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bibliographic essay [Posted here on 31 January 2002, with kind permission of the ne, author and when did confucius CHOICE: current reviews for element, academic libraries (Middletown, CT: Association of College and Research Libraries) July/August 2001, Vol. 38, No.11/12, pp. 1899-1909 ( copyright by the American Library Association )] Author's Note: The following essay was written for Choice, the journal of the American Library Association, and non formal education includes books in the English language only. Element? Clearly there are many more excellent works in other languages in the history of cartography, which is truly an international field. Interested readers should search the bibliographies of Imago Mundi for references to these, or consult the bibliographies on the Education pages of the Groupe des Cartothcaires of LIBER. This essay provides an over-view of recent developments in the history of cartography, beginning with general works and resources, followed by an account of the age of discoveries, a watershed in what dc motor, the history of maps.

The study then looks back to the precursors of the medieval and classical periods, reviews non-Western maps and ne the colonial period, and concludes with the technological revolution in mapmaking of the present time. Most works are drawn from the last fifteen years, which have been dominated by the publication of the dc motor, multivolume The History of Cartography , edited by J. Brian Harley and David Woodward. Maps are now such commonplace objects and ne geographical forms so standardized in our minds that it is hard to imagine a world in which this was not so. For example, we recognize the shape of a familiar landmass like Africa, whether it appears on a map, a coffee mug or on the back of a teenager's partly shaved head. When our standard view is challenged, we are disturbed and non formal angry. Showing the Australian map of the world with south on top provokes a roar of outrage from element a college history class: Turn it right side up! But there is a history of cartography, a history of the development of mapping, and it is pig heart diagram not a simple story of forward progress. And there will be a history of future mapping, which may take forms as yet unimagined by us. The field of the history of cartography has been transformed in the past two decades. A map has been traditionally defined by geographers as a representation of things in space, a definition that implies a certain level of physical correspondence.

A new definition, according to ne Harley and Woodward, reads thus: Maps are graphic representations that facilitate a spatial understanding of things, concepts, conditions, processes, or events in the human world. This definition takes one away from seeing maps as objective representations of physical space into considering them as human documents with all their attendant biases and failings. Diagram? Such artifacts as diagrams of imaginary cosmographies, landscape paintings, and mental maps may now be considered maps. Element Ne? The working out of this definition is seen in its widest form in Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian and Pacific Societies (volume 2, book 3 of History of Cartography ), which discusses the dreaming diagrams of the non formal, Australian aborigines, the cosmographic calendars of the ne, Mayans, and pig heart diagram ritual sand paintings of the Navajos. These works are not maps in ne, the traditional sense, but they do incorporate spatial relationships and did confucius individual places, often in ne, terms of spiritual significance. Waiting Summary? Traditionally, the history of cartography had been dominated by geographers and element was viewed as a triumphal march toward the increasingly accurate, measured maps of the present. Such a story culminates in the use of precise tools, aerial surveillance, satellite mapping, and Geographic Information Systems. The maps of the past tended to be discounted as crude and clumsy approximations of real space.

Not that these early map historians were slipshod-despite the changes in the orientation of the field, classics, such as books by education, Raymond Beazley ( The Dawn of Modern Geography ), George Kimble ( Geography in the Middle Ages ), and John Wright ( The Geographical Lore of the Time of the element ne, Crusades ), still have much to teach us in their careful examinations of individual maps. As historians of cartography have moved away from diagram geographical accuracy as the element, chief quality of a map, they examine instead maps in themselves. Adult Development? What was the mapmaker intending to ne show? Is it possible that measurement was not particularly important and that some other consideration shaped the is a, map in question? Editors Harley and Woodward address these questions in Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean (volume 1 of The History of Cartography ), which appeared in 1987 and pulls together the research of ne many scholars of the preceding decades. Its effect can hardly be underestimated, judging from the burgeoning research that has followed its publication. Volume 2 is published in three parts: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies, Cartography in Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies , and the book on traditional non-European societies cited above. Volume 3, on pig heart, the cartography of the European Renaissance, will be issued shortly. Subsequent volumes will take the history up to the present time.

The field of the history of cartography has attracted scholars from a number of academic fields. Element? Art historians, literary theorists, and political historians have joined geographers in studying and analyzing maps of the for superman documentary, past. Art and Cartography , a selection of ne essays edited by Woodward, is a particularly interesting illustration of the cross-fertilization of academic fields. At present there is no comprehensive one-volume history of cartography. Diagram? Leo Bagrow's classic History of Cartography , enlarged and revised by R. A. Element Ne? Skelton in 1966, was the last attempt, and now the waiting summary, multivolume History of Cartography , cited above, appears to be its replacement. The best brief introduction is by Norman J. Element Ne? W. Thrower, who recently published a new edition of his Maps and Men , having changed the title to Maps Civilization . Thrower, a geographer and cartographer, is most insightful on the modern period, where his mastery of the techniques of mapmaking is what supreme.

The book includes a helpful appendix with a glossary of mapping terms. Element? Peter Whitfield's The Image of the World: 20 Centuries of World Maps is less scholarly but has an ljmu referencing excellent selection of color illustrations. John Snyder's Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections is ne a general book about a more specialized subject. Snyder deals with the eternal problem of representing a more or less spherical Earth on a plane surface and describes various solutions that have been found. Summary? This is an excellent introduction to an important subject in ne, cartography, since the type of projection chosen can radically alter the appearance and meaning of the map. Catherine Delano-Smith and did confucius Roger Kain's English Maps: A History serves as a good overview of the field, although its subject is limited to maps made in England or for English use. The authors offer a comprehensive view of mapmaking and map use from the Middle Ages to the early twentieth century, putting maps into ne their cultural and non formal education political context. Element? For reference there is the useful Cartographical Innovations: An International Handbook of Mapping Terms to 1900 , edited by Helen Wallis and Arthur Robinson.

The book is made up of a series of brief essays on the terms, each followed by a bibliography. General categories include types of maps, maps of human occupations and activities, maps of natural phenomena, reference systems and geodetic concepts, symbolism, techniques and media, methods of duplication, and atlases. Individual essay topics include such subjects as satirical maps, wind roses, and longitude. Another good reference book is the regularly updated Who's Who in the History of Cartography , edited by Mary Alice Lowenthal. Primarily a guide to people working in the field, it also includes a useful introductory section, including a general bibliography, a list of important research centers and map collections, and documentary a list of journals. Since the history of cartography is an international field, one expects many of these sources to be in languages other than English.

Top of page. The flagship journal in the field is the venerable Imago Mundi , founded in 1935 and now into ne its 53rd volume. Published annually, it includes scholarly articles, book reviews, an annual bibliography, and a calendar of events in the field, such as lectures, conferences and exhibits. A list of the contents throughout its history can be found at the Imago Mundi Web site. Education? Among other useful journals is Terrae Incognitae , published by element, the Society for the History of Discoveries. It emphasizes the discoveries themselves, but many of the articles concern historical maps. The product of the Smith Center at the Newberry Library in Chicago, Mapline carries brief articles along with news about lecture series and information on the library's collections.

The Washington Map Society publishes The Portolan , which is issued three times a year, and includes longer articles and an excellent annual bibliography. Development Theory? A more popular publication is the bimonthly Mercator's World , which absorbed the journal Map Collector in 1996. It publishes nonacademic (i.e., no footnotes) articles on a wide range of map-related topics, with color illustrations. Though the publication has an impressive board of directors, the ne, articles are not always carefully edited-caveat lector! Mercator's World is directed at dc motor collectors as well as scholars and contains information on map auctions and sales, an important inclusion since map collectors play a significant role in the field of the history of cartography. Some are scholars in ne, their own right, and some have generously supported the academic world with lecture series, fellowships, and gifts to map libraries.

The main discussion list on the Internet is MapHist , founded in 1994 and monitored by David Cobb, librarian at Harvard University. Copies of the complete discussions on what is a, CD-ROM, with convenient index, are sold periodically. Element Ne? . The list broadcasts announcements of conferences, fellowships, and new books, as well as lively debates on map-related topics. Diagram? Participants include map dealers, librarians, college and university professors, graduate students, and amateur enthusiasts. The Web has two principal gatekeeper sites that provide links to element ne many other sources. The first, Map History/History of Cartography, is established at the Institute of Historical Research at the University of London. This site includes a general introduction to the subject as well as news and guides to library collections and what is a map dealers. A recently added link directs one to articles and books posted on the Web. There is also an e-journal, MapForum , which has published ten issues so far. The other site, Top of page. New theoretical approaches to the history of cartography can be found in element ne, The History of Cartography , particularly Harley's opening essay in volume 1. Ljmu? Harley is also the author of element ne Maps, Knowledge and Power in The Iconography of Landscape , edited by Denis Cosgrove and Stephen Daniels.

Here he makes clear the way that maps, rather than being objective sources of information, can be used to establish control, a theme now being expanded on by writers in specialized historical fields. Books by Mark Monmonier ( How to Lie with Maps, Drawing the Line ) apply these ideas with mostly modern examples, written in waiting for superman documentary, a breezy, popular style. Mappings , edited by element, Denis Cosgrove, includes a selection of articles across the historical spectrum, mostly incorporating postmodernist theory. Soon to appear in English translation from the University of Chicago Press is Christian Jacob's L'Empire des Cartes: Approche thorique de la cartographie travers l'histoire [Editor's update, May 2008 - the details are: Christian Jacob, The Sovereign Map: Theoretical Approaches in Cartography throughout History . Translated by Tom Conley. Edited by Edward H. Dahl. (University of Chicago Press, 2006)]. Trained as a classicist, Jacob ranges over the entire field of cartography, drawing examples from every period of did confucius live history. The term mapping is sometimes used so broadly by literary scholars in particular that a geographer would hardly recognize his original artifact. An example is Tom Conley's The Self-Made Map . This work, set in early modern France, does discuss such cartographers as Oronce Fin, but it ranges into element ne the cartographic writing of Rabelais, the arrangement of words on non formal, a page in printed texts, and the design of capital letters. An event that did much to establish a new view of map history was an exhibition titled The Power of element ne Maps, by the Smithsonian Institution in for superman documentary summary, 1992-93 and curated by Lucy Fellowes and Denis Wood.

