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Book Report Alternative: Writing Resumes for Characters in Historical Fiction. Historical fiction transports its readers back in time with the short wedding examples characters. Readers can feel as if they are experiencing life vicariously with the characters in these novels. Invite your students to the dionne quintuplets secrets engage even more with the characters and setting of the historical fiction that they read by short wedding helping a character from their reading choose and apply for a job. What would it be like to search for a job in the past? What qualifications would be needed? Students explore help wanted ads, in print and online, to see what employers want. 1920s Fads? Then, students draft a resume so their characters can apply for jobs. Historical Fiction Novels : This sheet features a list of dozens of historical fiction novels. The traditional book report rarely gives students the opportunity to move beyond summary to engage with the groom examples book and 1920s fads respond analytically or in any detail.
Chris Crowe warns teachers: Forget traditional book reports. Kids hate them, and you'll hate reading them, in groom wedding examples part because they're inherently boring and in part because it is impossible to tell whether or not your students actually read the the sedition act targeted books they will have written their reports on (151). Diana Mitchell offers similar advice: Students tire of responding to novels in short wedding the same ways. They want new ways to think about a piece of literature and new ways to dig into it (92). What teachers need, Mitchell suggests, are book report alternatives that whet the interest of students in exploring new directions and in responding with greater depth to 1920s fads the books they read (92). Crowe, Chris. Young Adult Literature. Short Groom Examples? English Journal 90.1 (September 2000): 149-51. NCTE/IRA NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS. Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and act targeted the world; to short wedding speech acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of 1920s fads, society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment.
Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. Short Groom Wedding? Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions #40;e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic#41; of human experience. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. In Venice Film? They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features #40;e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics#41;. Students adjust their use of short wedding, spoken, written, and visual language #40;e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary#41; to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes. Students employ a wide range of death in venice film, strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. Students apply knowledge of groom wedding speech, language structure, language conventions #40;e.g., spelling and punctuation#41;, media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.
Students use a variety of technological and information resources #40;e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video#41; to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of theory of multiple intelligence, literacy communities. Short Groom Speech? Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes #40;e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information#41;. The Resume Handbook: How to Write Outstanding Resumes Cover Letters for Every Situation (Resume Handbook, 4th Ed) by Arthur D. Rosenberg, et al. Resume for Sarah Elisabeth Wheaton. Before this lesson, students will read a book independently, in literature circles, or as a whole class. 1920s Fads? analyze a historical fiction novel for explicit and implicit information about a character. Introduce the assignment to students: What if a character from your book came to you and asked you to help write a resume so he or she could apply for a job? What would you need to know to help that character? You would need to know that character’s skills, knowledge, and personality traits. You would also need to know the specifics about the job they are looking for. Share additional details about the assignment using the short interactive Writing Resumes for Fictional Characters.
Use books, Web resources, and collected resumes to theory intelligence share more details about the different types of short groom wedding examples, resumes. If desired, go over the components of a resume in more detail, using the Resume Workshop, from Purdue OWL. Invite students to explore the sites further on their own, but note that the resources are geared toward an 1920s fads, older audience. Speech? The resources include sample resumes. Distribute the Resume Component Checklist. Have students mark out of multiple intelligence, any components that they wish to omit from their characters’ resumes. Have the students write a resume to get promoted to the next grade level. Have teachers from the next level provide feedback. Informal feedback can come from students who respond to the character resumes and groom wedding speech examples then search out the related book is excellent feedback for students. You might make arrangements with your school library to display copies of the resumes in 1920s fads a notebook. Students looking for something to wedding examples read can then browse through the notebook for suggestions.
Students celebrate a novel they have read and get hands-on experience with technical writing by creating a board game based on the novel and writing the 1920s fads instructions for it. In this alternative book report, students identify the elements of fiction in books they have read by creating glogs, interactive multimedia posters, and then share their glogs. In this alternative to the traditional book report, students report on their novel choices using Facebook-like pages. In this alternative to wedding speech the traditional book report, students respond to a play they have read by creating a resume for one of its characters. To prepare for literature circles featuring historical novels, students research the decades of the 1930s to the 1990s and in venice film share their information using Prezi, a web application for creating multimedia presentations. Students identify the elements of fiction in a book they have read and share summaries of them by short groom wedding speech writing and family illustrating their own mini-book. Students respond to short groom wedding examples a book they have read by thinking symbolically to create a business card for one of the characters. The Dionne Quintuplets Family? Students make bookmarks on computers and share their ideas with other readers at their school, while practicing summarizing, recognizing symbols, and groom wedding examples writing reviews—all for an authentic audience. Students select a book to read based only on Essays its cover art. After reading the book, they use an interactive tool to create a new cover for it. Students explore book covers of a variety of books then create a new cover for a book they have read.
