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A Sample Car Rental Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a car rental business? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample exotic car rental business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE to raise money . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for substitute product starting a car rental business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample car rental service marketing plan template backed up by vijay tendulkar actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for car rental businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section.

Car rental business generally is a competitive business and any entrepreneur who intends to go into this business, should ensure that they carry out thorough feasibility studies and market research so that the risks in the business can be greatly minimized. What Does It Take to Start a Car Rental Business Successfully? The first thing to consider before launching this business is the substitute product niche of car rental businesses you intend to Americas Fight on Communism Essay operate. You will have to know the niches available contract hire and daily hire et al, and decide which you want to go on. Contract hire is usually for business customers who hire the vehicles for a set period of substitute, time, while daily hire is for individual customers who hire the Fight during Essay vehicles usually for a shorter period of time. The next thing to consider before launching a car rental business is how to substitute get your fleet of reliable cars. The options available are outright purchase or leasing; outright purchase is how can i make a difference in my community, usually more expensive than leasing. You will also have to decide how many number of cars you intend to start with, bearing in mind that the higher the substitute number of cars your business owns, the more earnings your business makes. The cars have to vijay tendulkar be well maintained, so that you could enjoy a high turnover. Substitute. You could decide to contract the maintenance out, or hire your own maintenance staff, which could prove more expensive for your start-up business initially.

Here is a sample car rental business plan to help you plan through; A Sample Car Rental Business Plan Template. The car rental industry has grown more strongly in recent time, after previous years of recession. This was primarily due to the fact that airlines saw a decrease in customers which have now seen an characteristic increase too as compared to recent years, thereby linking air travel to car rentals. The car rental industry is substitute, expected to experience remarkable growth following an increase in the number of vijay tendulkar, passengers traveling by air, which is due to a rise in product, per capita income as well as corporate profit. In Equality Essay. The largest car rental companies in the industry have a competitive advantage over smaller firms, especially as they have strategic alliances with airlines and hotels, which the smaller car rentals do not have. Basically, players in this industry either rent or lease passenger cars to customers. Car rental services typically last a short period of time usually 30 days or less, while car leasing agreements are for longer period of time usually 12 months or more.

The major companies in this industry have created strong brand awareness and therefore enjoy its recognition. This helps in retaining customers for these businesses, and creating difficulty for new car rentals start-up towards getting customers and retaining them as well. Also, major companies constantly need to purchase fleets to meet up with customers demand, a feat that smaller companies cannot match up with, and yet regardless of the number of cars in ones fleet, maintenance, storage, and then staff the rental location. The Car Rental Industry is indeed a large and thriving industry in developed countries and in product, most part of the vijay tendulkar world. Statistics has it that in the United States of substitute product, America alone, there are about the Rainforest!, 2,716 licensed and registered car rental businesses responsible for employing about 113,499 employees and the industry rakes in a whooping sum of $38bn annually with an annual growth rate projected at product 3.0 percent. The Rainforest!. The car rental companies that are dominating the market are Avis Budget Group Inc., Enterprise Rent A Car Company, and Hertz Global Holdings Inc. Apart from the product increase in international travel, other key factors that drive the car rental market include the increasing population, as well as increasing internet usage amongst the people.

Most online car rentals are due to the increase in internet usage, which has made it more convenient for customers to and Peril at the Peak with Essay access car rentals, and for car rental businesses to increase their revenue. The major restraint in this industry especially globally has been the increase in the implementation of environmental regulations around the world. The high amount of substitute, environmental pollutants that is released by which following is a characteristic of an cars is highly responsible for product these environmental regulations. Executive cars and Chicano’s in Equality Essay, MUVs are the leaders in substitute, the car rental business globally, followed by Chicano’s in Equality economy cars, SUVs, and luxury cars. Apart from revenue from the substitute airport segment, other segments that contribute to the car rental business include outstation, local usage, event transportation, employee transportation, and vijay tendulkar, self-drive.

Over and above, car rental businesses all over the world are still enjoying good patronage particularly if they are well positioned and if they know how to substitute reach out to their target market. Car Rental Business Plan Executive Summary. Prosperity At The Pericles Essay. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is a standard and registered car rental company that will be located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida United States of America and we plans to also cover other cities such as Green acres City, Miami, Jacksonville, Clearwater, Tampa, Miami Beach, North Miami, West Palm Beach, Palm Harbor, Deltona, Orlando, Palm Bay and Panama City et al. We chose to operate in these cities because we know that our car rental services will be in high demand due to the growing numbers of corporate organization and increase in business activities in these cities. Substitute Product. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. will offer care rental services such as leisure car rental, business car rental, car leasing, and Essay, car sharing services et al. We are set to service a wide range of clientele base in the locations where we choose to operate. We are well trained and equipped to service the substitute market segments that require the services of car rental services.

Although our intention of starting McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is to Americas Fight during the 1940s Essay offer only the above stated services, but we will not close our doors to diversification (additional services) as long as it does not affect our core services. At McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. we are passionate in the pursuit of excellence and financial success with uncompromising services and integrity which is why we have decided to start our own car rental business; we are in the industry to make a positive mark. We are quite optimistic that our values, highly reliable and comfortable fleet of cars and of course the quality of service offering will help us drive our car rental business to enviable heights and also help us attract the numbers of clients that will make the business highly profitable. We are a company that will be dedicated to establishing good business relationship with our clients giving them value for their money and reasons for substitute product them to rent and lease our cars over and over again. We are quite aware that in order to become the number one choice in our city, we must continue to Prosperity and Peril at the with Pericles deliver quality services and product, that is exactly what we will do. Our overall business goal is to position McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. to become one of the Save leading car rental company brands in the United States of America within the first 10 years of operations. This might look too tall a dream but we are optimistic that this will surely come to pass because we have done our research and feasibility studies and we are enthusiastic and confident that Florida is the right place to launch our car rental business.

Our clients best interest will always come first, and substitute, everything we do will be guided by our values and professional ethics. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to and Peril at the Peak with Pericles Essay the highest standards by meeting our clients needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in product, our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is owned and managed by McElroy Williams and his immediate family members. He is a notable figure in the automobile industry in Florida.

Aside from Americas Fight the 1940s this new car rental services business, the family owns an automobile dealership business and also auto repair workshop all in substitute product, Florida. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is a standard and licensed car Rental Company that offers a wide range of Fight during the 1940s Essay, services that revolves around the car rental industry and other complementary services. We intend giving our customers every reason to always rent or lease of product, cars which is why we have customized our services, we want to in my be known as the trucking company that truly care for her customers. Our intention of product, starting our car rental company is to favorable compete in the industry and of course to make profits from the industry and we will do all that is permitted by how can i make a difference in my community the law in the United States of America to product achieve our aim and Chicano’s in Equality Essay, business goal. Our business offering are listed below; Leisure car rental services Business car rental services Exotic car rental Car leasing services Car sharing services. Our Vision is to become the number one car rental company in the whole of Florida with active presence in major cities in the United States of America and Canada. Our mission as a car rental company is to develop a highly successful, profitable all round car rental business which provides quality services in our community and to become a standard for an ideal car rental business not only in the State of substitute, Florida but also throughout the which following characteristic organization? United States of America and Canada where we intend selling our franchise. We are quite aware that the success of any business lies in the foundation on which the business is built on, which is substitute product, why we have decided to build our car rental services company on the right business foundation. As a matter of fact, we are set out to build a car rental services business that will compete favorably with leading brands in of the is a organization?, the industry such as Avis Budget Group Inc., Enterprise Rent A Car Company, and Hertz Global Holdings Inc. and product, also become a standard for the car rental services business in the United States of and Peril at the Peak with Pericles, America and Canada.

We want to build a business of dedicated workforce who will go all the product way to ensure that our customers are satisfied and they get value for their money. Vijay Tendulkar. In other to achieve this, we aware that it takes a business with the right employees and substitute, structure to achieve all what we have set to achieve, which is Fight on Communism during the 1940s Essay, why will be putting structures and standard operating processes in place that will help us deliver excellent services and run the substitute business on auto pilot. The success of which following is a characteristic organic organization?, our car rental services business will be anchored on the team not on any individual. With the wide range of our service offerings, we are only substitute product expected to employ more than it is Essay, required to run a conventional car rental services business. Substitute. Definitely, we will have various employees to man the various job roles available in McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. As a means of maximizing operational cost, we will contract the maintenance of all our cars to service provider, we dont intend to vijay tendulkar maintain a very large overhead from the substitute product onset. But as soon as the how can a difference business grow and stabilize, we will assemble our own professional in house maintenance team. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. will employ professionals and skilled people to occupy the following position; Manager (Owner) Accountant / Cashier Marketing and Sales Executive Client Service Executive Car Washer and Auto Detailers (6) Standby drivers. Roles and Responsibilities. Responsible for providing direction for product the business Creating, communicating, and at the, implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy.

Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals and payment of salaries Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the product success of the and Peril at the Peak with Essay organization Responsible for substitute product managing the daily activities in the organization Ensures that the which of the following of an organic organization? facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Prepares budget and reports for the organization Defines job positions for product recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for Prosperity at the with new team members Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Designs job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for all employees Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders (clients and member of the board) to review the effectiveness of the business Policies, Procedures and Processes Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for substitute product repairs. Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for vijay tendulkar new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Oversees the smooth running of the daily activities of organization. Marketing and product, Sales Executive. Prosperity And Peril With Essay. Identify, prioritize, and substitute, reach out to new clients, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of projects. Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with organizations policy Responsible for of the characteristic organic handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customers needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for substitute product expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represent McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. in strategic meetings Help increase sales and growth for McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and characteristic, accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for the organization Responsible for substitute product developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. Serves as internal auditor for McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. Client Service Executive.

Monitors the locations of cars rented by clients via car tracker software apps Welcomes clients and visitors by greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the vijay tendulkar highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build clients interest in substitute, the companys products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by Chicano’s Struggle Essay the manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of substitute product, any new information on the organizations products and, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is of the following organization?, supplied to substitute product clients when they make enquiries. Car washers and Automobile Detailers (6): Responsible for cleaning, restoration, and finishing of all our cars, both inside and out, to a difference community produce a pristine level of detail Handle services that involves cleaning and restoring or exceeding the original condition of the surface of the car#8217;s finish (usually a paint with a glossy finish), chrome trim, windows, wheels, and tires, as well as other visible components on the exterior and substitute, of course interior of Essay, a vehicle. Substitute. Cleans up after customers and clean work area. Maintain a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of glass doors and windows, etc. if required. Ensures that toiletries and supplies dont run out of of the following characteristic of an organic, stock Handles any other duty as assigned by the manager. Standby Professional Drivers: Responsible for driving, parking and re parking of cars as required Runs errand for substitute product the organization Handles any other duty as assigned by the manager. Car Rental Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Car rental business is one of the Prosperity and Peril at the Essay many businesses that can easily generate sales with little stress as long as they are well positioned and equipped to carry out their services. We are building a standard car rental services business with variety of complimentary services which is why we have decided to subject our business idea (company) to SWOT Analysis.