The exhibition assembled an impressive collection of maps from various cultures and periods-from stick maps of the Marshall Islands and medieval manuscript maps to road maps of North Carolina-and provided a showcase for new techniques of mapping. A memorable display was an animated sequence showing the element ne, sea bottom beneath the polar ice sheets. There was no exhibition catalog, but Wood produced a book with the same title, describing how maps are often confused with reality, when in fact a map's selection of places and symbols transforms reality. Unfortunately, the book, a rambling personal essay, is poorly illustrated, always a drawback for a book about non formal education, maps. The postmodernist approach of Wood and ne others was criticized as an oversimplification by Jeremy Black in adult theory, Maps and Politics . The crucial event in European map history was the discovery of America and the simultaneous exploration of Africa and Asia. European geographers and mapmakers found it necessary to revise their view of the world. In the preceding century, several forces had come together (the rediscovery of Ptolemy's work, the refinement of nautical maps, the improvement of measuring techniques) to give intimations of a more scientific approach to cartography.

Thus, as new lands were discovered, mapmakers were able to fit them quickly into the world picture. This exploratory energy continued into the 20th century, when, for example, the Northwest Passage was finally navigated and mapped. Peter Whitfield's New Found Lands , after a brief account of ancient and ne medieval explorers, swings into high gear in the fifteenth century, carrying the story up to the end of the waiting for superman documentary, nineteenth century. An interesting insight into the progress of element ne discovery can be found in Lost Islands by Henry Stommel. He describes the persistence of nonexistent navigational hazards for years and introduces us to the fascinating 1856 catalog Rodgers' Register of Doubtful Dangers. Harley's Maps and the Columbian Encounter accompanied an exhibition commemorating the year 1492. Harley also produced a video of the same title, which drives home the point that Western maps were a factor in the domination and elimination of Native American cultures, overwhelming Native mapping traditions and place-names, and legitimizing conquest. Walter Mignolo makes the same point in The Darker Side of the Renaissance , a book emphasizing the irrational and self-justifying myths that lurked behind the waiting for superman, modern and reasonable facade of the Renaissance.

Two chapters specifically discuss the mapping of non-European countries by their colonizers. The invention of printing, which occurred almost at the same time, also had a great effect on maps, which could now be widely distributed with their uniformity maintained. Ne? The simultaneous spread of literacy meant that more people were capable of reading maps, and a market for waiting for superman documentary summary, their sale emerged. Five Centuries of Map Printing , edited by ne, David Woodward, is for superman summary a technical overview, issued on the 500th anniversary of the first printed map. Woodward observes that, while map printing led to an explosion in map availabil-ity, the process also limited the mapmaker in ne, such areas as color and pictorial elements. Excellent studies of early printed maps include Rodney W. Shirley's Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps, 1472-1700 , and Tony Campbell's Earliest Printed Maps, 1472-1500 . The first is a cartobibliography of adult maps of the world, while the latter includes all types of maps. Cartobibliographies are organized with an entry for each map. In Shirley's work, for example, each entry includes the name of the mapmaker (if known), the place and date of publication, the size, the title of the element ne, book, a brief description, and a photograph. Did Confucius? These are indispensable tools for the researcher. Sea Charts of the Early Explorers , a beautifully illustrated volume by Michel Mollat du Jourdin and Monique de la Roncire, begins with the first appearance of nautical charts in the West in the thirteenth century and shows how they were modified up through the seventeenth century. R.A.

Skelton's Explorers' Maps: Chapters in the Cartographic Record of Geographical Discovery is an older, but still informative book. Skelton closely links the various voyages to the maps that were used and ne those that resulted. Adult Development Theory? His notes and observations on the individual maps are always valuable. The European voyages of the sixteenth century led to an explosion in map production, which suddenly became a profitable business rather than a scholarly avocation. Two of the most famous sixteenth-century mapmakers, Abraham Ortelius (d.

1598) and Gerard Mercator (d. 1594), recently celebrated quadricentennials, which gave rise to a spate of conferences and element commemorative volumes. Ortelius's work is non formal education described in ne, essays written by Marcel van der Broecke and others in Abraham Ortelius and the First Atlas . Gerhard Mercator's The Mercator Atlas of Europe , edited by Marcel Watelet, reproduces a copy of this cartographer's atlas discovered in 1967 along with folio sheets from wall maps of Europe (1554), the British Isles (1564), and the world (1569). An accompanying text volume provides a group of interpretive essays. This is education a beautiful, but rather expensive, book. Unfortunately, the other retrospectives of Mercator's work are not yet available in English translation. The mapmakers of the sixteenth century are cataloged in Robert Karrow's Mapmakers of the Sixteenth Century and Their Maps: Bio-Bibliographies of the Cartographers of Abraham Ortelius, 1570 . Karrow takes the eighty-seven cartographers named in element ne, a list originally published by Ortelius in 1570, expands their biographies to include modern scholarship, and illustrates many of the non formal, maps. Two thousand maps are cataloged in this useful work. Mercator and Ortelius were both natives of the Netherlands, which dominated cartography in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Kees Zandvliet's Mapping for Money follows the activities of the Dutch, primarily through the East and West India Companies, which wanted accurate maps as tools to help them explore new markets.

An interesting feature of this book is the ne, section on topographical painting and when paintings that include maps. The painter Vermeer's works are widely known, but here one can see that he was part of a Dutch tradition that used maps in an iconic as well as practical fashion. In From Graven Images: Patterns of Modern Materialism , Chandra Mukerji discusses the map of the element ne, early capitalist period as both a consumer good and a capital good, an item for display and an item for business use. An ongoing series by Gnter Schilder, Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica , offers complete coverage to selected maps from this era, with text in both Dutch and English. The four volumes published so far come in pairs, with a text volume for each volume of beautifully produced facsimile maps and atlases. Jerry Brotton's Trading Territories emphasizes the commercial motives for exploration and mapping through several case studies, beginning with Portugal. The book opens with an analysis of a tapestry made to commemorate the wedding of Catherine of Austria to Joo III of Portugal in pig heart diagram, 1525.

The sovereigns are shown with a globe turned to reveal the overseas possessions of Portugal, the king's scepter resting on Lisbon. This book also emphasizes the role of the element, Ottoman Turks in the evolution of sixteenth-century maps. Sixteenth-century world maps dealt with the increasing knowledge of the diagram, Americas as they were explored. Many books cover this interesting phenomenon, showing how the now-familiar geographical shapes of the Western hemisphere emerged from the fog of the unknown. Worthy of special mention is Philip D. Burden's Mapping of North America , a cartobibliography of maps, 1511-1670.

A projected second volume will include maps from 1671 to 1700. Seymour I. Schwartz and element ne Ralph E. Ehrenberg's The Mapping of America is less inclusive but covers the entire period from 1500 to the present. This is an excellent general overview. A more specialized work, William P. Cumming's The Southeast in Early Maps , has recently been reissued in a revised edition by Louis DeVorsey. Live? This book, with 450 maps, covers the period from discovery to the American Revolution and the area between the northern border of Florida and the southern border of element ne Virginia.

The new edition includes an interesting chapter by DeVorsey on theory, Native American maps of the region. Dora Beale Polk's The Island of California: A History of the element, Myth examines the perennially interesting problem of mapping the California coast. Adult Development? The survival of numerous maps showing California as insular has been a great boon to the map trade. Governments began to use maps as tools not only for foreign conquest and economic exploitation but to ne establish control at home and for purposes of national defense. Monarchs, Ministers and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe , edited by education, David Buisseret, is a collection of articles dealing with England, France, Spain, Austria, Italy, and element ne Poland. This is the published version of the 1982 Nebenzahl Lectures, held annually at the Newberry Library in summary, Chicago. The essays explore, as the subtitle indicates, the increasing use of ne maps for political purposes. Education? Josef W. Konvitz's Cartography in France, 1660-1848: Science, Engineering, and Statecraft is a more extensive work on France. Konvitz traces the state sponsorship of cartography from the administration of Colbert under Louis XIV, through the eighteenth century, when France completed the first national mapping project in Europe, conducted by successive members of the Cassini family.

Konvitz shows how maps began to element ne be used for military purposes, for designing canals and roads, and for economic and social programs. As governments took over the making of maps, the maps became secret documents, forbidden to fall into the hands of the enemy. Maps had become a weapon in international competition, whether of a military or economic nature. The mapping and commercial career of another French cartographic family is ably described in Mary S. Pedley's Bel et Utile: The Work of when did confucius Robert de Vaugondy Family of Mapmakers . The maps that preceded the age of discoveries have been treated as curiosities, studied originally for their distortion of the world as we now perceive it. In the ne, works of Raymond Beazley, George Kimble, and John Wright (mentioned above), medieval maps were ridiculed for their simplicity and religiosity. More recently, the same maps have been analyzed in their own terms and found to be eloquent expressions of what is a dc motor a worldview that might inform our own. Chapters by David Woodward, Paul D.A.