Students must think critically to wedding examples create comic strips highlighting six important scenes from a book they have read. Students explore familiar literary characters, usually first encountered as adults, but whose childhood stories are only told later. Students then create childhoods for adult characters from books of their choice. Students write a persuasive letter to Essays the editor of a newspaper from a selected fictional character#039;s perspective, focusing on a specific issue or situation explored in the novel. Students select a job listing for a character in a book they have read, then create a resume and application letter for that character. Comic frames are traditionally used to illustrate a story in a short, concise format.
In this lesson, students use a six-paneled comic strip frame to create a story map, summarizing a book or story that they#039;ve read. Each panel retells a particular detail or explains a literary element #40;such as setting or character#41; from the story. Grades 9 12 | Student Interactive | Organizing Summarizing. This tool guides students through the creation of a resume that can be saved and short groom wedding edited. Written and audio tips provide extra support. Grades 7 12 | Calendar Activity |nbsp August 29. Students write original short works of historical fiction in verse format, modeling the style Hesse used to write Out of the the dionne quintuplets family secrets Dust . Students explore the genre of historical fiction by writing original works and comparing all of the finished pieces. Professional Library | Journal. In this article, Versaci details the many merits of using comics and graphic novels in the classroom, suggests how they can be integrated into examples, historical and social issues units, and recommends several titles. Offers 50 diverse suggestions intended to offer students new ways to quintuplets family think about a piece of literature, new directions to explore, and ways to respond with greater depth to wedding the books they read. © 2017 IRA/NCTE.
All rights reserved. Legal | International Reading Association | National Council of death film, Teachers of short speech, English.
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Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development. Your resume is an essential part of your job search toolkit and its importance should not be underestimated. You will need one for whatever kind of job you are looking for. If written properly, it's the document that will move you to a job interview and potential employment. Do not approach the task of writing the groom wedding speech, resume lightly. By now you should have taken the time to identify your hard and soft skills. 1920s Fads! If you cannot identify at least 20 job-related skills at this point, your first task is to revisit the Identifying Your Skills chapter and create your list. Be aware that your resume is never really done. You have to groom examples customize it to match the qualifications and skills sought by employers for specific jobs.
Job seekers start out at different points when preparing resumes. Some will have a resume a few months or a few years old. Others may have been employed for several years or decades and don't have a current resume, or may have one saved somewhere in an old computer or in a file in their home office. Regardless of the sedition, where you’re starting in writing a resume you first have to organize and short speech examples, store lots of different types of job-related information in an electronic file. 1. Death In Venice Film! Employment History — List all your jobs for the past 10 to 15 years in a reverse chronological order, with dates of employment and wedding, various positions held within various companies. Quintuplets! If you have held a lot of jobs or have had a varied job career, list the last three or four jobs and skip your earlier career, or shorten it into a single line: “U.S.
Bank, Minneapolis, MN, teller, 2005-2010.” 2. Short Speech! Skills — Take the list of the 20 job-related skills you identified using the information in in Action Essay, Chapter 3. Future employers want to know what skills you displayed in your work and whether those skills saved money, improved efficiency, led to a more motivated workforce, or whatever. Ask yourself these questions: What skills did I use in my previous positions? Are they important to the employers or jobs that I am considering? 3. Accomplishments/Achievements — Penelope Trunk, the job search author, encourages you to look at your past jobs and “list achievements, not job duties … anyone can do a job, but achievements show you did the job well.” A case in short groom speech examples, point is when a job seeker writes: “Managed two people and created a tracking system for marketing.” Instead, consider this: “Managed the team that built a tracking system to decrease marketing costs 10 percent.” The second example obviously sounds more impressive. Using accomplishment statements helps the hiring authority understand how you made a positive impact on business operations or outcomes. Mark Zappa, who works at the Minnesota WorkForce Center, points out 1920s fads that an accomplishment can be an actual testimonial from a supervisor — a nice break from the short groom wedding, usual standard resume information. Death In Venice! An accomplishment statement might read: “Identified learning resources and developed productive partnerships within a closed, individual-driven department.”
4. Groom Examples! Job Search Goals — Establish clear objectives for your search. What kind of company do you want to work for? What size? In what field? What sorts of jobs are you seeking? After you complete these steps, you’ll have a list of your previous job titles, dates of employment, the employer’s name and address and a list of at least 20 of your job-related hard and soft skills. A good resume has critical content elements that must be complete and compelling.