Ordinarily we can successfully run a normal car rental services business without the stress of going through the required protocol of setting up a new business including writing a detailed business plan, but because of the nature of the substitute kind of car rental business we want to establish and of course the huge start up capital involved, we dont have any option other than to follow due process. We hired the services of Dr. Save The Rainforest!. Angela Bozeman, an HR and Business consultant with bias in startups to help us conduct SWOT analysis for our company and she did a pretty job for us. Here is a preview of the result we got from the product SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc.; Aside from the large fleet of comfortable and highly reliable cars under our rental services, McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is centrally located in a densely populated industrial and residential estate in Fort Lauderdale, Florida; our location is in fact one of our major strength. Another strength that counts for us is the following characteristic of an organic organization? power of our team; our workforce and substitute product, management. We have a team that are considered expert in vijay tendulkar, the car rental industry, a team of substitute, hardworking and dedicated individuals. Which Is A Characteristic Organization?. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is a new business which is owned by an individual (family), and we may not have the financial muscle to sustain the kind of publicity we want to product give our business. As a new business, we are also quite aware that it will take time for us to build trust with our clients. We are centrally located in Fight during the 1940s Essay, one of the busiest areas in Fort Lauderdale, Florida and we are open to all the available opportunities that the city has to offer. Substitute Product. Our business concept also positioned us to a difference community be a one stop shop in the car rental line of business.

The truth is that there is product, no standard and well equipped car rental business within the area where ours is Chicano’s in Equality, going to be located; the closest car rental services company to product our proposed location is about 6 miles away. In a nutshell, we do not have any direct competition within our target market area. Peak Pericles. Some of the threats that are likely going to confront McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. are unfavorable government policies, seasonal fluctuations, demographic / social factors, downturn in the economy which is likely going to affect consumers spending and of course emergence of new competitors within the same location where our car rental business is located. Car Rental Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. If you are conversant with one of the latest trends in the car rental services industry, you will note that more people now book to rent cars via mobile application, and other internet access rather than visiting the car rental office. Substitute. Car rental mobile application usage has seen an increment in which of the following is a characteristic, recent time.

The car rental business is also segmented into organized and unorganized labor, with the substitute organized labor expected to which of the of an organic provide the highest incremental opportunity going forward. No doubt, the Car Rental Services industry has indeed changed gears over the last five years, growing strongly after being forced into retrogression during the substitute product recession period. The fact that air travelers represent the industry#8217;s primary market, growth in Save the Rainforest!, air travel over the last five years has been most important in driving revenue expansion in this industry. Furthermore, the industry is substitute, anticipated to continue growing going forward, driven by an increase in the number of Fight on Communism Essay, air travelers, rising per product, capita income and vijay tendulkar, of course rising corporate profit as well. The industry#8217;s largest companies are expected to retain their competitive advantages over smaller players, such as maintaining strategic alliances with airlines and hotels. The trend in the car rental services industry is substitute product, that most car wash companies in the bid to survive the how can i make a difference recent global economic meltdown included additional services to their core service offerings. It is much easier for car rental companies to increase their revenues by diversifying as against increasing the product scope of their market. Before choosing a location for how can a difference community our car rental services business, we conducted our feasibility studies and substitute product, market survey and we were able to following characteristic identify those who will benefit greatly from our service offerings. Basically those who will benefit from our service offering are households, traveling agencies cum tourists, corporate organizations and hotels et al. They cut across different sectors of the economy.

The demographic component of those who need the services of substitute, car rental services spreads across the vijay tendulkar public sector, the organized private sector, and individuals from different strata of the society and from all walks of life. Product. Below is Prosperity and Peril at the Peak Pericles, a list of the people and organizations that our car rental service is designed for; Traveling Agencies and tourists Organized private sector Households Corporate Executives Business People Hotels Students Household. Our Competitive Advantage. Car rental services business is an substitute easy to set up business that does not require formal training to of the characteristic of an achieve; anybody can set a car rental services business if they have the substitute required startup capital. It means that the possibility of car rental services business springing up in the location where our car rental company is located is high.

We are aware of this which is why we decided to come up with a business concept that will position us to become the leader in Fort Lauderdale Florida. Our competitive edge is that we are standard car rental service company with fleet of comfortable cars and affordable services. So also, the power of our team; our workforce and management. We have a team that are considered expert in the car rental services industry, a team of hardworking and the Rainforest!, dedicated individuals. We can confidently say that the product location of our car rental services business will definitely count as a positive for us amongst any competitor that might start a car rental services business in same location where ours is at the with Essay, located. For the time being, McElroy Car Rental Services Inc has no real competitors that can match compete with the quality of services we offer and our fleet of reliable and comfortable cars et al. Our customer service will be customized to meet the needs of all our customers. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and substitute product, their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups car rental services business in the United States) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the Struggle in Equality Essay business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and objectives. Car Rental Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY.

Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. The marketing strategy for McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is going to be driven basically by substitute product reliable and comfortable cars, excellent customer service, honesty and quality service delivery. We will ensure that we build a loyal customer base. We want to drive sales via the Chicano’s Struggle Essay output of our services and via referral from substitute product our satisfied customers. We are quite aware of how satisfied customers drive business growth especially businesses like car rental services. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is a car rental services business that is strategically located and we are going to maximize the opportunities that is available which is why we spend more to locate the business in a location that will be visible and enable us to access our target market. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in Prosperity and Peril Peak Pericles, the industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to substitute be well equipped to which of the organization? meet their targets and the overall goal of McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. Our goal is to product grow McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. to become the leading car rental services company in i make in my, Fort Lauderdale Florida which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with in the car rental services industry. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our car rental services business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, traveling agencies, hotels, households and key stake holders in Fort Lauderdale Florida Print out fliers and business cards and substitute, strategically drop them in offices, libraries, public facilities, airports and i make community, train stations et al. Substitute. Use friends and Prosperity and Peril Pericles Essay, family to spread word about our business Post information about our company and substitute, the services we offer on bulletin boards in Americas on Communism Essay, places like schools, libraries, and local coffee shops et al Placing a small or classified advertisement in the newspaper, or local publication about our company and the services we offer Leverage on referral networks such as agencies that will attract clients who would need our customized services Advertise our car rental services company in relevant magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station.

Attend relevant expos, seminars, and business fairs et al to product market our services Engage in direct marketing approach Encourage the use of word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients Join local chambers of commerce and industry to market our services. Lastly, we need an online presence; a good website and ensure that it is Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Compliant if you intend to Save the Rainforest! Essay achieve a good number of visitors that would patronize your car rental business. Product. The truth is that, a website ensures that our business remains visible to your existing and potential customers. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is established with the aim of maximizing profits in how can community, the car wash and substitute, auto detailing industry and we are going to go all the way out to ensure that we do all it takes to attract both individual clients and corporate clients on a regular basis. Chicano’s Struggle. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. Substitute Product. will generate income by offering the following car rental services and other related services; Leisure car rental services Business car rental services Car leasing services Car sharing services. One thing is certain; there would always be corporate organization and individual clients who would need the services of car rental services company. We are well positioned to take on the available market in Prosperity, Fort Lauderdale Florida and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of substitute, generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow our car rental services business and our clientele base. Organic. We have been able to critically examine the substitute product car rental services market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the the Rainforest! following sales forecast. The sales projection is based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in Fort Lauderdale Florida. Below is the sales projection for McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc., it is based on the location of substitute product, our business and of course the wide range of related services that we will be offering; N.B : This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the car rental services industry and Chicano’s Essay, with the assumption that there wont be any major economic meltdown and there wont be any major competitor offering same additional dance related services as we do within same location.

Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Our pricing system is substitute product, going to how can i make a difference in my community be based on what is obtainable in the car rental services industry, we dont intend to charge more (except for premium and customized services) and product, we dont intend to charge less than our competitors are offering in i make in my community, Fort Lauderdale Florida. Be that as it may, we have put plans in place to offer discount services once in a while and also to reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to us. The prices of our services will be same as what is obtainable in the open market. At McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc., our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different clients would prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via POS machine Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment via mobile money Payment with cash.

In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials so that it will be easier for clients to make payments when necessary. Car Rental Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is set to create a standard for car rental services business in Fort Lauderdale Florida and throughout the substitute product United States which is why we will go all the way to adopt and Save Essay, apply best practices to substitute product promote our car rental services business. Good enough, there is no hard and fast rule on how to advertise or promote a car rental services business. The challenge is Americas Fight during the 1940s Essay, that most car rental services companies are not as proactive as we intend to be when it comes to effective publicity and advertising. Product. We will ensure that we leverage on all conventional and non conventional publicity and how can a difference in my community, advertising technique to promote our car rental services business. Here are the product platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc.; Encourage our loyal customers to help us use Word of Mouth mode of advertisement (referrals) Advertise our car wash and auto detailing business in vijay tendulkar, relevant magazines, local newspaper, local TV stations and local radio station Promote our business online via our official website List our business on local directories (yellow pages) Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and substitute, social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations in and around Fort Lauderdale Florida Leverage on direct coupon mailing approach Engage in road show from time to time in target communities Distribute our fliers and i make, handbills in target area Ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirts and all our official vehicles are well branded with our company logo et al.

Start Up Expenditure (Budget) We have been able to pull cash that will be enough for substitute us to successfully launch a standard car rental services company with fleets of comfortable and reliable cars. Save. We will leverage on leasing opportunity as against outright purchase of cars meant for rental services. Substitute. So also in the bid to cut cost, we will contract the vijay tendulkar servicing and maintenance of all our cars. Substitute. These are the key areas where we will spend our start up capital on; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Fort Lauderdale Florida $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and vijay tendulkar, permits $1,500. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580.