Harvey, and Tony Campbell in volume 1 of The History of Cartography , edited by Harley and ne Woodward, are a good place to start. Paul Harvey also wrote Medieval Maps and Mappa Mundi: The Hereford World Map , which are brief, well-illustrated essays that provide a good overview. The new encyclopedia Trade, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages , edited by J. B. Friedman and others, includes many map-related entries. Evelyn Edson's Mapping Time and Space covers the pig heart, early period to 1300, examining the way medieval maps are often constructed to represent time (historical, theological) as well as space. Ne? A general work on the subject of measurement is Alfred W. Crosby's The Measure of Reality: Quantification and Western Society, 1250-1600 . Crosby considers the development of a devotion to measurement a crucial element in the West's rise to for superman documentary summary world domination.

Though not writing specifically about maps, he puts technical developments in mapping into a broader context. Local and element ne regional maps were made in the Middle Ages, but surviving examples are rare. In Imaginary Cartographies: Possession and Identity in Late Medieval Marseille , Daniel Smail laments that the medieval archive of Marseille contains not a single image even remotely like a map. He goes on live, to describe, however, the development of a mental (imaginary) cartography that becomes more uniform as the centuries progress. His work is based on the records maintained by notaries who recorded deeds, wills, and other property-related documents. He shows how local identifications of place were originally based on neighborhoods or landmarks but were eventually replaced by the image of the city as a network of ne streets, leading to the standardized street address of modern times. Local maps extant from the Middle Ages are discussed in the relevant chapter by Paul D.A. Harvey in The History of Cartography , volume 1. The larger medieval world maps are rare, delicate, and difficult to is a dc motor study, even on site. To remedy this problem some are now being reproduced on CD-ROMs.

The Bibliothque Nationale of France has issued the multilingual Mapamondi: Une carte du monde au XIVe sicle , featuring the Catalan Atlas, a large world map made in Majorca in 1375, reputedly by element ne, Abraham Cresques. The visuals are good, but the CD-ROM is difficult to navigate. Essays on various topics are unattributed, and adult development theory there is no index of place-names. It is more suitable for browsing than research, and dedicated students would do well to element ne seek out the deluxe book by the fourteenth-century Abraham Cresques, Mapamundi, the Catalan Atlas of the Year 1375 , edited by Georges Grosjean. The Hereford Cathedral map of c.1290 is the subject of Naomi Kline's A Wheel of Memory , a CD-ROM of the Hereford Mappamundi, from the University of Michigan. Non Formal Education? Rumor has it that the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice will soon issue a CD-ROM on their treasure, the Fra Mauro world map of 1450. Jeffrey Burton Russell takes on one of the most common misconceptions about the Middle Ages: that most people subscribed to the flat earth theory.

His book, Inventing the Flat Earth , proves convincingly that the earth was viewed as a sphere from the 6th century BCE forward. He traces the flat earth idea to Washington Irving's hagiographical treatment of Columbus in 1828, Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus . Russell's work is an interesting essay on the need of modern Europeans to believe in their technical superiority over other cultures, even their own past. The appearance of the Vinland map, which has produced so much controversy in the last 35 years, provided the element ne, impetus for some excellent scholarship. This map, found in a 15th-century manuscript and bound with an account of a 13th-century expedition to the court of the Great Khan, shows Vinland and Greenland as islands in the North Atlantic. Although the Norse discovery of Vinland about the year 1000 is did confucius live not in doubt, no early maps by these seafarers have ever been found. The map has been largely rejected by the academic world as a forgery, though it has its determined supporters, particularly at Yale where the map is housed. R.A. Skelton, Thomas E. Marston, and George D. Painter's The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation was published in 1965 and has recently been reissued in a slightly revised edition. Skelton's lengthy essay on the map and its antecedents is a fine introduction to medieval cartography.

The book contains a good facsimile of the disputed map. With few and element fragmentary exceptions, the earliest surviving maps in the West are medieval. Pig Heart? Hence there has been great speculation over the nature of the maps that preceded these, the maps of element ne Greek and Roman civilization, and to what extent their form and content were reflected in medieval maps. Literature provides evidence that such maps existed, but what did they look like? Claude Nicolet, in Space, Geography, and non formal Politics in the Early Roman Empire , has argued that the Roman Empire needed maps in order to element administer its wide-ranging domains.

At issue here are maps of large areas, such as the Agrippa map, a public monument erected in what is a, Rome during Augustus's reign. This work is described with tantalizing vagueness by Pliny (in his Natural History , 1469), with little indication of its physical appearance. Element? The widely accepted idea that this monument was a map is challenged by Kai Brodersen in Terra Cognita , a work so far not translated from the German. Dc Motor? He lists the various forms of the ne, map that scholars have proposed and scorns as creeping presentism the concept that one cannot govern a large empire without maps. In question is not whether the Romans were capable of surveying smaller areas, as evidenced by the surviving surveyor's manuals the Corpus Agrimensorum Romanum , but whether this facility extended to wider horizons.

For more on Roman surveyors, see Oswald A.W. Dilke's The Roman Land Surveyors . The closest thing there is to a survivor of a Roman world map is the Peutinger Table, a large strip or itinerary map covering the known world. There is, in the National Library of dc motor Vienna, a twelfth-century copy of a fourth-century copy of a first-century original. Element? The Tabula has been discussed by documentary, O.A.W. Dilke in Greek and ne Roman Maps , but for a set of good color illustrations, one should pore over the volume of plates accompanying Tabula Peutingeriana: Codex Vindobonensis 324 with commentary by Ekkehard Weber. Possibly designed for administrative purposes, the map shows the Roman roads, thoughtfully marked with baths and granaries where travelers could rest and refuel. The high point of scientific cartography in the classical world was the work of Claudius Ptolemy (c.90-160 CE).

In his Cosmographia he discussed various methods of map projection and what gave instructions for making a map based on a grid of latitude and longitude lines. He listed the coordinates of 8,000 places, some of them unfortunately in error. No maps survive from his day, but the element ne, maps were reconstructed in the late medieval period, both in Constantinople, where his work had survived, and in the Latin West to which it was imported and translated in the early fifteenth century. The work also survived in the Arab world but seems to have had little influence on mapmaking there. Ptolemy's work had a profound impact on is a, Renaissance cartography, revolutionizing mapmaking and pointing it toward the more physically oriented maps of the future. A translation of ne his Geographia , as The Geography , is waiting for superman documentary summary available with black-and-white reproductions of the maps in an edition by Edward L. Stevenson. For color reproductions (without the text) there is element Ptolemy's Geographia: Tabulae, Claudii Ptolomaei (Cosmography: Maps from Ptolemy's Geography) with an introduction by Lelio Pagani. Both of these editions are based on fifteenth-century manuscripts. Facsimiles of early printed editions of Ptolemy (such as the Cosmographia ) appeared in the 1960s, edited by R.A. Skelton.

For a current analysis of Ptolemy's work one should consult the chapter by O.A.W. Dilke in volume 1 of The History of Cartography , edited by Harley and ljmu referencing Woodward. Cartography became a hobby of Renaissance statesmen and artists, such as Leonardo da Vinci. The rulers of Italian and German cities were particularly interested in pictorial maps of their own cities. Between 1572 and 1618 a collection of 530 city maps was published in Cologne by George Braun and Frans Hogenberg. A selection of ne these maps is nicely reprinted by John Goss in George Braun's City Maps of Europe: 16th Century Town Plans from ljmu Braun Hogenberg . The British Library's The City in Maps: Urban Mapping to 1900 , by element, James Elliott, offers a more general overview of city maps, including those of Braun and Hogenberg.

One spectacular product of live Renaissance cartography is the gallery of maps in the Vatican, designed by element ne, Egnazio Danti in 1580. Forty maps of Italy, cities as well as regions, are arranged in geographical order as though the central corridor were the Appenine mountain range. Diagram? Scenes of saints and miracles on the ceiling are also geographically arranged, leading one to element the rather medieval conclusion that Italy is the New Holy Land. Lucio Gambi ably describes these murals in The Gallery of Maps in the Vatican , which is illuminated by luscious photographs. David Woodward takes a different approach in Maps as Prints in the Italian Renaissance: Makers, Distributors Consumers . Adult Development Theory? He is interested not only in how maps were made but in element ne, who sold them and who bought them and why. The maps of the non-Western world are the subject of the non formal, books making up volume 2 of The History of Cartography , edited by Harley and ne Woodward.

The Western mapping tradition, with its emphasis on measurement, rapidly came to dominate the what is a, cultural dialogue over the representation of space during the imperial era. Element Ne? Some extremely interesting recent works examine this process. In her book The Mapping of New Spain , Barbara Mundy studies a survey ordered in 1580 by the Spanish Viceroy of what is a dc motor New Spain, an area covering central Mexico. A wide-ranging questionnaire was sent out to element local officials, who were also asked to provide maps of diagram their territory. The resulting maps vary widely in ne, form, symbolism, and content, some following a Westernized mapping style and others clearly the product of a preexisting Aztec tradition. Mundy's analysis is supported with good illustrations. Another important work is Thongchai Winichakul's Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation , which describes the what, intersection of traditional Thai with Western colonial concepts of nationhood in the nineteenth century, resulting in a delineation of Siam's boundaries and the formation of what the author calls the geo-body of Thailand. Element? This process was map driven, in that the map did not represent the referencing, existing reality, but brought a new reality into being.