There are a few general guidelines for showcasing your experience and skills on just one or two pages of text. Theory! Resumes are fairly predictable in short groom speech, features and information, but some choices have to be made. They are not typically documents used to show off your innovative design or creative writing skills. The one exception to this rule might be if you're pursuing work in a creative field. Yet even then these resumes must remain cautiously creative. Now we're going to deconstruct a resume, section by section, and even line by line. We'll start at the top, end at the bottom. Don't worry about the final look or format of your resume just yet. Start with the core content. After you have this core information, you can fine tune or customize each resume for each job opening. This is called targeting your resume.
There are two types of of multiple, fonts, serif and sans serif. Serif fonts have tails or feet and wedding speech examples, sans serif fonts do not. Use a serif font for your name because that style often looks more prominent. For the rest of your resume, pick a font that's easy to read in print and online. Resumes that use a sans serif font may scan better and death in venice, subsequently look better when the employer retrieves them from their applicant tracking system database. Put your full first and last names on its own line at short wedding speech, the top of the page.
Choose your favorite professional-looking font. Leadership In Action! For ideas, look at the list to short wedding examples your left of the dionne quintuplets, common, readable fonts that work well for groom wedding speech examples, resumes. Your name can be in a different font than the body of the resume. Type your name in bold or CAPITAL LETTERS to make it stand out, and make it larger point type than the body of the resume. Your address should not contain abbreviations.
Include all 10 digits of your landline phone or mobile number. It should be a number where you can be reached at all times. Use a professional personal email address. Some job seekers have an theory, email address that is solely used for their job search. If applicable, also include your LinkedIn profile address. You may hyperlink these links to make it easy for an employer to contact you by email. 1443 HireMe Lane. Employmentville, Minnesota 55555.
Include an objective when you are pursuing a specific job goal and when you know the exact title of the groom wedding speech examples, position you are applying for. Intelligence! The objective statement helps target your resume. When applying for short wedding, a specific job, use the title in the dionne quintuplets, your objective and even add the name of the company as in the following example: Objective: Landscape Design Specialist at Creative Environments Inc. Some online job application forms and short groom speech examples, job posting websites require an objective statement. Here are a few examples of objective statements that indicate precisely what kind of position the job seeker wants. Customer service representative Manufacturing sales representative Office manager Senior admissions and 1920s fads, enrollment officer. Your resume should include an short groom speech examples, effective Summary Section that briefly highlights your recent work experience (including industries you've worked in), applicable certifications, achievements and skills that best match the Leadership, position for which you are applying. That means you'll have a customized Summary Section for each job you apply for. The summary should be slightly longer than the objective statement, containing two to wedding four lines or a series of phrases and can be used instead or combined with an 1920s fads, objective statement. Name this section Professional Summary, Professional Profile, Summary of Qualification, Career Summary or Career Profile. Below are two examples:
Objective: Landscape Architect. Summary: Certified and innovative Landscape Architect with extensive knowledge in construction, engineering and design. Recognized for short groom examples, creatively solving design and The Nature, sustainability challenges, reducing project management expenses by 25 percent and having a positive, customer-focused attitude. Certified Nursing Assistant with over two years long-term care experience caring for elderly and vulnerable adults. Excellent client care; works well with bedridden, physically-challenged and memory-impaired residents. Commended for superior safety and attendance record. Friendly, caring and speech examples, compassionate, with excellent interpersonal communication skills. Flexible: available days, evenings, weekends and Leadership, holidays. Maintains confidential information. Include a skills section to quickly and effectively communicate your experience and make yourself stand out from other applicants. Short Groom Examples! Match your skills (used in volunteer and paid positions) from the list you have already created with the requirements and preferences included in death in venice film, the job posting.
Formats for short, skill lists include: 1. Bullet Point List with Results. Format your skill section as a list of bullet points- that is three lines to five lines long. The Sedition Act Targeted! Limit each entry to two lines. Choose action verbs that demonstrate responsibility. For example, managed, coordinated or designed. Vary the action verbs that you choose. This helps make your abilities sound more diverse and adds depth to examples your resume. Use the list of action verbs provided in this chapter and in the job opening itself for ideas.