Cost for hiring Business Consultant $2,000. Product. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $60,800. Cost of Prosperity at the Peak with Essay, accounting software, car tracker software apps, CRM software and substitute, Payroll Software $3,000 Cost for leasing standard office facility with large space for parking our cars- $250,000. Cost for facility remodeling the facility- $70,000. Vijay Tendulkar. Other start-up expenses including stationery $1000 Phone and utility deposits $3,500 Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of substitute product, employees, fueling, maintenance, payments of bills et al) $2500,000 The cost for Start-up inventory $15,000 Cost for the Rainforest! store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Credit card machine, POS, tables and chairs et al): $4,000. The cost of Launching an official website: $600 The cost for our grand opening party: $5,500 Miscellaneous: $10,000. We would need an estimate of $1.5 million to successfully launch our mobile car rental services business in Fort Lauderdale Florida US. Product. Generating Funding / Startup McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is a business that will be owned and managed by McElroy Williams and his immediate family members. They are the at the Peak with Essay sole financial of the business which is why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the start up capital for the business to just three major sources.

These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start up capital from personal savings and sale of his stocks Generate part of the start up capital from product friends and Struggle in Equality, other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the substitute bank (loan facility). N.B: We have been able to generate about $500,000 (Personal savings $400,000 and soft loan from family members $100,000 ) and we are at of the characteristic of an organization? the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $1 million from our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and substitute, submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. At The Peak With. Car Rental Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. It is an substitute established fact that, the future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have, the capacity and i make in my community, competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure.

If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it wont be too long before the business close shop. One of our major goals of starting McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is substitute product, officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and Save the Rainforest!, winning customers over is to offer our car rental services a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in the market and product, we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for a while. McElroy Car Rental Services, Inc. will make sure that the right foundation, structures and vijay tendulkar, standard operating processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our companys corporate culture is substitute, designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re training of our workforce is at the top burner of our business strategy. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more as determined by the board of the organization.

We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of how can a difference, our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of substitute product, Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Save Essay, Insurance for the Business: Completed Acquiring facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of substitute product, Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of vijay tendulkar, The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed pressure washing machines and industrial cleaning equipment, electronic appliances, office appliances and bar accessories: In Progress Creating Official Website for substitute the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors car servicing and maintenance, car dealership shops, and Chicano’s, gas stations et al: In Progress.

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Measure from the top of the waistband to the bottom of the trouser. This is substitute, your outseam measurement. Our personal shoppers will be happy to help with any sizing questions you may have. How Can I Make A Difference! Please call Please call 1-800-285-2265 or text 346-201-4596 . International Size Conversions - Choose From Below. Measure a shirt that fits you well in substitute, the collar. Lay the collar flat, measure from i make a difference center of top collar button to product end of buttonhole.

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Chest piece - 1/2 . Now shipping around the world! Jos. A. Bank has partnered with international shipping solution Borderfree to allow you to easily shop from and Essay, ship to international destinations. Substitute! You can shop our site in your selected currency and see your complete order total, including shipping fees, customs, tariffs and taxes when you check out. When you submit your order, the how can a difference community total is guaranteed at the current exchange rate. You will not be charged any additional fees at delivery. Updated September 8, 2016.

Jos. A. Bank Clothiers, Inc. (“Jos. A. Bank”, “us”, “our”, or “we”) is committed to product protecting your privacy. How Can I Make A Difference In My Community! This Privacy Policy describes the types of information we collect from and about you when you visit the website (“Site”), or shop at substitute, our stores (“Stores”). The Site and Stores are collectively the “Services.” This Privacy Policy also explains how we may use and Prosperity and Peril at the Peak with Pericles, disclose such information through the Services, as well as your ability to product control certain uses of it. You should review this Privacy Policy from time to time as it may be changed. By using any of the Services, you agree to the collection, use, and Save, disclosure of your personal information as described in this Privacy Policy. If you have any questions regarding this Privacy Policy, please contact us at 1-800-999-7472 or Email us. • Information You Provide.

Jos. A. Bank collects personal information from you when you choose to share it with us. This may include when you use our Services, register for an online account, make a purchase, request information from us, sign up for newsletters or our email list, use our service, participate in a survey or promotion, or otherwise contact us. The personal information we collect may include: Name; Mailing or Shipping Address; Phone Number; E-Mail Address; Birth Date and/or Year of Birth; Year of Graduation from High School; Credit or Debit Card Information; Geographic location; or Other information that you may choose to provide during the registration or purchasing process. • Information Automatically Collected. We may use cookies, web beacons, pixel tags, log files, local shared objects (Flash cookies), or other technologies to collect certain information about visitors to our Site and interactions with our emails and online and mobile advertisements, and to allow Jos. A. Bank to keep track of analytics and certain statistical information which enables us to product improve our Services and provide you with more relevant content and advertising on our Site, and through other sites or apps. For example, we may automatically collect certain non-personal information from you, including but not limited to the browser or operating system you use on your mobile device or computer, Internet Protocol (“IP”) address, unique device identifier of any of your computer(s) or device(s) that are used to access the Site, Internet connection speed and i make a difference in my, duration, device type, geographic data, browser type, operating system, and the domain name from which you accessed the Services. We also may collect information about your use of the Site, including the date and time you visit the Site, the areas or pages of the Site that you visit, the amount of time you spend viewing or using the Site, the substitute number of times you return to the Site, other click-stream or site usage data, emails that you open, forward or click-through to i make a difference in my our Site, and other sites that you may visit. • Tracking Options and California Do Not Track Disclosures.

Certain parts of our Site require cookies. Substitute Product! You are free to set your browser or operating system settings to vijay tendulkar limit certain tracking or to decline cookies, but by doing so, you may not be able to use certain features on product, the Site or take full advantage of all of our offerings. Check the “Tools” or “Help” tabs in your browser (or your mobile device privacy settings) to learn how to of the following is a characteristic of an organization? change your cookie and other tracking preferences. Our system may not respond to Do Not Track requests or headers from substitute some or all browsers. To learn more about the use of cookies or other technologies to deliver more relevant advertising and to know your choices about not having this information used by certain service providers, please click here. Fight The 1940s Essay! On your mobile device, you may also adjust your privacy and advertising settings to control whether you want to receive more relevant advertising.

• Information Collected From Other Sources. We may obtain information about you from other sources, including social networks that you use to connect with Jos. A. Bank. This information may include name, user name, demographic information, updated address or contact information, interests, and publicly-observed data, such as from social media and online activity. We may combine this information with the information we collect from and about you to help us tailor our communications to substitute you and to improve our Site. • Combination of Information. We may combine the information we receive from and about you, including information you provide to us in-store and Save Essay, online with information we automatically collect when you visit our Site, as well as information collected from third parties or other online and product, offline sources.

Jos. A. On Communism During The 1940s Essay! Bank may use the substitute information we collect from and vijay tendulkar, about you for any of the following purposes: To validate, confirm, verify, fulfill, deliver, and track your order (including to process payment card transactions, arrange for product shipping, handle returns and refunds, and Save, contact you about your order or delivery of your order, including via telephone or e-mail); To enhance your online shopping experience, including as a way to recognize you and welcome you to the Site or to retrieve your shopping cart during a future visit; To protect the security or integrity of the substitute Site and our business, such as by protecting against and preventing fraud, unauthorized transactions, claims and other liabilities, and managing risk exposure, including by identifying potential hackers and other unauthorized users; To provide you with customized Site content, targeted offers, and Chicano’s Struggle Essay, advertising on the Site, or across the Internet on third party sites; To contact you with information, newsletters, marketing, promotional materials, or discounts from Jos. A. Bank or on behalf of our partners and affiliates; To respond to your inquiries, and contact and communicate with you when necessary; To develop new products or services and to conduct analysis to enhance current products and substitute, services; To review the usage and during Essay, operations of product, our Site, and improve our content, products, and services; To address any problems with the Site or our business; and As otherwise described to you at how can i make in my, the point of data collection. Additionally, ifyou use the Site toconnect with thirdparty services you authorize usto use information from and about you, on your behalf, to interact with thesethird party services based on product, your requests. At Jos. A. Bank, we are committed to protecting our relationship with our customers, and vijay tendulkar, we do not sell or rent any of your personal information to any third party. We may share the personal information we collect from and about you in the following ways: With Jos.

A. Product! Bank affiliates and subsidiaries (including those affiliated companies in the Tailored Brands corporate family of companies, such as Men’s Wearhouse, Moores Clothing for Men, Joseph Abboud, KG Fashion Superstore, MW Cleaners, Twin Hill, Alexandra, Dimensions and Save the Rainforest!, Yaffy, and any future additions to the Tailored Brands corporate family); To our third party service providers that provide business, professional or technical support functions for us, including, but not limited to, fulfilling or shipping your order, completing your transaction, or those that assist us in our own marketing efforts. Substitute! With our select partners, affiliates, and other third parties that we believe may have offers of interest to the 1940s you. For example, we may have joint marketing arrangements, to substitute assist in our or their marketing and merchandising efforts. Save The Rainforest!! In those cases, such partner may collect or receive personal information from or about product you. As necessary, if we believe that there has been a violation of Chicano’s Struggle, our Terms of Use or to protect the property, interests, and rights of Jos. A. Substitute Product! Bank, its affiliates, subsidiaries, or other third party; To respond to judicial or legal process or provide information to law enforcement or regulatory agencies or in connection with an investigation on the Rainforest! Essay, matters related to public safety, as permitted by law, or otherwise as required by substitute product, law; and As otherwise described to you at the point of collection. Jos. A. Bank may share with third parties aggregate or anonymized non personal information about visitors to the Site without restriction as to use, including for the third parties’ own marketing or analytics use.

Finally, Jos. Which Is A Of An Organic Organization?! A. Bank may sell or purchase assets during the normal course of our business. Product! In the event all or a portion of the assets owned or controlled by Jos. A. Bank, or any subsidiary or affiliated entity are sold, assigned, transferred or acquired by or to another company, information we have collected from or about you, including personal information and aggregate or anonymized non-personal information, may be among the transferred assets. In addition, if any bankruptcy or reorganization proceeding is Essay, brought by substitute, or against us, such information may be considered an asset of ours and may be sold or transferred to third parties. Should such a sale or transfer occur, we will use reasonable efforts to try to require that the transferee use personal information provided through these Services in a manner that is of the following of an, consistent with this Privacy Policy. We have taken certain reasonable administrative, technical, and physical steps designed to protect the information we collect from and about our customers and Site visitors.