The traditional idea of Siam was based on element ne, a hierarchy of rulers rather than a delimited territory. The kingdom was focused on did confucius, the center with vaguely determined edges. Pushed by border disputes with France and England, the monarchy took the mapping initiative. In the process of element redefining Siam, the victims were the small semiautonomous border states with shifting and multiple allegiances. This book provides excellent and unusual insight into the role of maps in the interaction between Western and non-Western governments in the colonial era in Southeast Asia. When Did Confucius Live? Better illustrations, in color, of the Thai maps can be found in ne, Thomas Surez's Early Mapping of Southeast Asia . Although European maps are the primary focus of Surez's book, there is a brief introductory section on native Asian maps. The beautifully illustrated China in adult theory, Ancient and Modern Maps , edited by Yan Ping and element others, covers 2,000 years of map history in a cartobibliographic format. Development? Richard J. Smith's Chinese Maps: Images of All under Heaven is produced in a very small format and the illustrations are almost impossible to see, but the text is element ne extremely interesting. Smith's text and Yan's pictures are a good introduction to pig heart the field, more fully covered in The History of Cartography , volume 2, book 2.

Matthew H. Element? Edney's Mapping an what dc motor Empire: The Geographical Construction of British India, 1765-1843 deals with imperialist issues from the element ne, European side. The main subject of his book is the immense project of mapping the Indian subcontinent, carried out by British overlords. Control was definitely the issue here, but, as Edney points out, there was much disorganization and bureaucratic confusion. He also puts the mapping project in the context of the Enlightenment, with its positivist approach to knowledge of the physical world, a subject treated more extensively in waiting for superman documentary summary, Geography and Enlightenment , edited by David Livingstone and Charles Withers. In conjunction with Edney's book, one might watch Measuring India, the ne, eighth segment in referencing, the film series Shape of the World from the 1991 production by Granada TV.

Simon Berthon and Andrew Robinson wrote a book based on the film series. Edney criticizes some of the assumptions made in the film's more superficial account. Ne? The mapping of Europe's colonies inspired similar projects at home. Colonial Ireland was the first part of the British Isles to be mapped, as described by J.H. Pig Heart? Andrews in A Paper Landscape: The Ordnance Survey in Nineteenth-Century Ireland , followed by England's admirable Ordnance Survey maps. In the course of the element, nineteenth century, most European countries, and the United States, were surveyed in national mapping projects. At the development, same time, new types of maps that were useful to reforming governments were emerging.

Thematic maps, first developed to show physical (and potentially profitable) phenomena such as mineral deposits, were adapted to element display social and diagram economic themes. Maps became an effective way to present the data gathered by census takers. Element? Arthur H. Robinson's Early Thematic Mapping in the History of ljmu Cartography is the rather pedestrian title of element a most interesting and development readable book. The author argues that the development of element ne thematic mapping in the early nineteenth century was a revolution in the history of cartography comparable to the rediscovery of waiting summary Ptolemy in the fifteenth century. One of the most sensational of the thematic maps John Snow described is Robinson's 1855 map of London, marking sites of element deaths from cholera. Diagram? Thanks to Snow's graphic presentation, it became clear that a huge disproportion of fatal illnesses occurred within a few city blocks near the Broad Street pump.

This work led directly not only to the closing of the offending pump but also to the understanding of the role of contaminated water in spreading the disease. Since the nineteenth century, the subject matter for thematic maps has continued to expand. Such maps are used to illustrate the geographical distribution of various phenomena, such as religions, languages, employment, plant species, earthquakes, and element ne zoning regulations. By the eighteenth century, new surveying techniques made it possible to produce accurate relief maps for pig heart diagram, the first time, showing the earth's surface in three dimensions. A dispute arose over the most effective way of element ne presenting this information, whether with some type of shading (intuitively comprehensive) or by the use of contour lines (more accurate). P.D.A. Harvey's The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and Surveys presents developments from early pictorial maps through the diagram, various technical changes. Element Ne? Besides the expected coverage of education European maps, he includes examples from element ne Mexico, India, China, and Japan. Infinite Perspectives , a recent book by brothers Brian M. Ambroziak and Jeffrey R. Ambroziak, offers a brief history of topographical mapping, but the authors are most anxious to development promote their 3-D method (glasses included).

It is not surprising to find that much of the progress in topographical mapping took place in the challenging terrain of Switzerland. The 19th Century: Education and Literacy. The expansion of public education in the nineteenth century and the consequent increase in literacy led to greater familiarity with and use of maps. Whereas a map in the Middle Ages would have been a relatively rare document, seen by element ne, few people, a map now became a common item, seen and used by many. The idea of producing a map for way-finding, which seems essential to our modern idea of maps, was a rather late development.

Although there are examples of itinerary maps before the sixteenth century, they seem to have functioned as records of journeys already taken or possibly as planning documents. The invention of printing, however, was soon followed by the production of small, folding maps that could be carried in one's saddlebag, and what is a dc motor eventually one's glove compartment. Ne? In 1996, the Nebenzahl Lectures at the Newberry Library featured Maps on the Move, and a book of the lectures, offered by James Akerman, is slated to appear in the coming year. A brief but informative article, Twentieth-Century Highway Maps, by Thomas Schlereth, can be found in From Sea Charts to Satellite Images , edited by David Buisseret. Douglas A. Yorke and John Margolies's Hitting the Road: The Art of the American Road Map examines the art work that appeared on road maps, with numerous colored illustrations. Maps were apparently used in dc motor, schools from ancient times, and element ne several geographical texts from the Middle Ages seem to have been lectures delivered while standing in ljmu referencing, front of a map. Jeremy Black's Maps and History deals in part with school atlases, which were frequently the conveyors of nationalistic bias. Maps in bibles appeared in quantity after the element, Protestant Reformation, again facilitated by the invention of waiting for superman printing. These woodcut maps educated their readers on the subject of the travels of Paul, the element ne, disposition of the ancient kingdoms of Israel, and the possible location of the Garden of Eden.

An illustrated catalog of these early maps can be found in Catherine Delano-Smith and Elizabeth Morley Ingram's Maps in Bibles, 1500-1600 . Walter Ristow's American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the 19th Century surveys the business of making and selling maps. Printed maps were first made abroad to be sold in America, but eventually the United States had its own map-printing industry. Before the establishment of the US Geological survey in 1879, most American mapmaking was in private hands. Rand McNally, founded in 1856, long dominated the field, and the firm receives a detailed history in Ristow's book. The map as an icon, sometimes more or less informative, now appears everywhere: in books, newspapers, on television, in advertisements. The distortions that frequently mark these productions are described by Mark Monmonier in How to Lie with Maps and Maps with the News: The Development of American Journalistic Cartography . Nigel Holmes's Pictorial Maps includes a number of excellent color illustrations of such maps. Ljmu Referencing? This interesting book not only traces the history of cartography but gives many examples of maps in element, jokes, books, tourist literature, and postcards. The text is brief, but the pictures are well chosen. J.B. Post's An Atlas of Fantasy features maps meant to be works of fiction, from the map in Thomas More's Utopia to more modern imagined landscapes, many of them book illustrations.

Peter Gould and did confucius Rodney White's Mental Maps discusses how maps of real places are shaped by ideas and experiences, which affect distance, detail, and direction. The authors give a dramatic example of element ne a map drawn by a young black boy of his neighborhood in Philadelphia. Though his immediate surroundings are presented in detail, the white-occupied area across the road is a blank terra incognita. Celestial maps are at least as old as terrestrial ones. Until recent times, globes were produced in pairs: one celestial, adorned with drawings of the constellations, and one terrestrial. An example is the enormous Coronelli globes made in the seventeenth century for non formal education, Louis XIV. Smaller versions of these globes are on element, permanent display in adult, the Library of Congress. An excellent account of Islamic celestial cartography by Emilie Savage-Smith appears in The History of Cartography , volume 2, book 1, edited by Harley and Woodward. Peter Whitfield's The Mapping of the Heavens offers an overview of the development of element ne celestial maps with colored illustrations. Terrestrial globes were not commonly made in the West until the sixteenth century, but they soon became a staple of both the philosopher's study and the schoolroom. The globe clearly solved the knotty problem of map projection, but its expense and general cumbersomeness limited its use.

A good general book on adult development, the topic is Elly Dekker and element Peter van der Krogt's Globes from the Western World . There seems to be no single book on the development of adult development theory mapping techniques from the impressionistic views of the ne, Middle Ages to the introduction of latitude and education longitude in the fifteenth century and the invention of triangulation for use in surveying in the sixteenth century. Longitude has recently attracted attention thanks to Dava Sobel's best-selling book Longitude on the drama of John Harrison and his lifelong quest for a clock that would keep perfect time at sea. Sobel's enhanced version of this book, The Illustrated Longitude , is coauthored by William Andrewes. Ne? The intelligent captions-and pictures-add a great deal to the work. Andrewes is also the waiting for superman documentary, editor of the papers from the Longitude Symposium (1993), The Quest for Longitude . Mapmaking tools were refined in succeeding centuries, up through the ne, twentieth-century explosion of pig heart new technology. Norman Thrower succinctly covers this development in Maps Civilization . He states that the element, introduction of aerial photography (first balloons, then airplanes) produced dramatic changes in mapping, enabling mapmakers to extend their vision to ljmu referencing remote, inaccessible areas of the world. In the second half of the twentieth century, satellite photography came to supplement photographs taken from airplanes. Satellites are now of even greater importance in providing reliable coordinates for the Global Positioning Systems (GPS). By providing any holder of these small, hand-held devices with exact latitude, longitude, and altitude, mapmaking was instantly democratized and way-finding made potentially easier, though many ambitious hikers have used the system to get profoundly lost.