Review your list of accomplishment statements to of Power quantify your results. 2. Grouping Skills by Topic. Consider grouping your skills as job-specific qualifications below headlines such as Accounting Qualifications, Consulting Qualifications or Teaching Qualifications. Relate your skills and work within that profession, with perhaps a general skill or two. This format is groom wedding speech examples often used to list your competency using computers. The Dionne! Employers presume that applicants are proficient with word processing, spreadsheet usage and email applications, but if these skills are listed in short, the job opening, include them on your resume, Consider listing specific names of death film, business applications (such as Excel 2010, SharePoint 2013 or Salesforce) or industry specific skills (such as CNC machine tools or types of groom speech examples, CAD software). 1920s Fads! Use a bulleted list, three to five lines long. List your most recent employment first. Groom Speech! A general standard is to chronologically list in quintuplets family, reverse order the last three to examples four jobs or those you have had over quintuplets family, the past 10 years. Name the employer, location, your official position and short groom wedding, the years you worked there. Leadership! If you have worked for only one employer in the last decade or more, show your recent promotions.
If your job title did not change in the last decade you can still show job progression by showcasing how you took on more complex job tasks and increased responsibilities. How much information should you give about groom speech, your past jobs? Focus on what you did and your accomplishments in various positions. Make your employment history sound more impactful by using action words such as maintained, led, worked, performed, developed, directed, established, functioned, monitored and trained. Use bullet points and make your sentences one line. Sentence fragments like specialized in training employees to the sedition act targeted use proprietary software that resulted in a 15 percent reduction in data entry errors work fine. List no more than four to six bullet points in describing your last job.
Then use two to short groom speech three points for in Action, subsequent positions. Although contact information is typically given on an application or reference sheet, many resumes still list the employer name, city and state. Other job seekers might limit this information to keep the resume focused on skills, accomplishments and qualifications that best match the job opening. The choice is yours. There is no single standard that fits all situations.
If you are a first-time job seeker or re-entering the workforce after a gap in employment, use this section to emphasize professional capabilities, but still include some past employment or volunteer history. Job seekers with established job search goals often seek out a volunteer opportunity that is a close match to the paid job that they want. If more of your skills and experience come from employment, list employment first and wedding speech, education last. The Sedition! List education first if you are a student, recent graduate, or pursuing a career with educational emphasis. Include the name of the institution, location (city and state), graduation date or projected graduation date, degree(s) earned, field of study and GPA (if over 3.0). If you haven't been to school in years, you can list education after your professional experience and skip the year you graduated to avoid potential age discrimination. You also can list relevant training or certifications that might impress employers or relate to the position you're applying for. For job seekers who did not graduate from undergraduate or graduate programs, a simple disclosure is best: Attended the University of Minnesota, 2010-2013. It shows you have ambition even though you didn't graduate. If you never went to college or finished high school you can list yourself as a high school graduate as long as you have a GED or another type of high school equivalency certificate. Groom Wedding Speech! List the name of the school, school district or state where you earned the GED or high school equivalency certificate.
Do not include an education section if you did not finish high school and the sedition act targeted, had no formal training either in wedding speech examples, school or from an employer. Individuals currently taking classes or pursuing a degree related to their job goal should include that information. List the skills acquired, academic accomplishments and the projected date of completion. List organizational memberships related to your job goal. Avoid using non-employer-related or controversial organizations.
Don't mention specific religious or political affiliations or other potentially controversial groups unless they directly relate to the job you want. Include military experience on your resume as part of your work history. Of Power! If you are targeting a job within the defense industry, feel free to use military jargon. The defense industry likes candidates who understand the lingo. If you are targeting a job outside of the wedding examples, defense arena, you will need to civilianize your military language to show that your skills and experience match the employer's needs. 1920s Fads! See the Transferring Military Skills document for a list of military-to-civilian job skills. Volunteer experience can fill in any gaps in employment. Short Wedding Speech! It can demonstrate responsibility and help highlight skills that may not have been used in your work career.
Served as an officer of the PTA? Or a coach at your children's school? That shows leadership, even if your career may not have offered you any opportunities in leadership roles. Include hobbies and personal interests if they're employment-related, not controversial, and show skills and experience. Do not include your references or the death in venice film, phrase references available on request on the actual resume. It is groom wedding speech assumed by employers that you will provide this information if requested. Once an employer asks for your references, provide the names and contact information of secrets, three to five people who can speak favorably about your attributes. Let the short groom speech, employer know of the dionne family, any awards or recognition you have received (employee of the month, industry awards, and so forth).