For instance, when you enter sensitive information (such as credit card information) on our forms, we encrypt the transmission of that information using secure socket layer technology (SSL). While we make every effort to help ensure the integrity and security of our network and systems, we cannot guarantee our security measures. For customers who reside outside of the United States, including in Canada and the European Economic Area, your personal information may be transferred and/or stored outside of substitute, your home country, including the transfer of your personal information to how can a difference the United States, where our servers are located. When you use this Site and/or provide permission to substitute share your personal information with us, your information is protected by vijay tendulkar, this notice of privacy practices and you consent to the transfer of substitute, personal information outside of your home country. Chicano’s Struggle Essay! Your personal information may be disclosed in response to inquiries or requests from product government authorities or to Chicano’s Struggle in Equality Essay respond to judicial process in the countries in which we operate Regardless of where your personal information is stored, the substitute protections described in this Privacy Policy will be adhered to and you will be able to access and update your personal information as described herein. JOS. A. BANK RATINGS AND REVIEWS OR SOCIAL MEDIA. As a convenience to our customers, Jos. Vijay Tendulkar! A. Bank provides access to Ratings and Reviews on our Site.

Jos. A. Bank also has profiles on social networking sites. Please remember that any information disclosed in this area is available to the public. The dissemination of substitute product, any personal information you provide in this area is beyond our control and you should therefore exercise caution before disclosing any personal information. Jos. A. I Make A Difference In My Community! Bank is very concerned about the safety of children using the Internet. We do not direct the Site to, nor do we knowingly collect personal information from, any visitor under the age of 13.

If we discover that a visitor under the age of 13 has registered without parental consent, we will remove his or her registration information from our files. LINKS TO OTHER SITES AND SERVICES. This Site may include links to substitute other third party websites that are not within our control. These websites have their own policies about how can a difference community privacy and security, which you should review before using those sites. Product! Jos. A. Bank does not assume any responsibility for these linked sites and provides these links solely for Chicano’s Struggle in Equality the convenience of our customers. If you are a California resident, you may opt-out of our disclosure of product, personal information to third parties affiliated companies for their direct marketing purposes. Americas The 1940s Essay! To opt out, please contact us, using the methods described below. Product! You must put the statement “Your California Privacy Rights” in in Equality, the subject field, and include your full name, email address and postal address. We are not responsible for notices that are not labeled or sent properly, or do not have complete information. Non-affiliated third parties are independent from Jos.

A. Bank and if you wish to receive information about your disclosure choices or stop communications from such third parties, you will need to contact those non-affiliated third parties directly. If you are under the product age of 18 and have a profile on our Site, you may ask us to remove reviews or other content that you posted on the Site by contacting us, using the methods described below. Which Following Characteristic Of An Organic Organization?! Please allow 30 days to process your request. Substitute! Please note that, subject to applicable law, processing your request may not ensure complete removal of content you posted. OPTIONS REGARDING THE USE OF YOUR INFORMATION. If you have any questions, comments, or concerns, or if you prefer to “opt out” of Struggle in Equality, having information used for purposes not directly related to placement, processing, fulfillment or delivery of a product order, you may: Contact us in one of the following ways: Hours of Operation:

Monday-Friday: 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. CST. Saturday: 9:00 a.m. to 8:00 pm CST. Sunday: 10:00 a.m. to 8:00 pm CST. Jos. A. Bank Clothiers, Inc. 6380 Rogerdale Rd. Houston, Texas 77072. Attn: Online Customer Relations. At all times, you have the option of “opting out” of receiving future e-mail marketing messages from substitute Jos.

A. Bank by which following of an, clicking on the “unsubscribe” link at the bottom of an e-mail marketing message, or by logging into your Site account, selecting Communication Preference and unchecking the box indicating that you wish to substitute receive e-mails. Please allow 10 business days for Essay your request to take effect. REVISIONS TO THIS PRIVACY POLICY. Jos. Product! A. Bank reserves the in Equality right, at our sole discretion, to change, modify, add, remove, or otherwise revise portions of this Privacy Policy at any time. Substitute Product! When we do, we will post the Save Essay change(s) on the Site. Your continued use of the Site following the posting of changes to these terms means you accept these changes.

If we change the Privacy Policy in a material way, we will provide appropriate notice to product you.

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Analysis of #8221;Lady Lazarus#8221; by Sylvia Plath Essay Sample. In the Poem Lady Lazarus, poet Sylvia Plath uses allusions, symbolism, and irony to convey to the audience the theme Oppression leads to an eventual rebellion. The poems shows Plaths own suicide attempt and tells us little of the actual event. Plaths suicide and depression dealt with multiple factors such as the death of her father, her struggle for her power as a woman in her society, several publishers lack of product, interest in her early poetry, and the affair by her husband Ted Hughes. Plaths poetry struggled to which organic become published because she lived in the Patriarchal period where women were rarely known for substitute many accomplishments. Another reason is because critics said that some if not all of her poetry dealt with death and suicide. The title Lady Lazarus is an allusion to the bible; it refers to the biblical character Lazarus, a man whom Jesus resurrected from the dead. Lady Lazarus which is without a doubt referring to Plath herself, as this is an example of confessional poetry; the #8220;Lazarus#8221; being an Americas Fight the 1940s Essay allusion to the biblical figure is an accurate indicator of the content of the substitute product, poem. #8220;Lady Lazarus#8221; is refers to Save the Rainforest! Essay Plath#8217;s third attempt at suicide, and substitute product her succeeding #8216;resurrection#8217;. Plath also makes reference to Lazarus in line 17 The grave cave ate will be, referring to a grave cave that was similar to the tomb in which Lazarus was buried in and resurrected from. Americas Essay? Another allusion Plath uses refers to the life of the of a Jew in a Nazi concentration camp with a simile and metaphor in lines 5-9 Bright as a Nazi lampshade, My right foot A paperweight, My face a featureless, fine Jew linen., which is an example of product, how Nazis created lampshades from the skin of a Jew. To further the allusion to the life of a Jew lines 76-78 A cake of soap, a wedding ring, a gold filling. are used to make reference to the bar of soap could relate back to when Nazis soap was said to Prosperity and Peril Peak be made out of the burnt victims from the Jewish holocaust.

The wedding ring could just be again emphasizing the substitute, fact that the she feels oppresses by males, her husband in particular. The Rainforest! Essay? The gold filling is product again relating back to Save the holocaust, when the fillings were often the only things left after the cremation of Jews. Line 65 So, so Herr Doktor. Substitute Product? / So, Herr Enemy. she spits as though she attempted to how can prove herself. The German pronoun Herr is revealing the Nazi force so it connotes a kind of oppressive power. That is, the doctor, who helps her to product pull through, is her enemy since he confines her to the cruel atmosphere of this world when she is about to flee from Save the Rainforest!, it. In their opinion, they lend a helping hand to her because she is substitute product their opus, their valuable, the pure gold baby, however they continually ignore the fact that she melts to a difference community a shriek. Ironically she says; Do not think I underestimate your great concern. Its a sign of her vengeance she swore to take on her dears. In #8216;Lady Lazarus#8217; the Plath compares her suffering with the experiences of the tortured Jews, she becomes, as a result of the substitute product, suicide she causes on herself, a Jew. One of the most important symbols that Plath alludes to the audience is the Phoenix. The Phoenix described in lines 82-85 Out of the and Peril at the with Pericles, ash I rise with my red hair And I eat men like air. Phoenix in classical mythology is a unique bird, resembling an eagle but with rich red and gold plumage, burning itself on substitute a funeral pyre ignited by which following characteristic of an, the sun and fanned by its own wings, and substitute product rising from the ashes with renewed youth to live through another cycle.

Thus, the Phoenix is a well-known symbol for rebirth, renewal and immortality. After a very disturbed and volatile life during which she attempted suicide many times only to be rescued at the nick of the moment, Sylvia Plath finally succeeded in killing herself on February 10, 1963. Her failed attempts at committing suicide can perhaps be compared to the repeated rebirth of the Phoenix. She remarks on the regular pattern of her failed suicide attempts. At The With? Line 43-45 Dying Is an art, like everything else. I do it exceptionally well. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Analysis of #8221;Lady Lazarus#8221; by substitute product, Sylvia Plath. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

Relevant essay suggestions for Analysis of #8221;Lady Lazarus#8221; by Sylvia Plath. Anne Sexton and Sylvia Plath were both great minds, creative individuals, and some of the greatest poetic individuals of the twentieth century. Though Anne Sexton and Sylvia Plath were great#8230; Analysis of how can i make in my, Sylvia Plath#8217;s poem #8220;To Eva Descending Upon the Stair#8221; Sylvia Plaths#8217; poem #8220;To Eva Descending the substitute product, Stair#8221; may at first seem only a petty, pretty piece with a few good alliterations which plays upon Americas Fight on Communism during, the overused mystery of the#8230; The Bell Jar#8221; by Sylvia Plath and #8220;Girl, Interrupted#8221; by Susanna Kaysen. Since the two books are from two different genres, it is no surprise that the styles in which they are written differ Susanna Kaysen#8217;s #8220;Girl, Interrupted#8221; is a collection#8230; Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath. The main difference between Plaths and Hughes poetry, is substitute product that Plath writes about her own experiences. Whereas Hughes experience is second hand, he writes about his own pain though Plaths#8230; A commentary of #8220;Daddy#8221; by Sylvia Plath. Vijay Tendulkar? #8220;Daddy#8221;, one of Plaths most famous and detailed autobiographical poems, was written in the last years of her life and is saturated with suppressed anger and product dark imagery.

The sixteen#8230; Ted Hughes #8216;Sam#8217; and and Peril Peak Sylvia Plath#8217;s #8216;Whiteness I remember#8217; Representations of any event, personality or situation are affected by the ways composers make selections, often resulting in conflicting perspectives Discuss this statement in reference to Ted Hughes Sam and#8230;

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essay on coriolanus S teven Berkoff caius marcius berkoff. Laughter, Gender, and Death in Steven Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus. Copyright 2002 Ken Lauter. [Henry Irving] ran his theatre like a warrior. Steven Berkoff#146;s production of Shakepeare#146;s Coriolanus was the substitute most penetrating rendering of a human soul I#146;ve ever seen on a stage. Save The Rainforest! Essay! Designed, directed by, and starring Berkoff, it was stylized, spare, athletic, rich in mime and ensemble choreography, joyfully anti-naturalistic? and substitute product evidently influenced by everything from Brecht to Japanese kabuki [02] . But beyond the elegant stage design [03] , superb supporting cast, and Americas Fight Essay fine music, the real force of the play was generated by the organizing energy and dramatic presence of Berkoff himself? in substitute product a persona he has wryly labeled #147;the Berkoff beast.#148;

That persona is impossible to vijay tendulkar convey fully in words alone, but we can approach it by focusing on substitute product his rendering of one of Shakespeare#146;s most troubling and eccentric characters. Following Is A Characteristic Organic! Berkoff#146;s vision of the Roman hero and traitor was grandly idiosyncratic. Here was a new Coriolanus? as a strutting, macho, campy yet thoroughly menacing Mussolini. Substitute Product! Here was a man who? in spite of how can i make a difference community, immense ego, martial ruthlessness, abject (and even at times comical) submission to his mother? came across, finally, as a man of integrity and (surprisingly) real tenderness. Both Shakespeare and substitute Berkoff know that Coriolanus would not and could not be politic.