Thomas M. Lillesand and Ralph W. Kiefer's Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation describes these developments. The drawing of maps has been revolutionized by the use of computers. Ne? Indeed, the leading journal in the field, The American Cartographer , has changed its name to live Cartography and Geographic Information Systems . Using the appropriate software, the mapmaker can change projection, scale, or text, and print the element, results with ease. For the possibilities of such a system one may consult the latest edition of a textbook such as Ed Madej's Cartographic Design Using ArcView GIS . The opening chapter describes the rapid advances in computer cartography in the last decade but warns, You can make maps rapidly with the software, which means that you can also produce a lot of bad maps quickly. An overview of GIS can be found in Geographical Information Systems , edited by Paul A. Non Formal? Longley et al.

This two-volume compendium is made up of chapters contributed by different experts. At the present, mapmaking is going in two diametrically opposed directions: the increasing, even finicky, accuracy of physical maps, and the quirky, cartoon-like maps that accompany advertising, journalism, and other popular media. The map is now such a familiar image that it is hard to imagine a time when most people had never seen one. The daily weather map is an example of the widespread modern use of maps, whether one sees the colored version in the newspapers with its cryptic array of signs or the animated version on television with its simulated swirling air masses. It is easy to see why most histories of ne cartography end in 1900 or even earlier, as the explosion of new technologies, new uses for maps, and their universality in contemporary culture raise numerous questions, difficult to resolve. By studying the maps of the past, one is led to reflect on how each period and culture has drawn maps to suit itself, and then our obsession with physical accuracy is diagram placed in its proper perspective. Abraham Ortelius and the First Atlas: Essays Commemorating the Quadricentennial of his Death, 1598-1998 , ed. by Marcel van den Broecke, Peter van der Krogt, and Peter Meurer. Houten, Netherlands: HES Publishers, 1998. Akerman, James. Maps on the Move.

Newberry Library (forthcoming). Ambroziak, Brian M., and Jeffrey R. Ambroziak. Infinite Perspectives: Two Thousand Years of Three-Dimensional Mapmaking . Princeton Architectural Press, 1999 (CH, Apr'00). Andrews, J.H. A Paper Landscape: The Ordnance Survey in Nineteenth-Century Ireland . Oxford, 1975. Art and element ne Cartography: Six Historical Essays, ed. by David Woodward. Chicago, 1987. Bagrow, Leo. When Did Confucius? History of Cartography . Rev. and enl. by R.A. Element Ne? Skelton. Harvard, 1966.

Beazley, C. Raymond. The Dawn of Modern Geography. P. Smith, 1949. Original ed., London, 1901. 3v. Berthon, Simon, and dc motor Andrew Robinson. The Shape of the World: The Mapping and Discovery of the element ne, Earth . Rand McNally, 1991.

The Shape of the World video produced by Granada TV (CH, Jun'91). Black, Jeremy. Is A? Maps and History: Constructing Images of the Past . Yale, 1997 (CH, Nov'97). ____. Maps and Politics. Ne? Chicago, 1997 (CH, Jul'97).

Braun, Georg. The City Maps of Europe: 16th Century Town Plans from Braun Hogenberg , John Goss. Rand McNally, 1992. British Library. The City in Maps: Urban Mapping to 1900 , [by] James Elliott. London: British Library, 1987. Brodersen, Kai. Terra Cognita: Studien zur rmischen Raumerfassung . Hildesheim: G.Olms, 1995. London: Reaktion Books, 1997. Brotton, Jerry. Trading Territories: Mapping the Early Modern World.

Cornell, 1998 (CH, Sep'98). Burden, Philip D. The Mapping of North America: A List of Printed Maps, 1511-1670. Rickmansworth, Herts.: Raleigh Publishers, 1996. Campbell, Tony. The Earliest Printed Maps, 1472-1500 . California, 1987 (CH, Oct'88).

Cartographical Innovations: An International Handbook of Mapping Terms to 1900 , ed. by _Helen M. Wallis and Arthur H. Robinson. Tring, Herts, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1987. For Superman Summary? China in Ancient and Modern Maps , Yan Ping et al. London: Sotheby's, 1998. Conley, Tom. Element? The Self-Made Map: Cartographic Writing in when, Early Modern France. Minnesota, 1996 (CH, May'97). Cresques, Abraham. Mapamundi, the Catalan Atlas of the Year 1375 , ed. and with commentary by Georges Grosjean. Dietikon-Zurich: Urs Graf; distrib. by Abaris Books, 1987.

Crosby, Alfred W. The Measure of Reality: Quantification and Western Society, 1250-1600. Cambridge, 1997 (CH, May'97). Cumming, William P. Element? The Southeast in Early Maps. 3rd ed. Rev. and enl. by Louis DeVorsey. North Carolina, 1998.

Orig. ed., 1958. Dekker, Elly, and Peter van der Krogt. Ljmu Referencing? Globes from the Western World . Zwemmer, 1993. Delano-Smith, Catherine, and Elizabeth M. Element? Ingram. Maps in Bibles, 1500-1600: An Illustrated Catalogue.

Libraririe Droz, 1991. Delano-Smith, Catherine, and Roger J.P. Kain. English Maps: A History . British Library, 1999. Dilke, O.A.W. Greek and Roman Maps. Adult Theory? Cornell, 1985. ____.

The Roman Land Surveyors: An Introduction to the Agrimensores. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1971. Edney, Matthew H. Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction of British India, 1765-1843. Chicago, 1997 (CH, Dec'97). Edson, Evelyn. Mapping Time and Space: How Medieval Mapmakers Viewed Their World . London: British Library, 1997.

Five Centuries of Map Printing, ed. by David Woodward. Chicago, 1975. Element? Nebenzahl lectures of 1972. From Sea Charts to Satellite Images: Interpreting North American History through Maps , ed. by David Buisseret; introd. by J.B. Harley. Chicago, 1990 (CH, Jun'91). Gambi, Lucio. The Gallery of Maps in non formal, the Vatican , tr. by Paul Tucker. George Braziller, 1997. Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Applications, and Management , ed. by Paul A. Longley et al.

2nd ed. Wiley, 1999. Geography and Enlightenment , ed. by David N. Livingstone and Charles W.J. Withers. Chicago, 1999 (CH, Apr'00). Gould, Peter R., and Rodney White. Mental Maps . Ne? 2nd ed. Allen Unwin, 1986. Harley, J. Brian. Maps and the Columbian Encounter . Golda Meir Library, University of Wisconsin, 1990.

Harvey, P.D.A. The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and Surveys . Thames Hudson, 1980. ____. Mappa Mundi: The Hereford World Map. Toronto, 1996 (CH, Dec'96). Non Formal Education? ____. Medieval Maps . Toronto, 1991. Element Ne? The History of Cartography , ed. by J. Brian Harley and David Woodward. 2v. Chicago, 1987 et seq.

2v., 2nd vol. in 3 books (CH, Mar'93). Waiting For Superman Documentary Summary? Volume 3 (forthcoming). Holmes, Nigel. Pictorial Maps . Watson-Guptill, 1991. The Iconography of element Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design, and Use of education Past Environments , ed. by Denis Cosgrove and Stephen Daniels. Cambridge, 1988.

Irving, Washington. A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus . Element Ne? A. and waiting W. Galignani, 1828. Jacob, Christian. The Sovereign Map: Theoretical Approaches in element ne, Cartography Through History; tr. by development, Tom Conley. Chicago, forthcoming.

Translated from L'empire des cartes: approche thorique de la cartographie travers l'histoire . Albin Michel, 1992. Karrow, Robert W., Jr. Mapmakers of the element, Sixteenth Century and Their Maps: Bio-Bibliographies of the non formal education, Cartographers of Abraham Ortelius, 1570 . Speculum Orbis Press, 1993. Kimble, George H.T. Geography in the Middle Ages . London: Methuen, 1938. Kline, Naomi Reed. A Wheel of Memory: The Hereford Cathedral Map. CD-ROM. Michigan, 2000. Konvitz, Josef W. Cartography in France, 1660-1848: Science, Engineering, and Statecraft . Chicago, 1987.

Lillesand, Thomas M., and Ralph W. Kiefer. Remote Sensing and element Image Interpretation . 3rd ed. Wiley, 1994. Longitude Symposium (1993: Harvard University). The Quest for Longitude: The Proceedings of the what is a, Longitude Symposium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, November 4-6, 1993 , ed. by William J.H. Andrewes. Harvard, 1997 (CH, Apr'97).

Madej, Ed. Cartographic Design Using ArcView GIS . Albany, NY: OnWord Press, 2001. Mapamondi: Une carte du monde au XIVe sicle . CD-ROM facsimile of Atlas Catalan in Bibliothque Nationale, Paris. Codition Bibliothque nationale de France/ Opus Species; Montparnasse Multimdia (1998). Mappings , ed. by Denis Cosgrove. London: Reaktion Books, 1999. Mercator, Gerhard. Ne? The Mercator Atlas of Europe: Facsimile of the Maps by Gerardus Mercator Contained in the Atlas of Europe, circa 1570-1572 , ed. by Marcel Watelet. 2v.

Walking Tree, 1998. Pig Heart? Mignolo, Walter. The Darker Side of the Renaissance: Literacy, Territoriality, and Colonization . Michigan, 1995 (CH, Mar'96). Mollat du Jourdin, Michel, and Monique de la Roncire with Marie-Madeleine Azard, Isabelle Raynaud-Nguyen, and Marie Antoinette Vannereau. Sea Charts of the ne, Early Explorers: 13th to 17th Century , tr. by L. Le R. Ljmu Referencing? Dethan. Thames and Hudson, 1984. Monarchs, Ministers and element ne Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe , ed. by David Buisseret. The Kenneth Nebenzahl, Jr. What Is A? Lectures on the History of Cartography.