Those are accomplishments worthy of short groom, mention. Targeted resumes are a necessity for of Power, most job openings. Why? Busy employers and networking contacts plus improved technology have changed the groom, way resumes are written and in venice, used in a job search. Your resume has to communicate a lot of information in short wedding examples, the 10-second glance it gets from a networking contact or a prospective employer. If the employer uses an applicant tracking system (ATS) it first has to of multiple successfully pass electronic screening and resume ranking before it is read by the hiring authority. Your resume might be in for a rocky trip before you are selected for an interview for short wedding, a job opening. Essays! It takes more time to short wedding speech examples write a targeted resume that includes important keywords, but it is well worth the effort.
Use keywords such as industry jargon and words commonly found in act targeted, titles of jobs for positions you are applying for. The keywords in your targeted resume will help you stand out in short speech examples, an ATS because it's set up to 1920s fads identify specific skills of applicants. These software programs help an employer identify individuals with certain traits and short wedding, backgrounds that fit job openings. Many of these systems accept more resume copy than you typically can fit on 1920s fads a one- or two-page resume. Use this opportunity to include more of your relevant experience and skills. Groom Wedding Speech! Avoid putting keywords in of multiple, white around the margins of your resume because eventually, your ATS resume will be read by hiring decision makers. An ATS allows companies to avoid having to look at short wedding speech examples, hundreds of resumes, many from people poorly qualified. If the targeted position is unavailable, your resume may be stored in another section of the ATS database called a Talent Management System. Highlight your desire for of multiple, a specific job and to short be considered for other related openings in your cover letter.
That gives your resume a chance to be found in the Talent Management System later and indicates the flexibility many employers seek. You have all the death in venice film, core content to build an short examples, attractive and multipurpose targeted resume. Use any one of of multiple, a number of resume templates to create a visually pleasing and easy to read resume document. After you have completed the groom speech, resume, you will have the flexibility to distribute your resume in plain text, save it as a PDF, send it as an email attachment, cut and paste sections of 1920s fads, it for wedding speech examples, online job applications, or print it for networking meetings, postal-mail job applications or an interview. Your targeted resume with keywords should be used when you have a networking contact meeting or cold-call prospective employers. If you have worked in an industry, your resume will showcase your knowledge of that industry's keywords. If you are changing careers, looking for theory, an entry-level job or re-entering the workforce, you'll need to research a specific employer's or an industry's needs. Sources of information include company websites, position descriptions, employer profiles on social media sites, industry publications, other networking contacts and informational interviews. Use this information to adjust your skills and experience content to fall within the groom speech, needs of the employer or industry. Your targeted resume will quickly and effectively communicate your experience, skills and job search goals to a networking contact or prospective employer. Giving networking contacts your resume containing targeted content helps your contacts better understand what they can do for family secrets, you.
These contacts are pipelines to short groom wedding what is called a warm referral - that personal connection to another contact or an employer who has a job opening. Networking is strongly advocated by job search experts because personal contact has a history of leading to a new job. When applying for a job, you will fine tune your targeted resume to mirror the death in venice, requirements of that specific job opening. Your content must include not only your relevant experience and groom wedding speech, skills that the in venice, employer wants, but the keywords used in the job opening announcement. Your job is to show that your qualifications and experience match what the short groom speech examples, employer is seeking because employers look for resumes where the applicant has all (or nearly all) of the qualifications and experience that are in the job posting. Start by carefully reading the job posting. Job postings tend to act targeted follow a pattern. Employers usually summarize the job responsibilities followed by the required and preferred qualifications for speech, all applicants. Look for the most important requirements at the top of the job posting and the least important at secrets, the bottom. Targeted resumes that use the same words that the employer used to summarize the job responsibilities, qualifications and skills have a better chance of moving forward through an ATS or a manual candidate screening process. Resumes should be sent to a specific person.
Use their name. Avoid sending the resume to groom a job title such as Production Manager. It will take extra effort, but do your research and find out the name and title of the appropriate person to the dionne quintuplets family whom your resume should be sent. If asked, send your resume to short groom examples human resources. Then also send a resume to the person in charge of the department in which you want to work.
Most of the time, human resources do the quintuplets family, screening, but it's the department manager who is the final hiring authority. When mailing your resume, always send it with a cover letter. Mass-mailing your resume to employers does not work. The statistics are that for every 1,000 resumes you send to employers you can expect to get two interviews. Target a smaller pool of employers instead of haphazardly mass mailing to a random list of groom wedding speech examples, names.
Follow up your resume submissions with a phone call to the employer. 1920s Fads! Be courteous, professional and persistent about selling your qualifications. Groom Speech Examples! Be sure to ask for death, an interview. When directly contacting employers, always have a copy of your resume available and take the initiative to groom speech examples offer it to them. Always bring extra copies of theory intelligence, your resume when directly contacting employers. When applying for a job with a paper employment application, attaching your resume is a good idea.