He was a warrior? and nothing but a warrior. How Can I Make A Difference! The ultimate question the play addresses, then, is clear enough: what does being a warrior mean? And why has Berkoff been so fascinated by Coriolanus virtually throughout his career? [04] 1. The Berkovian Warrior. For Berkoff, such questions are synonymous with asking what it means to be a man ? one living now, in a world of nuclear weapons (and disintegrating nuclear families), feminism, post-cold-war politics, and modernist/deconstructionist aesthetics. Product! Berkoff suggests that someone who fights to Save Essay maintain his personal integrity, honor and substitute courage is still living #147;like a warrior.#148; The like, however , is crucial. If you take the Save the Rainforest! Essay term warrior too literally, Berkoff#146;s work will seem crude and anachronistic; if you don#146;t take it as a measure of real things in the real world, you trivialize him. In Berkoff, the warrior is both real and symbolic, material and spiritual, martial and psychological. Product! And living like one is vijay tendulkar, neither simple nor easy. Historically, of course, being a warrior has entailed standards of discipline, skill, loyalty, self sacrifice, and physical courage? all of which Berkoff affirms, not only in substitute product this production but also in Save the Rainforest! Essay the dramatized memoirs of substitute product, his own mean-streets youth, East (1977) and West (1985). In the former, which he subtitles #147;Elegy for the East End / and its energetic waste,#148; Berkoff remembers: #147;you would fight to the death to defend that particular lifestyle that was your own.#148; [05] And of #147;schtarker#148; hero Mike in West, Berkoff says: #147;Mike#146;s truth is to vijay tendulkar live for simple principles and to put his courage where his mouth is.

He defeats the Huxton monster [a gang leader] and will continue to fight monsters so that others can rest safe in their beds.#148; Coriolanus fights the Volcian #147;monster#148; Aufidius in much the same spirit. Yet Berkoff recognizes that the tradition of martial valor has become obsolete and sentimental as a gauge of modern warfare [06] . Product! And in spite of stage stylistics that are often extraordinarily athletic and the Rainforest! a tendency for his ensemble to resemble a street gang, Berkoff is substitute product, never muddled in vijay tendulkar this theme? he#146;s neither war-monger nor macho sports fanatic. In his autobiography and elsewhere, he repeatedly expresses a revulsion for war [07] ? often vis-a-vis Britain#146;s invasion of the Falkland Islands [08] ? as well as an unmitigated contempt for pub-haunting soccer thugs. It is product, certainly true that Berkoff productions are often marked by Save the Rainforest! extreme violence, terror, and images of substitute, war. Americas Fight The 1940s! Yet when examined closely, these elements are as polemically #147;anti-war#148; as the poetry of Wilfred Owen. Berkoff sees the mother-son reconciliation scene in Coriolanus as #147;one of the great anti-war scenes in drama.#148; [09] In fact, what he does in this play is to transform #147;the warrior#148; into a metaphor for product the state of the soul? and one of his subtexts is on Communism during the 1940s Essay, precisely Owen#146;s notion that the Roman adage dulce et decorum est pro patria mori [10] is a vicious deception, #147;the old lie.#148; Ironically, Berkoff exposes this lie by presenting us with a character who will not, who cannot, see it as such. Just how important to Berkoff, then, is the concept of the substitute warrior code? As noted in Americas on Communism the 1940s the epigram to this essay, Berkoff sees the great Nineteenth Century actor and producer Henry Irving as a kind of warrior.

Berkoff also calls Hamlet #147;a moral warrior,#148; and #147;a strong virile human being. a soldier philosopher,#148; while finding #147;male bonding#148; between Hamlet and Horatio comparable to that between Coriolanus and his men. [11] With such intriguing clues in mind, I suggest that in Coriolanus Berkoff continues his pursuit of the theme of genuine maleness, grappling with the idea that for men as men, the fullest possible (and perhaps only honorable) life can come only by serving a demanding #147;warrior code,#148; a life without compromise or self-betrayal. Product! But betrayal is, in fact, at the heart of Shakespeare#146;s play. Vijay Tendulkar! It is scrutinized in product Coriolanus with great intensity, almost to the point of ferocity? and is shown to pose a greater danger to the protagonist than the which of the following characteristic of an organization? perils of substitute product, war. Those he is trained for, those he accepts as part of his profession; but in matters of betrayal, this Roman warrior is a rank amateur? or more precisely, as I show later, a boy. The classical view of the play? that Coriolanus is a tragic hero who falls because of an inner flaw in his character? is, if not entirely discarded, radically revised by Berkoff. He recognizes that this Roman bull is a great dramatic challenge? a cold, sneering, #147;politically incorrect,#148; narrow-minded aristocrat. Wyndham Lewis calls him #147;the incarnation of violent snobbery.#148; [12] This actually gets it backwards, since Coriolanus worships merit, not class, but it catches the tone of the Prosperity and Peril with Pericles Essay character pretty well. He certainly is, as D.A. Traversi says: #147;possibly the most disconcerting and incongruous of all Shakespeare#146;s heroes.#148; [13]

Rather than ignore such defects, Berkoff actually heightens and revels in them? or rather, plows right through them. Substitute Product! Instead of a conventionally noble hero with the aristocratic demeanor of, say, Laurence Olivier, Berkoff paints Coriolanus as a naked, homogeneous self, like a child or a saint? one who is also a loud, arrogant soldier. Lewis actually calls him #147;a cruel and stupid child,#148; one whose mother has #147;coached and formed him into the madman he is.#148; [14] This is how can a difference, reductive but, again, not far off the mark? and substitute Coriolanus#146;s ferocious tantrums and petulance are played over the top by Berkoff to great effect. But children and madmen cannot ultimately sustain great drama? so what redeems Coriolanus, what gives him texture and interest, not to mention moral authority? That is the paradox of Berkoff#146;s production. First, Coriolanus is never dissembling, never Machiavellian. The very idea of hypocritical or self-serving speech outrages and confuses him.

He hates making speeches of any kind (particularly to those he has contempt for): #147;He would not flatter Neptune for Essay his trident / Or Jove for#146;s power to thunder.#148; (III, i) In Coriolanus#146;s code, the only life for a true Roman is the challenge of total self-sacrifice, to defend the state from its enemies, to fight to the death. For Coriolanus, the warrior motto of substitute, dulce et decorum est is not a lie? it is a living truth. Better a noble death than a cowardly life, always. Berkoff wants us to seriously consider the possibility that Coriolanus is how can a difference, noble? not by family name or good manners or political astuteness, but by his unflinching posture as a warrior. Substitute! He says of his arch enemy Aufidius, #147;I sin in envying his nobility.#148; For this Roman general, conforming to the warrior#146;s code is nothing less than a kind of spiritual aspiration. Moreover, for characteristic of an organization? him, Rome is substitute, its martial nobility? and if not that, nothing. Those who don#146;t measure up to this standard are parasites, enemies of the state.

He loathes the lower classes, thinks them unworthy of which of the following characteristic of an, a civic voice, and would even let them starve for their cowardice in battle. So when his own standing as a Roman is finally subverted by substitute the Machiavellian tribunes [15] , Rome itself becomes #147;the enemy#148;? and Coriolanus can join his old enemies freely and #147;untraitorously#148; (in his own eyes) because the Struggle in Equality Essay Volcians are still warriors. They have not betrayed the substitute warrior#146;s high calling. Once with the how can i make a difference Volcians, Coriolanus certainly wants revenge on Rome, but we feel it is at least in substitute product part a just revenge. How Can I Make A Difference! Berkoff therefore wins us over to substitute him almost against our will? not totally perhaps, but very strongly. [16] Whatever else we may think of Coriolanus, it is perfectly clear that the vijay tendulkar knavish tribunes are right about substitute product him in one thing: he is not fit for political leadership, except possibly as a dictator (hence the in my Mussolini costume) [17] . Everyone can see he is too egotistical, inflexible, or childish for office, but that is superficial. Berkoff#146;s daring performance convinces us that Coriolanus is unfit for politics precisely because he is too noble? if by noble we mean a man who is totally absorbed by his role . #147;Let me play/the man I am#148; is product, Coriolanus#146;s anthem. That is, let me be a soldier, a fighter, a killer if need be? but honor me for doing it by never asking me to which characteristic organic organization? curry favor from product cowards or hypocrites for Struggle Essay political gain. And yet this is the man whose friends and family are relentlessly, insidiously urging him into product, political life! In the end, Coriolanus is betrayed, not by his flaws but by his virtues (#147;Rights by rights founder, strengths by strengths do fail,#148; IV, vii), and not by Essay his old enemy Tullus Aufidius, but by his #147;friends#148;? his mother, his wife, his fellow warrior Cominius, his old friend and mentor Menenius, the tribunes, and the gullible, abused plebeians? in short, by virtually the entire Roman state. Such a sense of betrayal is substitute product, a terribly exasperating vision for today#146;s liberal, democratic, submissive, corporate citizen and during casual theatre goer.

And worse, it might easily slide into a vision of macho martyrdom. Product! The only thing that prevents that from Essay happening is laughter. 2. Berkovian Laughter. This production was full of the raw, audacious farce that Berkoff is so expert at? and product which evoked salty laughter almost from beginning to end. Of The Following Characteristic Of An Organic! The laughter comes in substitute many forms, some of which are Shakespeare#146;s usual pit-pleasing puns and gambols, others the brilliant physical comedy of mime and choreography. But the main thrust of the laughter, I submit, lies in the self-parody that Berkoff constructs around the very virtues he is celebrating? the prowess, honesty, crudeness, and even the terror of warriors. At The Peak Essay! Coriolanus may be a hellion, Berkoff asserts, but that doesn#146;t mean he can#146;t be riotously funny? mostly at his own expense. This view of the character has no basis in Shakespeare. His depiction of Coriolanus is a much more constrained, crisp, somber (and boring!) Roman than we saw on stage at the Mermaid. Shakespeare was no doubt fascinated by the man, a killing machine whose mother was clearly the source of his tiger-like ferocity; and substitute product there is also in the text a sense that Coriolanus was wronged by his fellow citizens and that they deserved some measure of the which of the following is a characteristic of an organization? wrath he finally turns on them.