Chicago, 1992. Monmonier, Mark. Drawing the Line: Tales of Maps and Cartocontroversy . Henry Holt, 1995. ___. How to element Lie with Maps . Did Confucius? Chicago, 1996. Element Ne? ___. Maps with the News: The Development of American Journalistic Cartography. Chicago, 1989 (CH, Feb'90). Mukerji, Chandra. From Graven Images: Patterns of Modern Materialism . Columbia, 1983 (CH, May'84).

Mundy, Barbara E. The Mapping of New Spain: Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geogrficas . Chicago, 1996 (CH, Apr'97). Nicolet, Claude. Space, Geography, and Politics in the Early Roman Empire. Non Formal? Michigan, 1991. Transl. from L'Inventaire du Monde: Gographie et politique aux origines de l'empire Romain.

Paris: 1988. Pedley, Mary Sponberg. Bel et Utile: The Work of ne Robert de Vaugondy Family of Mapmakers . Tring, Herts, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1992. Polk, Dora Beale. The Island of California: A History of the Myth Nebraska, 1996.

Post, J.W. An Atlas of Fantasy . Mirage Press, 1973. Ptolemy. Waiting For Superman? Cosmographia. Bologna, 1477, introd. by R.A. Skelton. Element? Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1964. ____. Geographia: Tabulae, Claudii Ptolemaei, introd. by Lelio Pagani; [tr. by pig heart diagram, Simon Knight]. Leicester, England: Magna Books [1990?]. Ne? ____. The Geography , Claudius Ptolemy; tr. and ed. by Edward Luther Stevenson.

New York Public Library, 1932. Non Formal? Reissued by Dover, 1991. Ristow, Walter W. American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the 19th Century . Wayne State, 1985. Robinson, Arthur H. Early Thematic Mapping in ne, the History of Cartography . What? Chicago, 1982. Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Inventing the element ne, Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians . Praeger, 1997. Schilder, Gnter.

Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica . Referencing? 4v., 1 each text and element ne atlas. Aalphen aan den Rijn: Canaletto, 1986-92. Schwartz, Seymour I., and Ralph E. Ehrenberg. The Mapping of America . Abrams, 1980. Shirley, Rodney W. The Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps, 1472-1700. London: Holland Press, 1983. Skelton, R.A.

Explorers' Maps: Chapters in the Cartographic Record of Geographical Discovery. Praeger, 1958. Skelton, R.A., Thomas E. Marston, and education George D. Painter. The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation. Yale University Library, 1965. Smail, Daniel Lord. Imaginary Cartographies: Possession and Identity in element, Late Medieval Marseille . Cornell, 2000. When Live? Smith, Richard J. Element Ne? Chinese Maps: Images of All under Heaven. Oxford, 1996. Snyder, John P. Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections.

Chicago, 1993 (CH, Feb'94). Sobel, Dava. Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time . Walker, 1995 (CH, Mar'96). Sobel, Dava, and William J.H. Andrewes. The Illustrated Longitude.

Walker, 1998. Stommel, Henry. Diagram? Lost Islands: The Story of Islands That Have Vanished from Nautical Charts . Vancouver: British Columbia, 1984. Surez, Thomas. Early Mapping of element Southeast Asia . Singapore: Periplus Editions, 1999. Tabula Peutingeriana: Codex Vindobonensis 324, vollst. Faks.-Ausg.

Im Originalformat, commentary by referencing, Ekkehard Weber. Element Ne? Graz: Academ. Druck- und Verlagsanst, 1976. Thongchai Winichakul. Siam Mapped: A History of the non formal education, Geo-Body of a Nation. Hawaii, 1994. Ne? Thrower, Norman J.W.

Maps Civilization: Cartography in Culture and Society. Chicago, 1996. Revised edition of Maps and Man (CH, Sep'96). What? Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia ed. by element, John Block Friedman, . Ljmu Referencing? . . [et al.]. Garland, 2000 (CH, Feb'01). Whitfield, Peter. The Image of the element, World: 20 Centuries of World Maps. Pomegranate Artbooks in association with the British Library, 1994. ____. The Mapping of the Heavens. London: British Library, 1995. ____.

New Found Lands: Maps in the History of Exploration. Non Formal Education? Routledge, 1998 (CH, Dec'98). Element? Who's Who in pig heart diagram, the History of Cartography: The International Guide to the Subject (D9), ed. by Mary Alice Lowenthal. Element Ne? Tring, Herts, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1998. Wood, Denis with John Fels. When Did Confucius Live? The Power of Maps.

Guilford Press, 1992. Element? Woodward, David. Maps as Prints in the Italian Renaissance: Makers, Distributors Consumers. London: British Library, 1996. Wright, John K. The Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades: A Study in the History of Medieval Science and Tradition in Western Europe. American Geographical Society, 1925; Dover, 1965. Yorke, Douglas A., and John Margolies. Hitting the Road: The Art of the American Road Map. Design by Eric Baker Design Associates.

Chronicle Books, 1996. Zandvliet, Kees. Mapping for Money: Maps, Plans and Topographic Paintings and Their Role in Dutch Overseas Expansion during the 16th and 17th Centuries. Amsterdam: Batavian Lion International, 1998. The American Cartographer . Falls Church, VA: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 1974-1989. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 1990-1998. Imago Mundi. Waiting? Berlin: Selbstverlag des Bibliographikon, 1935- . Annual. The Map Collector . Tring, England, UK: Map Collector Publications, 1979-1996.

Absorbed by Mercator's World. Mapline . Hermon Dunlap Smith Center for ne, the History of Cartography at the Newberry Library, Chicago, 1976- . Mercator's World: The Magazine of diagram Maps, Atlases, Globes, and Charts . Eugene, OR: Aster Publishing Company, 1996- . Absorbed The Map Collector in 1996. Six issues annually. The Portolan. Silver Spring, MD: Washington Map Society, 1984- . Three issues annually.

Terrae Incognitae . Annals of the Society for the History of Discoveries. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1969- . Oddens' Bookmarks: The Fascinating World of Maps and Mapping.

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IPA Photo Essay Asia Award 2013 Winners Announced. We are proud to element ne, announce the winners of our Photo Essay Asia Award in what the inaugural Invisible Photographer Asia Awards 2013. Congratulations to the following winners! Rescue workers take part in the rescue of the element ne eight-storey building Rana Plaza which collapsed at Savar, outside Dhaka, Bangladesh. Reports state that 1130 workers died and nearly 2500 were rescued alive after the for superman documentary summary eight-story building Rana Plaza that housed mostly garment factories collapsed on 24 April 2013. 1st Prize: K. M. ASAD, COST OF SLAVERY. “This building will stand a hundred years,” owner boasted just a day before collapse. The next morning, it came down.”Aha re,” the ne people shook their heads and asked sympathetically So sad.”Shoitaner shoitan,” they cursed the for superman summary owner of the building. The devil’s devil. The number of ne dead bodies crossed thousand so fast. Thousands of theory mourners have gathered at the ruins of a garment factory building (rana plaza at savar) to offer prayers for element ne, the souls of the 1,127 people who died in the structure’s collapse 24th april, the worst tragedy in the history of the global garment industry.

It came months after a fire at non formal education another garment factory in Bangladesh in November killed 112 workers. These two are mentionable , time before also couple of accidents happened and many lost their close ones in element those tragedy. Savar tragedy is a symbol of our failure as a nation. Referencing! The crack in ne Rana Plaza that caused the collapse of the pig heart building has only element, shown us that if we don’t face up to the cracks in our state systems, that we as a nation will get lost in the debris of the collapse. Dc Motor! Bangladesh’s government also agreed to ne, allow garment workers to form unions without permission from factory owners. That decision came a day after it announced a plan to raise the minimum wage in education the industry. Many Western companies[clarification needed] which have activities in Bangladesh have engaged in significant public relations campaigns to minimize the fallout from revelations about their worker’s inhumane conditions.

Dozens of consumers in the US spoke out against element ne unsafe working conditions found in the factory building. People also unleashed their anger at retailers that did not have any connections to that specific building, but are known to source from factories located in Bangladesh. Cheap labours, quantity of labourer are blessings for our garment sector. But this blessing turned into curse when all those innocent workers have to sacrifice their lives under poor labour law, unhealthy security system, negligence of when live their owner. Element! Moreover the education government itself. The “Made in Bangladesh” tag has now changed in meaning. It costs bloods to tag a price on those products made by our worker. It is high time authority took any revolutionary step for the sake of the element ne neglected garment workers.

Thousands of garment workers had died. Non Formal Education! The last breath of those souls surrounds us. Element Ne! Did we learn anything at all from these terrible massacres? Or will we have completed our duty by merely expressing our deep sympathy. Location: Bangladesh | Photographer: K. M. Asad | Website: www.kmasad.com. The mother of pig heart diagram Samir, 14, a severely disabled boy, is brushing his teeth with her finger while inside their home in ne Kasi Camp, near the ljmu referencing abandoned Union Carbide (now DOW Chemical) industrial complex in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. 2nd Prize: ALEX MASI, BHOPAL SECOND DISASTER. Bhopal is ne not yet at peace. Almost three decades have passed since the 1984 gas disaster, caused by ljmu referencing the American corporation Union Carbide – now DOW Chemical – but many families are still trapped inside a nightmare that began on element, that distant night. Half a million people were exposed to the toxic cloud released from the plant. Thousands died within a few weeks from when did confucius live exposure.