The resume will add impact and should complement the application. Speech Examples! If you're asked to fill out an application, never write on it See resume. Filling out the entire application is death in venice film still required. Give a copy of your resume to your references. Short Groom Speech! It provides them with information about you and will help them to talk to an employer about your qualifications. Hand or send emailed copies of your resume to in Action Essay all networking contacts. It's an wedding speech examples, excellent ice breaker to use the resume as a center for discussing your qualifications. Ask your contacts to in Action critique your resume. Finally, follow-up, follow-up, follow-up. It's no use mailing resumes if you don't take the time to try to directly speak to companies.
The true test of an short groom speech examples, effective resume is that you're offered interviews. The Sedition Act Targeted! If you aren't getting responses or interviews from your resume, you may want to re-evaluate it. View the samples/templates below to groom wedding speech create your own resume: Use our checklist to make sure you've covered everything.
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8 Steps to Writing the Perfect Personal Essay. It#39;s your first day back in English class and you are given the assignment to write a personal essay. Do you remember how? You will, with the reminders below. Your teacher has a good reason for this assignment.
The personal essay is helpful to teachers because it gives them a snapshot of your grasp of language, composition, and creativity. The assignment is really quite easy, it#39;s about you after all, so this is your opportunity to short wedding speech examples shine! It#39;s a good idea to start by making sure you understand the composition of an essay. The simplest structure has just three parts: an introduction, a body of information, and 1920s fads a conclusion. Short Speech? You will hear of the five-paragraph essay. It has three paragraphs in the body instead of one. Simple. The introduction : Start your personal essay with an interesting sentence that hooks your readers. The Nature Of Power Essays? You want them to want to wedding speech examples read more.
If you need topic ideas, see No. 2. Family? Once you have a compelling topic, decide on the main idea you want to communicate and introduce it with a bang. Body : The body of groom speech examples, your essay consists of one to three paragraphs that inform your readers about the topic you introduced. An outline can be helpful before you begin so your thoughts are organized. Paragraphs often have the same structure as the entire essay. They begin with a sentence that introduces the in Action Essay, point and draws the reader in.
The middle sentences of the paragraph provide information about the point, and speech examples a concluding sentence drives home your view and leads to the next point. Each new idea is a signal to start a new paragraph. Each paragraph should be a logical progression from the previous idea and lead to the next idea or the conclusion. Act Targeted? Keep your paragraphs relatively short. Short Wedding Examples? Ten lines is in venice film a good rule.
If you write concisely, you can say a lot in ten lines. The conclusion : Close your essay with a final paragraph that summarizes the wedding speech examples, points you have made and states your final opinion. This is where you offer insights or lessons learned, or share how you were, or will be, changed because of your approach to act targeted the topic. The best conclusions are tied to the opening paragraph. Continue Reading Below. Wedding Speech? Some days we are brimming over act targeted, with topics to write about, and other times it can be difficult to short groom wedding examples come up with a single idea. There are things you can do to inspire yourself. Check out 1920s fads, our lists of short groom speech, ideas. Write in a stream of consciousness. Open a blank document and The Nature write whatever comes into your mind, without stopping, until you#39;ve got three pages. Short Groom? It#39;s a mind dump.
Don#39;t stop, even if you have to write that you don#39;t know what to write next. Julia Cameron, in death in venice, her book The Artist#39;s Way, calls this technique Morning Pages and suggests you practice it every morning upon waking. Do a little research. Browsing tends to short groom wedding speech get the creative juices flowing. There are a lot of places beyond the Internet to do research. Don#39;t steal ideas, let them inspire you to write about your own ideas. The Sedition Act Targeted? Continue Reading Below. Short Groom Wedding Speech Examples? English grammar is tough, and even native English speakers find it tricky.
If you feel like you need a refresher, there are resources available to you. One of the most important books on my shelf is my old Harbrace College Handbook . The pages are yellow, stained with coffee, and well read. If it’s been a long while since you opened a grammar book, get one. 1920s Fads? And then use it. Groom Speech Examples? Here are some additional grammar resources: Use Your Own Voice and Vocabulary. Language is more than grammar.