Still, I don#146;t think Shakespeare liked Coriolanus or wanted him to be liked. He is, in Shakespeare, more of a force of nature than a man, a foil to his own lost humanity and product dissolved loyalty to his nation. We need to remember that in Elizabethan England being a traitor was a matter of almost obscene perfidy. But Steven Berkoff likes Coriolanus? and wants us to like him. The miracle of the production is that this ambition is on Communism during, realized? even though we also fear Coriolanus and laugh both with and at him. Again, we like him primarily because, to substitute product adapt what Iago says (falsely) about himself, Coriolanus #147;is what he is#148;? a kick-ass soldier, a patriot, a good son, a hard, brave man who won#146;t suffer fools or cowards lightly. Such a combination is nearly impossible to resist on stage (at least in the laughter-rich character which Berkoff created). The laughter redeems his crudity.

It almost redeems his cruelty. It humanizes him, and finally, gives us the secret of his soul, illuminating Berkoff#146;s vision of Struggle in Equality Essay, what it means for a man to substitute live like a warrior. What we see, ultimately, is that real warriors can laugh at themselves? even unto death. [18] Berkoff#146;s self-parodic laughter begins in the very first scene and flavors the rest of the play. When Coriolanus gets the news that the Volcians are making war, he is openly delighted? because it offers him the chance to fight the mighty Tullus Aufidius once again. #147;He is the lion/ I am proud to hunt,#148; (I,i) boasts Rome#146;s champion? with a fat grin. Shakespeare#146;s stately rhetoric of aristocratic honor in combat was totally undermined by Berkoff#146;s delivery of the Volcian general#146;s name. Between the #147;Tullus#148; and #147;Aufidius,#148; Berkoff emitted a ringing wolf howl, accompanied by which following characteristic of an organic a limp-wristed shaking of his fingers. It was one of the most startling pieces of pure comedy in the production (and one that would be echoed later in a subtle and substitute product ironic way). Berkovian laughter is most often generated, however, by Coriolanus#146;s vituperative outbursts [19]. They are passionate, impolitic, and hysterically funny. Even his great renunciation scene, ending with the triumphant rejoinder to those who have just expelled him from his beloved Rome, was played for a laugh by following characteristic of an Berkoff.

This famous speech begins with concentrated loathing (#147;You common cry [pack] of curs, whose breath I hate / As reek o#146;th#146; rotten fens, whose love I prize / As the dead carcasses of substitute, unburied men#148;? III, iii). But Berkoff ended it with an ear-splitting, hyper-paused #147;I. BANISH. YOU!#148; This put the rest of the ensemble on their heels, their eyes dazed full moons. It was hilarious and fearsome at in my the same time? something only an actor with Berkoff#146;s brazen presence (and powerful lungs) could pull off. It#146;s a mistake, though, to consider these outbursts merely childish. They are rash, petulant and morally disgusting at times (the citizens of Rome may have bad breath, but they also have legitimate, heart-breaking grievances, which Coriolanus spurns simply because they are not as brave as he is) [20] . But it is love, honor, and pride that animate the general#146;s outbursts. And more importantly from product a dramatic point of view, although his verbal explosions finally cost him his life, they were absolutely thrilling to see? which tells us how badly we crave making them ourselves. Those who can consistently live this way are (or so we dream) outrageously, unfathomably heroic? even when they are funny, and even in an age as cynical and Americas Fight during the 1940s despairing as ours.

Berkoff writes: I always like characters who are much larger than life and believe these are the people the audience craves, that they may gain hope and energy from their example to product us. Audiences don#146;t want creatures who are the mirror of Save, their own ghastliness and pettiness. [21] Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus was pretty ghastly himself at times (e.g., when he cooly twisted an arrow out substitute product, of the throat of an enemy soldier)? but he was never petty, and how can i make a difference he radiated energy and hope right up to his dying breath (which Berkoff mimed brilliantly? for once with absolutely no laughter impinging on the scene, as I show later). Substitute Product! It also should be noted that? in spite of the fact that its Coriolanus was definitely a #147;gangsta#148; general? this production was kept free of even a grain of fascist chic or the worship of violence.

This was accomplished, among other ways, by one of the brilliant pieces of mime in the production? a slow-motion epiphany in blue light of Roman and Volcian soldiers methodically murdering one another with knives, swords, spears, and garrote cords? always ambushed from behind, blind-sided, a kind of danse macabre, war as serial-assassination. This haunting, almost unbearable sequence (all Berkoff, of course, not Shakespeare) was as devastating an #147;anti-war#148; statement as it could be? quite a trick in a play whose protagonist was made so strangely endearing and grand precisely because he#146;s both a Rambo-like fighter and an impious comedian [22] . In any case, it#146;s absolutely clear that Berkoff was not engaging in any Nietzschean fantasies of the the Rainforest! Essay warrior as Obermann? the play#146;s insistent, raucous laughter is product, one guarantee of this. Another guarantee was the production#146;s unique dramatization of vijay tendulkar, gender. 3. Berkovian Gender-Bending. Gender images and inversions of substitute, them were perhaps the most important, original element in the production. This is a subtle thing to convey. If you have seen Berkoff#146;s rampant virility on in Equality stage? and product how suddenly and convincingly he can shift into a thoroughly feminine tenderness, the point is i make community, self-evident.

But what can we say analytically? Are we to think that Coriolanus and Aufidius are gay? Others have hinted at something of the sort, and not just with regard to this play. Wyndham Lewis again: There is [a] curious demented sensuality that [Shakespeare] is fond of attributing to substitute product military rivals, but which is not an element calculated to increase the atmosphere of respect at their feats of and Peril at the with, daring: it even makes them? the Hotspurs, Achilles, Hals, and so forth? a little ridiculous. [23] Lewis#146;s #147;demented#148; is homophobic of course, but he does point to something real? only to get it all wrong once again.

Berkoff shows us just how wrong? for as Berkoff plays him, Coriolanus may very well be gay or bisexual, but that is clearly not what matters. What matters is that he is a tremendous warrior who lives his code with a ferocious joie de vivre and integrity that even his worst enemy acknowledges and envies. There certainly was an substitute, ample, strident sensuality in Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus; but he was not ridiculous? he was awesome. His submissive or #147;effeminate#148; nature (registered most obviously in his submission to Mother Volumnia), far from following characteristic of an organic organization? seeming demented was the most human thing about product him (though often comic). If anything, it served to increase our appreciation of his warrior prowess. For instance, when Coriolanus storms through the gates of Corioli by Chicano’s Struggle himself [24] ? or even when he tosses off his double-breasted, pin stripe suit coat, rolls up his sleeves and gives the rowdy mob a good thrashing to the musical strains of the product theme from the Bat Man TV show? we are all the more impressed that this farcical punishment is being administered being by a man who speaks of real combat as if he were speaking of sex: it#146;s luscious, it#146;s irresistible, it#146;s what makes life worth living for the warrior? a supreme high, a kind of #147;warrior drug.#148; [25] Such language may sound more like a bizarre army recruiting spiel than Shakespeare? but Berkoff stands on solid textual ground here. After Coriolanus has been banished from Rome, Aufidius (clearly an i make in my community, alter-ego to the hero) greets him in Antium with a note of sheer erotic ecstasy: Mine arms about that body, where against.

My grained ash an hundred times hath broke, And scarr#146;d the moon with splinters: here I clip. The anvil of my sword, and do contest. As hotly as nobly with thy love. As ever in ambitious strength I did. Contend against thy valor. Product! Know thou first,

I loved the maid I married; never man. Sigh#146;d truer breath; but that I see thee here, Thou noble thing! More dances my rapt heart. Than when I first my wedded mistress saw. Bestride my threshold. ( V , v ) What a preposterous (but dazzling) piece of poetry! No historical figures? the how can i make a difference in my homosexual armies of Sparta included? ever spoke like this [26] . But this is theatre, not history; and language aside, only the most provincial among us in the Year of Our Lord 2002 still need to be convinced that gay men can be tough? and as capable of military valor as John Wayne ever was. [27]

In any case, Berkoff#146;s vision of this bloody Roman warrior and lover of warriors was full of an urbane, lyrical laughter, and substitute product male-to-male sensuality. The lusty, hugging, back-slapping meetings and mock fights that went on between Coriolanus and his men? and also between him and the General Cominius? were boisterous and Americas on Communism during the 1940s Essay strangely tender at once [28] . Substitute Product! These warriors love each other. Any other way of putting it would be a distortion. That such a love should occasionally verge on erotic intensity may seem surprising to Save Essay some; but these two ingredients? Coriolanus#146;s homoeroticism and his exuberant, laughing joy in it? gave Berkoff#146;s production a strangely moving quality. It wasn#146;t #147;queer Shakespeare#148; for shock value; it was gender-bending for the sake of dramatic truth: complexity, gradations, overlappings, and contradictions rather than rigid male-female dichotomies were what this production found in the warrior life. The scenes of product, combat between Coriolanus and Aufidius took this all a step further [29] . When the two generals locked up in mortal combat, Berkoff played it entirely with mimed swords? i.e. the actors wielded #147;invisible#148; weapons. There was no sound-effect for the clash of blades? only the Save the Rainforest! mimed shock-wave of arrested force registered in the freeze-frame of crossed blades and contorted bodies, simultaneous with loud, gut-rending grunts from the actors. After each swing of swords, they stood momentarily face to face, eye to eye in this embrace, trembling in muscular exertion, sweating, growing red, breathing like race horses, pouring pure animal rage into each other#146;s eyes. It was, in short, an orgasmic image. What does Berkoff mean by it?

On the substitute one hand, I think he was simply rendering the rush of vijay tendulkar, combat that some men experience? though not all, by any means [30] . Substitute! Such a high is brought on simply by human biology? the vijay tendulkar so-called #147;fight-flight-or-fuck#148; neurophysiological response that occurs in the body under conditions of extreme stress [31] . This is the substitute ultimate source of the homoeroticism in the play. It does not #147;explain#148; the Americas on Communism the 1940s Essay play or Berkoff#146;s interpretation of it; but it gives us a context and vantage point from which to view the substitute love-hate relationship that Coriolanus has with his greatest enemy. Thus when Aufidius finally kills Coriolanus, Berkoff staged it as a kind of mock sexual intercourse, with the at the Peak with Essay Volcian warrior standing astride the supine body of his foe, plunging his mimed spear down in a furious spasm of consummation. Substitute! At this moment in Americas on Communism Essay the play, all the Berkovian homoerotic laughter was drained off and substitute replaced with cold fury, grief, and confusion [32] . Which is to Struggle say that gender-bending images in Berkoff are sometimes comic, but they are not mere superficial fun. Life contains more, finally, than gender or laughter can comprehend. It can also contain despairing rage that will sometimes vent itself in a vile parody of the substitute product sexual act. So when we see Aufidius #147;fucking#148; Coriolanus in Prosperity Peak with the death scene, it is not pornographic mockery or camp Freudian symbolism. It is a moment of genuine human mystery and tragedy. In another, better world, these men, we now understand, might have been lovers instead of mortal enemies.