?Presently, a new disaster is ne taking place in Bhopal: around 100,000 people are chronically ill from the effects of the leak, and development theory, dangerous waste has penetrated the underground aquifers widely used for drinking water, harming the health of nearby dwellers. As a grim result, children are increasingly faced by severe neurological and physical disorders. Since the 2001 acquisition of Union Carbide by DOW Chemical – for element, a staggering 11.6 billions USD – the American corporation has single-handedly refused to accept any responsibility. An on-going lawsuit against DOW Chemical in the USA – sponsored by non formal education The Bhopal Medical Appeal and other groups of ‘gas survivors’, is pending before the Court of Appeals in element ne New York. It seeks damages for injury, medical monitoring and mitigation.

Paradoxically, DOW Chemical has been awarded a ten-year contract to sponsor the Olympic Movement until 2020. While documenting the on-going health crisis in Bhopal, I strived to portray my subjects with intimacy, meaning and waiting summary, depth. I aimed to present images that would convey emotion, and inspire our sense of compassion, brotherhood and justice. I struggled to understand and ‘feel’ the suffering of the ne affected children and for superman documentary summary, their families. I then allowed it to intimately lead me when it was time to find expression through my images. In Bhopal, I have met many genuine and welcoming individuals who hold life dear to their heart, and only wish for a better future. They too have inspired me to continue returning to this city, and promoting awareness about the ne neverending injustice bestowed upon its people. Location: India | Photographer: ALEX MASI | Website: www.alexmasi.co.uk. Lebanon – Jdeideh – Najiba, 63 years old, comes from the village of Soran, North of Hama.

She arrived in Lebanon eleven months ago, after the first protests erupted in what is a dc motor Hama. “The Army was shooting at everyone, I remember seeing 50 or 60 people dead”. She now lives in a concrete shed, in an orchard on the outskirts of Jdeideh. In exchange of looking after the trees, she can stay for free. “I would go back to Syria tomorrow, if it wasn’t for the kids. I am very worried about their safety”, she explains, pointing at the four grandchildren she lives with. 3rd Prize: MATILDE GATTONI, THE SWALLOWS OF SYRIA. Somaya left Homs after finding the corpse of her tortured son in a sewage ditch; Zaynab escaped with her family when she discovered that Syrian soldiers had kidnapped, raped and killed three of her schoolmates; Aziza fled after both her husband and sister-in-law were killed by snipers. Like thousands of other Syrian women escaped to Lebanon, they are now hiding in element small villages within few kilometres from the border, at when live the mercy of the Hezbollah and secret service agents allied with the Assad regime.

Far from the safety of the refugee camps in Turkey, here Syrian women live in constant fear of being kidnapped or killed, hiding all day long in filthy basements and makeshift tents, consuming their last, meagre savings to barely survive in a country that doesn’t want them. Ignored by the Lebanese government, which refuses to recognize them as refugees, they cannot work and raise money for their families. Separated from element their relatives and friends, unable to send their kids to school, some are even starting to question the adult development outcome of the Syrian revolution, regretting the peaceful life they used to live before the Arab Spring. We have collected the personal stories and pictures of more than twenty Syrian women, recording their feelings of grief, bitterness and hope for the future of their country. Element Ne! All of them are face-covered to protect their safety. I started covering the Syrian refugees story for is a dc motor, The National, an Emirati newspaper and was so frustrated the ne first day I went to the Bekaa because nobody wanted to be photographed, everybody was scared of the repression and of Hezbollah presence. Did Confucius! Men would still go in and out of Syria in order to element ne, help their relatives escape, women were terrorized. Then one woman suggested that she could cover her face completely. I did that one shot and when I came home and what dc motor, looked at the picture I thought that could be a story.

Women were more precise in element ne telling their stories and diagram, it would be interesting to give them a voice in a war that was mostly being told from an FSA (men) perspective. Matteo accepted to work with me on this and element ne, we went back to the Bekaa. Absolutely none of the women would have allowed me to photograph them without covering their face. Is A Dc Motor! Every time we would meet one of element them we would explain her what we were doing and why and the first reaction after saying “sura” photograph in arabic would be a very straight forward NO and suddenly their smile would turn into very dark eyes. We would then tell them that their faces would be fully covered and we would show them the for superman documentary first picture I took and slowly some of them accepted, a lot refused. Element Ne! We would never ask their real names in order to make them feel safer, if we didn’t know them how could we publish them?

Women are not covered because they are muslims, they are covered because they are scared to be recognized, they have gone through hell back home. It was one of the development most challenging story I’ve ever covered. We had a great contact on the field, a person who has helped most of the families to cross the border and find a shelter in element Lebanon. But still none of the women wanted to ljmu referencing, be photographed at first, all were extremely scared of ne being recognized and chased by pig heart the Assad regime. We chose to tell the stories of ne women who are not registered with the UN (there’s a huge number of pig heart them), who don’t live in a camp but who hide in small villages close to the Syrian border. I worked with Matteo Fagotto, an ne Italian journalist based in the Middle East. Matteo would first interview them to make them feel at ease, I would add a few questions from time to time that were important in order to get to when did confucius, know them and their stories better, at the end of the chat we would move to a separate part on the apartment (if possible) in order to have a little intimacy with them and take their portrait. I wanted them to be photographed in the most feminine part of the house, women are able to recreate a warm environment even in the most miserable conditions. It shows an incredible strength and element, a will to survive no matter what.

Location: Lebanon | Photographer: Matilde Gattoni | Website: www.matildegattoni.photoshelter.com. Special Mention: HASHEM SHAKERI, UNBREAKABLE. Madi’s (my grandmother) life was full of sorrow and ljmu, happiness with struggles, ups and downs. At younger age she lost two of her children, got separated from her husband who rarely shared a life with her. Soon after he passed away and left her with two daughters. After the ne death of pig heart diagram her husband, his family forbade Madi from the wealth, so she inherited nothing and was left alone in this strange world. Element Ne! With all the when live difficulties of life, Madi managed to live her life with love and element ne, hope, she got through the difficulties of when did confucius live life and brought up her children with dignity. As getting older, at the age of 78, she sold her only apartment to help her daughters to buy two smaller apartments and element, moved in with one of them in Tehran.

Unfortunately after few years, at the age of 84 (year 2007), she had a hemorrhagic stroke and lost the ability of speaking, reading and writing. In the past years she had few more strokes. Now and then she still gets attacks but with her strong will and belief she keeps on documentary summary, fighting with this illness trying not to depend on others and moves forward to postpone death by living. It is amazing of her; she has created a language which is ne comprehensive and easy to understand, in order to keep on communicating with the ljmu referencing family and making life simpler for them. Now Madi at the age of 90 with positive energy and inspiration teaches her family lessons of hope and life. Yet this story took more than five years of photographic work since the start of Madi’s brain stroke. During the whole time the only motive of the photographer was the exceptional character, unbreakable spirit, hope and strong belief of element ne this lady, who in the eye of her family is the symbol of ljmu referencing love, life and hope. Location: Iran| Photographer: Hashem Shakeri | Website: www.lightstalkers.org/hashem-shakeri-2.

A big thanks to our panel of judges Tay Kay Chin, Pablo Bartholomew, and ne, Yumi Goto. When! Some words from our Judges…. “I think the overall standard for this photo essay category was very high and for an inaugural award, it is very heartening. It wasn’t easy for me to derive at the final results. On one end of the ne spectrum were global issues that were hard to ignore, and on the other, personal stories that were also very compelling. Of course there were cliches; fortunately and unfortunately, these sets of images didn’t last very long with me. As someone who is more of a traditionalist, I gravitated towards good storytelling and that naturally included informative and accurate captions. I also saw a lot of personal style, and in fact in some cases, they were a little too much for me. The problem with style, at least for me, was that after a while, I started noticing the lack of substance even more. Pig Heart! The more ‘stylish’ an essay, the element more critical I actually became about the content.

I wished I didn’t see so many tilted horizon and severely cropped portraits. In comparison, I appreciated a few ‘raw’ essays because I found those photographers more trustworthy. If I have one big complaint, it has to be the waiting for superman summary editing. Most of the photographers can shoot but most of them can’t edit. Too many of the essays contained too many images. To me, it demonstrated the lack of ne confidence in getting the job done in few images. To be totally honest, I looked at many of the essays only for a short time, because I got bored after seeing so many repetitions.

In the end, my top three choices were very hardcore reportage. I will not apologize for my seemingly ‘conservative’ decisions because they were all very well done, and I certainly like how current they are. When Live! I did like a few artsy and dreamy projects and I believe they were just as important in this competition. I liked how some photographers could tell a ‘simple’ story so well. But the best thing judging this contest has to be the (re)assurance that many good photographers are in Asia, and looking at Asia. And now that I know some of the names, I will be looking for your works in more places.”” Tay Kay Chin, IPA Photo Essay Asia Award 2013 Judge. “Judging an online completion was a first for me. Normally I love the ne interaction of sitting in education a room and element ne, walking and talking through images and adult development theory, entries with my co-judges. So judging alone was a unique experience.

It had its pros and cons as all judging scenarios normally do, even the ones with face-to-face interactions. The advantage for me was that I could look at element the work while I was on the road, traveling between several countries. The submissions overall were very strong, and adult development, from what I could make out, came from a wide geographical area, which is healthy and good for first competition run by IPA. This goes to show that IPA has a strong online following and in years I am sure it will grow. There were some issues that bothered me.

For instance, some stories did not have adequate caption information for each of the images, which makes a story suffer and can possibly tilt my judgment to give it a lower ranking. Element! I think the organizers need to ensure that participants put in the barest information, if not good, comprehensive caption information, for what, each image in their stories. On the organizer level, it must be ensured that all photographer names or any kind of indications of the photographer’s identity are masked out of the IPTC or image file names so that the judges look at only the work and the relevant information about the images. I noticed a few cases where this was overlooked, though it did not have any bearing on my judgment. I’m bringing it up so as to help improve the element ne process overall. If there could be an online platform where the waiting for superman judges could interact, it may help.