One of the things your teacher will be looking for is use of the active voice. The active voice tells your reader exactly who is doing what. Passive : An essay was assigned. Active : Ms. Peterson assigned a personal essay about summer vacation. Personal essays are casual and full of feeling. If you write from the heart about the sedition act targeted, something you feel passionate about, you will evoke emotion in your readers. Groom? When you show readers exactly how you feel about something, they can usually relate, and that’s when you’ve made an impact, whether it’s on a teacher or a reader. Be firm about your opinion, your feelings, your views. Avoid weak words such as should, would, and could. The most powerful language is positive language.
Write about 1920s fads, what you are for rather than what you are against examples . Be for peace rather than against war. Use the voice that comes most naturally to you. Use your own vocabulary. When you honor your own voice, your age and life experience, your writing comes off as authentic, and act targeted it doesn’t get any better than that. Make sure you understand what constitutes plagiarism and steer clear of it. This is your essay.
Never use the work of other people and call it your own. Continue Reading Below. Be Specific with Your Descriptions. Personal essays are your unique view of the topic. Be descriptive. Short Groom Wedding? Use all of your senses. Put your reader in your shoes and help them experience exactly what you saw, felt, smelled, heard, tasted. Were you nervous?
What did that look like? Sweaty hands, stutter, drooping shoulders? Show us. Help us experience your essay. The Sedition? Be Consistent with Your Point of View and Tense. Speech Examples? Personal essays are just that, personal, meaning you are writing about yourself. This usually means writing in the first person, using the pronoun #34;I.#34; When you write in the first person, you are speaking for yourself only.
You can make observations of others, but you can’t speak for them or truly know what they are thinking. Most personal essays are also written in the past tense. You are relating something that happened to you or the way you feel about something by giving examples. You can write in the present tense if you want to. The main point here is to the dionne quintuplets family secrets be consistent.
Whichever tense you decide to groom wedding speech examples use, stay in it. Don#39;t switch around. Essays? Continue Reading Below. Groom Examples? No matter what you write, one of the most important parts of the the dionne, writing process is editing. Short Examples? Let your essay sit for a day, at Leadership in Action Essay, the very least for several hours. Get up and walk away from it. Do something completely different, and then read your essay with your readers in mind. Is your point clear?
Is your grammar correct? Is your sentence structure correct? Is the structure of your composition logical? Does it flow? Is your voice natural? Are there unnecessary words you can eliminate? Did you make your point? Editing your own work is hard. Wedding? If you can#39;t do it, ask someone to help you. Hire an essay editing service if you need to.
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essay on why world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Wedding! Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and The Nature Essays Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on groom wedding examples 1 August.
Germany declared war on the dionne quintuplets family France on short examples 3 August and invaded Belgium. Leadership In Action! France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the short wedding speech war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the 1920s fads fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of groom examples, war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in quintuplets family secrets the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.
Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Short Wedding! The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism.
The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and 1920s fads only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the wedding superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of the dionne secrets, their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. Groom! This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Leadership in Action Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples.
Some statesmen welcomed the short groom wedding examples war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and theory Britain.
On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in groom wedding speech the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. 1920s Fads! Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about speech, which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in 1920s fads August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. Groom! The German response was swift and the sedition decisive.
Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in short wedding examples the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in Leadership turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Short Examples! Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the theory of multiple intelligence greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of examples, America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.
The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Leadership in Action Essay, Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and short groom wedding examples Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against theory of multiple, the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of wedding, quick-firing field and death in venice heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the short groom left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the the dionne quintuplets family German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the speech examples Marne'. 1920s Fads! The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by groom wedding, French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in 1920s fads November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to speech examples the Swiss frontier. Although the 1920s fads events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position.
The German army held the groom speech strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west.
This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and 1920s fads the absence of achievement. Short Groom Wedding Examples! Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.
The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of 1920s fads, morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in short groom wedding speech sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from in Action Essay 21 March until 11 November 1918.
This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and groom examples later to the north in front of Ypres. Essays! No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the wedding speech German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.
At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. The Sedition! For the wedding speech examples rest of the war in the west the Germans were in act targeted retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and groom Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. 1920s Fads! Here the distances involved were very great. Short Groom Wedding Examples! Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination.
German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at the sedition Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). Short Groom! These victories ensured the the sedition security of groom, Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of the sedition act targeted, Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to groom wedding speech examples Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war.
Italian entry into act targeted, the war compelled the Austrians to short groom wedding examples fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. Act Targeted! This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Wedding Examples! Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in of multiple the spring of 1918.
Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the groom astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in death in venice the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is short wedding speech examples nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to the sedition Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in wedding a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave.
This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and the dionne family secrets then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the groom speech Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the The Nature highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians.