4. Berkoff#146;s Mothers and Sons. Coriolanus has a wife and substitute mother, as well as an enemy. Where are the women placed in Berkoff#146;s gender universe? The wife Virgilia stays pretty much where Shakespeare puts her? at the margin. She has few lines and less dramatic impact [33] . Chicano’s! She is the mother of the next Coriolanus, a boy who shreds butterflies for product fun. Coriolanus is i make, indifferent to her, and Shakespeare paints her and substitute product her friend, Valeria, in chilly colors [34] : The moon of which of the is a characteristic of an organization?, Rome, chaste as the icicle. That#146;s curdied [congealed] by the frost from purest snow, And hangs on Dian#146;s temple; (V,iii) It is not Virgilia who stirs passion in substitute Coriolanus? it is his mother, the formidable Volumnia and Chicano’s Struggle in Equality the very archetype of a Roman Mother [35] . In my view, she is the key to the play and the center of its gender images.

The costuming of the two women in substitute Berkoff#146;s production was striking. Both wore long, velvet gowns with long trains, Virgilia#146;s in Prosperity at the Peak with Essay dark lavender, Volumnia#146;s in blood red. Product! Coriolanus#146;s mother is the incarnation of his warrior soul. She declares she would rather lose a dozen sons in battle than have a single coward survive. She has groomed Coriolanus into what he is: the perfect warrior, the incompetent politician. And it is she, as mentioned earlier, who nags her son into the Rainforest! Essay, asking (begging, he would say) for product a consulship, which brings on his death? and very nearly the destruction of Rome as well.

Ultimately, it is she and she alone who saves Rome from her own Frankenstein-monster son whom she has lost control of in her relentless ambition for power in his name. What kind of gender statement does all this make? I think Berkoff and how can a difference Shakespeare concur: mothers are indeed the Magna Mater, larger, more central, and most importantly, more flexible than sons. Volumnia is product, clearly warrior-like herself? but (and this is and Peril at the Peak Pericles Essay, everything in the play) she, unlike her son, is not just one thing. Like Homer#146;s Odysseus, Volumnia, as her name hints, is product, polutropos? many skilled. She is a shrewd politician and a loyal, #147;nurturing#148; Roman (she would never attack her native city, Mother Rome).

She does not confuse ends and means, as Coriolanus does so pitifully. She does not lose her temper (at least not in public, where it would be a political liability). She knows when to be still, when to compromise, when to cut her losses, when to sue for the Rainforest! Essay peace. She clearly would have made an able consul, or even Senator, herself. Why none of this is passed on to her male child is substitute product, not stated or intimated in the play? but it is there, a fact looming as large as war itself and some men#146;s single-minded aptitude for it. These elements are most vividly traced in Prosperity and Peril Pericles Essay two scenes? one where Volumnia badgers Coriolanus into trying to gain a consulship, and in the reconciliation scene near the end when she saves Rome but dooms Coriolanus to his fate at the hands of the product Volcians.

The first is played comically by Berkoff, the second as sheer pathos. When Volumnia forces her son to curry the favor of the plebeians he loathes (III, ii), she exercises her mother#146;s prerogative in an almost merciless way. Surely, we think, she must see this can only end in disaster! But when Coriolanus whines his reluctance, she chides him: #147;Pray be counseled / I have a heart as little apt [compliant] as yours, / But yet a brain that leads my use of which of the organization?, anger / To better vantage.#148; She is speaking here, not just as Mommy, but also as the perfect Machiavellian prince? head over heart, long term interest over short, anger as a strategic weapon, not as a self-indulgent trigger to martial prowess for its own sweet sake. In bearing, she is substitute product, also a mother scolding her child into taking his medicine? he must hold his nose and swallow, damn it! This goes down with Coriolanus like treacle, of Chicano’s Struggle in Equality, course, and Berkoff plays it with much mugging and grimacing, as Volumnia continues the siege: Now, this no more dishonors you at all.

Than to take in a town with gentle words. I would dissemble with my nature, where. My fortunes and substitute my friends [ are ] at stake. I prithee now, my son, Go to them with this bonnet in Americas Fight during thy hand. Thy knee bussing the substitute product stones.

Now humble as the ripest mulberry#133; Again, great poetry and sound political advice? but Coriolanus is someone who cannot dissemble with his nature; and so his answer to Save the Rainforest! Essay Volumnia is the pathetic cry of a boy being told he must stop playing and come in substitute product the house. #147;Must I?#148; he groans over and over again? but he#146;s no match for Americas Fight during Mom. Product! He crumbles before her like the boy he is at heart (and perhaps knows he is, hence his uncontrollable fury when Aufidius insults him by Chicano’s calling him a boy? i. e., not a warrior). The definitive moment comes with Volumnia#146;s simple statement: #147;You are too absolute.#148; Warriors are like that! we want to product say back to her? but she herself is a Roman warrior-matron, caught up in the ethos of an imperial state, and would not hear [36] . Yet as indicated before, Volumnia is Save Essay, also an product, ambitious, capable politician. How Can A Difference! Her tragedy and her son#146;s is that while she cannot be a soldier, she could do all the other things she longs for him to do. Substitute! He is not #147;man enough#148;? or, since he is so inflexible, maybe we should say not woman enough. In the reconciliation scene (V, iii) where Coriolanus spares Rome for vijay tendulkar his mother#146;s sake, similar things occur, but with the comedy of grown-man-turned-peevish-boy entirely absent. This time Coriolanus probably knows in advance that he will lose the argument with his mother once more? and that the consequences will be fatal. I melt and product am not. Of stronger earth than others.

My mother bows. As if Olympus to a molehill should. In supplication nod. Like a dull actor now. I have forgot my part and I am out [speechless] Now, the #147;dull actor#148; in Berkoff#146;s lexicon is one who does not perform like a warrior (as the dead metaphor #147;real trooper#148; implies? and hence the #147;full disgrace#148; to an admirer of Henry Irving.) The Olympus-molehill hyperbole is an Americas Fight during, extreme expression of the mother-son dynamics operating throughout the substitute play. Here, Coriolanus, would-be sacker of Americas Fight the 1940s, Rome, salutes Volumnia as #147;the most noble mother of the substitute world#148; and kneels to her? only to have her, to how can i make a difference his horror, kneel to him! She knows exactly what the circumstances demand and, like a warrior, does it.

But the pathos in her words, even as she ruins him, is immense: #147;Thou art my warrior; / I holp to frame thee#148; (my italics). This doesn#146;t mean that Mother V is about to go easy on product sonny, however. She charges him with being on the verge of: Making the mother, wife, and child, to see. The son, the how can a difference in my community husband, and the father, tearing. His country#146;s bowels out#133; . Substitute! thou shalt no sooner. March to assault thy country than to tread. (Trust to it, thou shalt not!) on thy mother#146;s womb.

That first brought thee to this world. When Coriolanus still resists momentarily, Volumnia delivers the final blow: This fellow had a Volcian to Prosperity and Peril at the Peak with Pericles Essay his mother; His wife is in product Corioli, and his child. Like him by chance. Coriolanus simply collapses? responding with words that reanimate and enlarge other themes of the play: O mother, mother! What have you done?

Behold, the heavens do ope, The gods look down, and this unnatural scene. They laugh at. O my mother, mother! O! You have won a happy victory to Chicano’s Struggle in Equality Essay Rome; But, for your son? believe it, O, believe it!? Most dangerously you have with him prevailed.

Laughter again? but this time icy, abstract, #147;unnatural.#148; Berkoff rolled those #147;o#146;s#148; like the long, lonely howls of substitute product, a wolf. It was an eerie effect? the Fight during the 1940s Essay confused, grief-stricken juvenile-male wolf being driven away from his mother#146;s den to fend for himself for the first time. Substitute Product! (And note how beautifully Berkoff#146;s earlier comic wolf howl about Aufidius prepared us for this moment!) Coriolanus had abandoned Rome, but he had never abandoned his mother, and never could have. Perhaps he now understands that Volumnia is #147;Mother Rome,#148; the she-wolf that suckled Remus and Romulus. This laughter-gender conjunction, then, produces, not human comedy, but cosmic irony, the kind that ordinarily only the gods can perceive? and inflict on mortals. Coriolanus may have caught a glimpse here of how much bigger than warriors mothers really are [37] . Volumnia has, in effect, spilled his blood when even Mars himself could not do it. (Aufidius is the actual executioner, but he is empowered by Volumnia#146;s prior spiritual defeat of her son.) Before the vijay tendulkar play ends, however, we do return, briefly and bitterly, to substitute product the realm of human laughter. The fatal insult that Aufidius hurls (#147;thou boy of tears#148;) is a blatant lie? but still one that provokes a sense of Save the Rainforest! Essay, betrayal in substitute Coriolanus as deep, as suggested earlier, as that between lovers.

Taking the bait, Coriolanus snarls back: Boy! False hound! If you have writ your annals true, tis there. That, like an eagle in Americas on Communism during the 1940s a dovecote, I. Fluttered your Volcians in Corioli. A lot depends on how we hear the substitute product word boy in this speech.

If we hear it as Berkoff wants us to? with ironic compassion? then the issues of gender and laughter align in a coherent, powerful way. If we hear it superficially, if it glints only with macho vanity, then the play teeters on the brink of bathos. On Communism The 1940s Essay! It is at precisely this moment that the like of #147;like a warrior#148; is most delicately poised. I submit that Berkoff knows perfectly well the substitute product risks he runs here, knows that boys and (supposedly) mature men actually think and talk this way ? and that, from which characteristic of an organization? a human point of substitute product, view, it is pitiful that they do. At the Essay same time, in Berkoff#146;s strong stage voice, these words can cut into almost any man#146;s soul, no matter how mature he is. There is irreducible biological programming under all the strutting bravado that Berkoff wants us to substitute product honor [38] . #147; Alone I did it.#148;? male vanity and male glory inextricably fused, a boast all the Americas Fight on Communism the 1940s Essay more silly and satisfying because it is true (we#146;ve seen it with our own eyes earlier in the play). Substitute! Not many men today will admit that this kind of bravado thrills them in some fundamental way; but it does? and Berkoff, rather than denying it or euphemizing it, glories in it. Thus he has it both ways: he lets himself play warrior with grim ferocity? and invites us to laugh at characteristic of an organic organization? and with him for doing so! This yielded some great theatre? and also a profound comment on gender in our times as well as Shakespeare#146;s [39] . What Coriolanus means is plain enough. (#147;I#146;m not a boy, I#146;m a warrior? and substitute you damn well know it, Aufidius!#148;) But ironically, the accusation stands? for Essay we have just seen that Coriolanus is a boy when confronted by substitute product his mother. Save! Berkoff#146;s general, then, is in part a stereotypical spoiled brat, a rampant mamma#146;s boy.

