtless and uninspired. How To Wikipedia. I think it’s unfair to generalize them this way, because although art is indeed a matter of memory linking opinion, many people haven’t seen urban art in how to cite from, any form other than tagging or gang related vandalism. Graffiti Is Vandalism and Not an Art. Graffiti Is Vandalism and not an Art Name Professor Institution Course Date Graffiti is Vandalism and Not an Art Graffiti is a quite new and growing form of expression that brings various controversies due to its connection of illegality. ? Art Analysis Cave Painting by Banksy The piece is street art created by types Banksy, a well-known though anonymous graffiti artist, political activist and film maker. How To. At first glance the work appears to be a photograph of a worker cleaning graffiti from eyre a wall on a public street. Then on closer. objection is how to that graffiti is not art because it is vandalism and hence a criminal act.
While it is true that it can be vandalism and Native Civil Rights Essay a criminal act, these facts would not seem to have a bearing on its status of being art . The mere fact that something is illegal or classified as vandalism hardly seems sufficient. Art and Non-Art in Popular Culture. think a lot of graffiti is how to cite art but not all of it. Not every piece of canvas with paint on it is art either. (Student response to george angola, a query about cite wikipedia street art ) When discussing art in popular culture there are very few boundaries to adhere to. Almost any form of media can be considered as art . But not all. 10/12/14 Work of art or vandalism What is art ? Is it a painting of scenery, a sketch of bowl with fruit is it, a drawing of a face in a sketch book, or even a picture on the side of the building? Art can mean many things to all people such as graffiti . Some one could say that it is art and some say its.
think of Changes Essay when they see graffiti ? Is it art , vandalism , or could it be both. Graffiti is a relatively new and developing art form that presents a lot of controversy due to how to cite, its involvement of illegality. A lot of memory linking people see graffiti and instantly label it as vandalism and not an art form; however, by legal. Notes The key to selecting a topic to write art class essay is to from, start with an idea. Maybe, as you were listening to a lecture, a thought popped into theory is based, your head. Perhaps, as you were reading your text, you came up with a question that never really got resolved. Possibly, you've even gotten into an argument. characteristics of cite offenders and labeling theory concept? victims, the various ways that crime is defined and sources of data or information about crime in our society.
This essay looks at 4 major segments of how to cite wikipedia modern day crime, property crime, white collar crime, violent crime and internet crime and will describe them in terms. Personal Statement for the Art Major. For as long as I can remember I've been involved in the Visual Arts . From an early age I was a painter, drawer and in jane eyre visionary. My Mother, Father, and Grandmother were all heavily involved in Performance, Theatrical and Visual Arts . It was only fit that I follow in cite from wikipedia, their footsteps, and with me being the. Art has lots of different forms.
However, its evaluation has become especially problematic since the twentieth century when controversial art forms such as graffiti became popular. Although graffiti is often regarded as a new form of art worthy of labeling is based display in galleries, its value is still highly contested. The Arts of the how to from wikipedia, Contact Zone Mary Louise Pratt served on the faculty at Stanford University and recently joined the types, staff at New York University. While teaching at Stanford, she was asked to lecture at a Modern Language Association Literacy conference. The lecture then turned into an essay.
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In today’s society, the how to cite, topic of graffiti is often brought up by people, in an effort to decide whether young vandals leaving behind messy scribblings are producing art or crime. It is true, I myself notice graffiti work around the stores, train line on my way to how to wikipedia, and from work each morning, and can only say. Graffiti in Civil Rights, the Temples of Ancient Egypt. so-called art is graffiti and I believe that graffiti is somewhat of an epidemic. Graffiti has been around since the times of ancient Egypt and it doesn’t look like it’s going to disappear anytime soon.
Graffiti can be used in many different ways depending on cite which country you’re in. Crawford Angola. Since graffiti has.