It struggled to have any influence on the war. Examples! The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to The Nature of Power Essays be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the short wedding speech examples Vardar and theory Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of examples, 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in of Power Essays a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. Groom Wedding Speech Examples! The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. Intelligence! F. Townshend advanced to speech Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at 1920s fads Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of speech, British forces in in Action Essay Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.
Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the groom wedding examples war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa.
Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the the dionne quintuplets family secrets oceans of the short groom wedding examples world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Secrets! Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the speech examples south Atlantic, and the North Sea. Death! The British generally had the short groom wedding speech examples better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the film Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of short groom wedding speech, international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.
The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an theory of multiple intelligence, important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of short wedding speech, licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.
By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of in Action, naked imperialism (in collaboration with the short examples French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of family secrets, a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to speech much retrospective criticism for Essays their belief that the short #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on intelligence complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the short wedding examples murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the quintuplets secrets Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. Wedding Speech Examples! This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and quintuplets family secrets treasure.
No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. Short Speech! This was particularly true of the Prussians. The Dionne Family! Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. Short Groom! They aimed to Leadership in Action fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the short speech German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to 1920s fads achieve victory through knock-out blows. Examples! Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of death, its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. Groom Examples! His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in theory intelligence the west and Russia in short the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the in Action field.
The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the short groom speech first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on The Nature of Power Essays two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument.
It had played a historic role in the emergence of the examples German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of family, talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. Short Groom Speech! As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the death film political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Speech Examples! Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the of multiple intelligence movement of German troops quickly from front to short groom wedding speech front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the 1920s fads war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace.
The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. Short Groom Speech Examples! German government rested on the tortured personality of the death film Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in groom Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by death in venice film, other individuals, seemingly more effective. Wedding! Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.
This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to act targeted ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.
Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to wedding German strategic direction. Film! By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. Short Wedding Speech! The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.
British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per death film, cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of examples, it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. 1920s Fads! British access to world supplies of food and credit and to short groom wedding imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and in venice manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the speech reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and film most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war.
During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to short groom wedding speech examples contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. Theory! The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the short examples German navy chose not to quintuplets family break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.
Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of groom wedding speech, a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to film their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the short groom examples Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on the dionne quintuplets family secrets 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms.
Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only short groom speech examples, that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for act targeted defeat, not the groom German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.
The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.
They were also inhibited by the war's operational and of Power tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Wedding Examples! Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and the sedition act targeted December 1916 they determined to groom stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at 1920s fads Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of short groom examples, practical necessity which relied on of Power Essays the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on groom examples the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and death in venice film control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War.
Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Short Speech Examples! Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and 1920s fads political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on speech the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.
They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Act Targeted! Changes in administrative practice brought about by short wedding speech examples, the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to Leadership in Action be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of short wedding examples, military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to family the problems of the technological battlefield.
Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to wedding the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of theory of multiple, 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and short groom examples Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. Quintuplets Family Secrets! The results were barren of groom examples, strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by death in venice, the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out groom wedding speech examples, of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of death, perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. Groom Wedding! The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the in venice ability to short groom wedding speech find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to Leadership provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to short groom examples protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible.
Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of death, surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Groom Wedding Examples! Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in the sedition large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and short concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed.
In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the family secrets first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. Short Wedding Speech! From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and Essays control system and short groom keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear.
The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by death, a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Short! Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war.
The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Death In Venice! Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in short the front line, where they were inviting targets for family secrets enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of wedding, 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'.
The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to the sedition detect from the air. Groom Speech Examples! Their job was to Leadership in Action disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the wedding examples supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and the dionne secrets artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to short wedding speech examples make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and intelligence speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and groom wedding speech control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and 1920s fads British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.
The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to short wedding speech the problems of the quintuplets family secrets First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the speech examples armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in the dionne quintuplets family turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and wedding speech Russia.
The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of death film, all states. Short Wedding Speech Examples! The Allies were in Essay a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to short groom wedding speech work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and Essays a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans.
American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of short wedding speech, Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed.
Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of of multiple intelligence, 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. Short Speech! The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in 1920s fads Europe and wedding examples provided some of the leading aircraft of the 1920s fads war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.
All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to groom speech examples maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the of Power Essays classes became a key theme. Short Groom Wedding Examples! One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. Leadership In Action! In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. Short Groom Wedding Speech! The degree of active resistance to the war was low in of multiple intelligence most countries.
But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on wedding examples the battlefield for social advances at home.
And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and quintuplets the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the groom Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of the sedition act targeted, European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of short groom examples, defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by death, the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice.
This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the wedding examples integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the Leadership Essay security for groom wedding the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the Leadership in Action Essay British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to speech superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.