Yet in context? given that this boy has just relinquished his lust to burn Rome in product revenge for its lack of appreciation of his valor? what does being a boy mean except that he is human, a creature of Americas Fight on Communism during the 1940s, flesh and blood, laughter and tears, pride and humility, reason and product emotion? and not just a remorseless warrior. This is all that saves Rome. It is all that saves any of us? and I think it is ultimately what attracts Berkoff to this otherwise hugely unattractive character. Coriolanus#146;s epitaph might read: #147;He loved his mother.#148; [40] 5. Death of a Warrior.

The death scene in Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus was perhaps its most brilliant and violent moment? and Essay its most audacious use of #147;physical theatre.#148; Here is what happens. First, several Volcian soldiers mime stabbing Coriolanus. He falls to the floor, on his back, head to substitute the audience. Then, in the mock-sexual consummation described earlier, Aufidius mimes spearing him in the heart. The Rainforest! Essay! At first, we think it is all over? but no!? Coriolanus moans, grabs the substitute invisible spear which impales him, flexes up on his heels, and proceeds to slowly rotate on its axis 360 degrees until he lies head toward the the Rainforest! Essay audience again? where he then, to our utter astonishment, slowly pulls the spear out of his body, hand over hand. Then and only then he dies. It#146;s every actor#146;s dream. (Was there ever a death scene more over the top?) Described in words, it may sound preposterous, but on stage it was fantastically successful. Product! It seemed to last forever, even though it only took a few minutes at Prosperity and Peril Essay most. Substitute! You could hear a pin drop during it? except for Essay a) the substitute loud thuds of Berkoff#146;s boots on the floor as he slowly levered himself around on the spear, and b) his grunts of exertion at each rotation. On one level, this scene was macabre? an animal#146;s death, the last thrashing of a speared lion, an actor#146;s expression of supreme bravado, but ghastly and dream-like.

In the brief moment before Coriolanus is which of the following is a characteristic, carried off stage, we almost wondered: will he come back to life one more time even now? Then, when he didn#146;t, when we understood that it was only pure will that kept him going and that he was finally biologically dead, there was a crushing sense of despair that arose, an substitute, intimation of just how totally all things? gender and Chicano’s in Equality laughter included? are annihilated in death. But the play does not end with death? it ends with the substitute product funeral ode of Aufidius. As Coriolanus#146;s body is Pericles, marched off on product the shoulders of the Volcian troops, Aufidius loses his rage and laments: #147;Yet he shall have a noble memory.#148; After the i make community play#146;s long detour into substitute, the world of the Prosperity and Peril Pericles Mother, we are now back in the world of the warrior-code, the substitute product homage of one soldier to another. So the line has great ironic tension in it, coming from the vijay tendulkar man who called this warrior #147;boy#148; and then murdered him. Aufidius had once revered Coriolanus (#147;Thou noble thing!#148;), had loved him more than his bride. Now that he is dead and only a memory, he is noble once more. Warrior and child are one. Substitute! This may be, in Hardy#146;s words, #147;wishing it might be so#148;? but in the power of the production it seemed fully justified. The line also bears comparison to how can i make a difference in my community the eulogy rendered to substitute Hamlet (Berkoff#146;s #147;moral warrior,#148; remember).

When Horatio bids farewell to Hamlet with #147;Flights of angels sing thee to thy rest,#148; he invokes the Christian mythology of afterlife, divine perfection, and absolute salvation. None of that obtains in Americas Fight the pagan setting of product, Coriolanus, where the which following characteristic dead live eternally only in memory; and though the memory of the warrior and substitute product his rigid code may be noble in its own way, in its boy#146;s dream of pure valor, here in the real world? with women and how can a difference in my community children in substitute product it? we can no longer accommodate him. He would burn Rome [41] . He is too absolute. The son must die, that the mother might live. Men who love their enemies more than their wives; a fierce warrior who is vijay tendulkar, a little boy; a mother who is a stronger warrior than her soldier son; warriors crying and mothers sternly demanding; mothers giving their sons life and then condemning them to product death? these, I argue, are the tropes of the Rainforest! Essay, gender at work in Shakespeare#146;s Coriolanus; and Berkoff exploited them as no one before him had, by bathing them in his own virile, keenly ironic laughter. Perhaps such concerns are even more unavoidable in our time than in the Elizabethan age. Ours, after all, is the product era of global ecological disaster, ethnic cleansing, and mass starvation, all of which seem to elude correction by even our best-intentioned leaders? most of whom are male and, as such, inheritors of the warrior ethos, however attenuated and i make euphemized. If #147;the warrior#148; is to have a favorable memory at all, much less a noble one, he must die? and soon? that Mother Gaia might live. Product! We all understand that by now, don#146;t we?

Shakespeare saw it four hundred years ago. Berkoff sees it too? and makes us see it afresh. The warrior, he says, dies hard? unbelievably hard? but (to adapt a phrase from Struggle in Equality Dickens) he dies, thank god, he dies! Rome breathes easier with him gone. Product! He could never have been content in the Pax Romana. However, Berkoff#146;s bravura death scene forces a final question to the surface of the play? and exposes the #147;like#148; in Struggle in Equality Essay his #147;like a warrior#148; ethos once more, in product a very poignant way. If Coriolanus had magically defeated death? as he almost seems to do in his prodigious battle with the invisible spear? or if he were resurrected in our own time, who would this warrior be today? A Black Ops guy or Navy Seal, maybe? but where in Save the Rainforest! civilian life could he find the kind of substitute, passion and laughter which he once found in war? There#146;s only one place, of course: on the stage, playing himself in one of Shakespeare#146;s most moving and unnerving plays.

What is the secret of Coriolanus#146;s soul? All we really know is that he is a creature of great passion? of great hates, to be sure, but mostly of great loves? for his mother, his country, his honor, his profession, his men, and himself (in pretty much that order, Berkoff implies? a radical reading of the play in itself!). Vijay Tendulkar! What Coriolanus presents is an old, terrible paradox. Love and valor are simply not enough in life? and trying to live as if they were is pretty sure, sooner or later, to substitute product get you hated, banished, or even killed; but those who live without a supreme dedication to such values have, to is a of an organization? some degree, murdered their own humanity, their honor, even their own salvation. This does not sound like a theme compatible with laughter, but in the genius of Berkoff#146;s theatre, it can be. 6. Product! Coda - Berkoffs Shakespeare and Ours.

I like to create each production. in a way that has never been conceived or imagined before, as if there had never been a theatre. I approach each piece with the avowed intention of making this the goal and salvation of a difference, my life, as if my sanity lies in substitute solving the puzzle [of the play.]? Steven Berkoff [42] The last conventional Shakespeare is banished from the scene, and a variety of Prosperity and Peril at the Essay, unconventional Shakespeares take his place. About any one so great. it is probable that we can never be right; and if we can never be right. we should from time to time change our way of being wrong. ? T. Product! S. Eliot [43] Just how unconventional is Berkoff? I would argue that this is not the best way to put the vijay tendulkar question. The real issue is: how unconventional was Shakespeare? My answer is: tremendously. In spite of his sometimes near-hysterical fear of substitute, regicide (and its flip side, flattery of the reigning monarch); in spite of the fact that he sometimes clings to a medieval world-view; and in spite of Prosperity Peak Pericles, a misogynist moment or two? Shakespeare was, I believe, at some deep spiritual level, a truly radical artist, fully alert to substitute product the profound cultural changes which we now call the Renaissance, and embracing as many of them as he could.

After all, the really conventional plays and playwrights of which is a characteristic of an, every era are consigned to oblivion. To last, in art, is to be #147;unconventional,#148; if not always in surface form, then in inspiration, in vision. Shakespeare may or may not be the writer most responsible for product #147;the invention of the human#148; (as Harold Bloom rather glibly puts it [44] ); but he has spoken to Save more of us over the last 400 years about substitute product what being human means than any other writer in English. So if Berkoff has merely changed our way of being wrong about the a difference community Bard, we#146;ll know it soon enough. In the meantime, we can revel in his unconventional productions, warts and all? though to my mind the substitute product warts are few if any. Coriolanus is the only Berkoff I#146;ve been fortunate enough to Pericles see in live performance, but it is not, of course, the only Shakespeare he has mounted. He has also done a much acclaimed (and equally unconventional) Hamlet? and written about substitute both experiences at length [45] . Fight During! In addition, his own plays are saturated with Shakespearean language, which definitely falls trippingly from substitute his tongue. Berkoff has, I suspect, absorbed the Bard in vijay tendulkar a way that few of his peers have.

In one interview, he remarks: #147;I love the language, I love the substitute arias, the with Essay musicality. Just to play Shakespeare is very good for substitute the human soul, very spiritually cleansing.#148; [46] These are hardly the words of a man whose sense of the unconventional is limited to costume, stage design, mime, or chances to ham it up (though he loves all that). Sure, his portrait of i make in my community, a Roman general as a strutting Mussolini has a certain shock value? pure theatricality, which the product East-End tough in Berkoff no doubt delights in Americas Essay throwing in substitute the face of the RSC Oxford-and-Cambridge crowd. But Shakespeare himself played to the pit more than once? and his raucous spirit of how can i make a difference in my community, misrule (not just in Falstaff or Sir Toby Belch, but more radically and complexly in Caliban) is as much at the heart of his art as are the patrician musings of substitute, Hamlet and his Wittenbergian ilk. You might say that Berkoff produces Shakespeare as a liberated Caliban might have? with the Essay kind of fury and wisdom available only to those who come from substitute product a despised and Prosperity and Peril Peak with Essay outcast class. If London#146;s East End was Berkoff#146;s prison, then when he won his freedom? as he surely has over substitute product, several decades of magnificent work? we should not expect him to act like Ariel. He has done it his way. He has moved across the international theatrical world of Save, our time in much the same way as Coriolanus sees himself when he is banished from Rome: #147;I go alone / Like to a lonely dragon.#148;

Copyright 2002 Ken Lauter. Included on the site with the substitute product kind permission of i make in my, Ken Lauter.