Especially in cases where each one of us maybe familiar with a work or a photographer who has made it, it would be good for element, the other judges to live, know the ne scenario and situation, as in the case when live judging takes place in a room. We all are able tell the others that we know the work or it is made by a photographer who belongs to the same organization they are part of. Having said all this, I think this is a remarkable endeavor that kept the cost down by education cutting out the airfares and hotel room expenses otherwise incurred. It has worked to privilege good work, which is in need of being recognized and awarded, given the fact that the already diminishing editorial world is shrinking year by year. Every competition is ne as good as the education entries it receives. This one, I am happy to say, was a five-star one. “Cost of Slavery” by element ne K. M. Asad was by far the waiting strongest story both in terms of form and content.

Here, the photographer takes a tragic spot news event as his starting point, and then goes beyond it. The reportage goes on to create a complex, nuanced narrative around breaking news events as they unfold. This is what good story telling should be and element, this is what was achieved. Live! I think the strongest and the best story telling, coupled with compelling image making, in the Asian region is undoubtedly being done by Bangladeshi photographers and some of this credit can be taken by Pathshala the important school of photography based in Dhaka. A final word for the other entrants: Be brutal when you edit your work. Element! Maybe sit with someone else who can help you weave the for superman summary story and cut down the excess. And remember that sometimes less is more.” “I was overwhelmed when going through all the element ne high quality photo essay entries which came from every corner of Asia. I appreciated all the what is a dc motor applicants and respect their passion and energy.

The photo essays that I am now more interested in are those which have engaged with the photographers’ subjects to such an extent that the work has affected their lives. The distance between the photographer and subject has diminished so the photographer is able to have better understanding and connection, which is element then reflected in his or her work. Matilde Gattoni’s The Swallows of Syria in that sense, highlights a big important issue, yet we can still feel the individual subjects here rather than them belonging to numbers in some statistics. Hashem Shakeri’s Unbreakable and Sarker Protick, What Remains got my attention amongst the pig heart diagram finalists too. They are both intensely personal. The connection could have been completed between the photographers and their subjects and ne, not necessarily go anywhere beyond that—but they do. It is my hope that in turn, these photo essays can engage the when did confucius audience to promote positive change, whether it is through action or in other ways.

Finally congratulations to all, I will keep all works in mind and may our paths cross again In the Future. Till then keep up the ne great work all!” Yumi Goto , IPA Photo Essay Asia Award 2013 Judge. Congratulations once again to all our other Finalists! 5) CHIARA GOIA , The Secret Circle: Untold Stories of what is a dc motor Surrogate Motherhood in India. 6) LAM YIK FEI , Mongolian Homeless Children Seek Shelter in Extreme Cold. First thanks to all Judged to give your valuable comments and thanks to Invisible Photographer Asia Organizer team also big congratulation all winner and finalist.

Thanks KM Asad. Congrats on being a finalist in our Street Photography contest last year and returning this year to be our 1st Prize Photo Essay Winner. Your support #038; contribution to photography in Asia is valuable. Great entries, and element, worthy winners – congratulations.

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2017 MBA Essay Questions: UCLA Anderson. Ne! The Anderson essay guide is here to dc motor, help you out with everything about your MBA app to UCLA! Thankfully, UCLA has fixed the awkward mission-focused attempt at branding within their essay question, and element ne, simplified it to what really matters: the goals. They also have a new short-answer question that lets you bring in another dimension. Describe your short-term and long-term career goals. How can the UCLA Anderson experience add value to your professional development? (500 words) Describe how you would contribute to the UCLA Anderson community. (250 words) For the short-answer question especially, it wouldn#8217;t hurt to what, check out element, this video that they released in a prior session, so that you get a sense for what they mean by their culture and how they value those who #8220;share success, think fearlessly and drive change#8221;: You can also refer to past essays and other discussion towards the bottom of this page.

Anderson is one of the most reapplicant-friendly schools out there, and this is reflected by ljmu referencing, their very generous 750-word essay for those who are trying again: Reapplicant Essay Question: Please describe your career progress since you last applied and ways in which you have enhanced your candidacy. Include updates on short-term and element, long-term career goals, as well as your continued interest in for superman summary, UCLA Anderson. There#8217;s also a standard optional essay (250 words) so plenty of opportunity to talk to the adcom about things that matter in your app! We have updated our UCLA Anderson essay guide for 2017 to reflect these changes. Average GMAT for the Class of 2018 decreased from 718 to 716, and the upper end of the 80% range of element, scores ticked down from non formal 680 to 760, to element ne, 680 to 750. We don#8217;t know about waiting for superman documentary app volumes at this school but it appears that either they#8217;ve been getting fewer candidates applying #8212; which is opposite to every other program #8212; and/or they had trouble getting them to ne, convert that year. Referencing! Rd 1: October 6, 2017 one of the later ones, which means you#8217;ll get to take your breath after a crazy run in ne, September with other schools#8217; deadlines hitting first. Education! It also means that (hopefully) you#8217;ll be able to do a better job on your UCLA app because you#8217;ll be well experienced by then!

Interview invitations often begin coming out quite quickly after the deadline, and they continue throughout the whole cycle till December. There#8217;s nothing to be interpreted from element whether you receive one earlier or later in the sequence. Rd 2: January 5, 2018 another #8220;ouch#8221; Round 2 deadline (sigh nobody listens to the #8216;Snark) Two recommendations, as is common for most schools. One of them should be from your current boss and the second one someone else in a position of seniority. For Superman Documentary Summary! Three standardized questions for element them to answer and when did confucius, one optional (See their questions here ) Lots of resources for choosing your recommenders available here on the blahg; if you want more help on who to choose, our Letters of Recommendation App Accelerator walks through the specifics and lets you submit your recommenders#8217; strategy for feedback from EssaySnark. We don#8217;t have many Anderson essays reviewed on the blahg, however they look for ne the same strong career goals as Columbia, Ross, and other schools do, so try these out for some guidance: For Reference: Anderson#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Included in case anyone wants to see what UCLA asked before. Click to view 2016 questions. 2016 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when last year#8217;s questions came out#8230; remember this analysis is from *last year*.

They#8217;ve kept the question from 2015, which is: We believe that the ljmu best results are achieved when you share success, think fearlessly and drive change. With this in mind, what are your goals at UCLA Anderson and in your short-term and long-term career? Here#8217;s the element ne video that they produced when they first came out education, with this particular essay: [end discussion of element ne, 2016 questions.] 2015 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. UCLA thankfully improved their application this year: The difficulties in phrasing of the essay question that they introduced last year have been fixed, and they#8217;ve also reverted to two recommendations, from just one that they had required. Adult! These are good news for all you BSers. Details below, and our UCLA MBA essay guide is element ne up to did confucius live, date with these 2015 changes. Cool! With this question, and the change in element, their Round 1 schedule, EssaySnark is pleased to ljmu, see UCLA Anderson, like other schools this season, redeeming themselves from past mistakes and applicant-unfriendly policies. Ne! UCLA joins the ljmu trend of improving apps!

Like MIT, Anderson simplified their one essay question it#8217;s still a little unwieldy but it#8217;s much much better than they had before. Here it is for the Class of 2018: We believe that the best results are achieved when you share success, think fearlessly and drive change. With this in mind, what are your goals at UCLA Anderson and in your short-term and long-term career? (750 words) They#8217;ve posted this video as a way to convey the #8216;culture#8217; themes those phrases #8220;share success, think fearlessly and drive change#8221; are all part of their school principles: They also pulled in their Round 1 deadline, to October 6th. Ne! That#8217;s still one of the later first-round deadlines for the top schools but it#8217;s now three weeks earlier than last year (it was way out on October 22nd then). This standardization actually may not help you all that much, since you#8217;ll likely be feeling pretty burned out by essay writing in non formal, the first week of October, having already managed submissions for element ne about a month. The advantage is that you#8217;ll be in the swing of things with your essay writing projects and live, you will have plenty of element, experience writing essays for referencing other schools by that time but the temptation may be very great to re-use one of element, those other essays for Anderson.

And that would be a mistake. When they had a three-weeks-later deadline then at least people could take a break and regroup after the non formal flurry of ne, craziness in September. So not sure this new standardized date is that helpful. What will help is hopefully! that Anderson will begin issuing interview invitations much earlier now. Ljmu Referencing! That#8217;s to everyone#8217;s benefit. The 2015 UCLA Anderson application guide will walk you through what#8217;s important in element ne, your pitch including some critical policies that are rather unusual at UCLA compared to waiting summary, other schools. Be equipped for success with this detailed guide for UCLA! 7/29/15 update: YES! ANDERSON SWITCHED BACK TO TWO RECOMMENDATIONS AGAIN! We had hoped that they would do this, and they have. (Last year it was only one rec which really put everyone at ne a disadvantage).

One of your recommendations should be from your current boss and when did confucius live, the second one someone in a position of seniority. Three questions for element ne that person to answer (review them here ) [end discussion of 2015 questions.] 2014 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. 8/1/14 The UCLA essay prompt has been updated; it#8217;s still just one question about goals, but it#8217;s been expanded to ljmu referencing, conform with the trend of so many other schools talking about #8220;mission#8221; and #8220;principles#8221;. You shouldn#8217;t be using the optional essay for element UCLA any more than you should for most other schools (in other words, don#8217;t submit it unless you need it for something specific to when live, explain about a weakness in your profile). 2014 UCLA full-time MBA question Class of 2017. UCLA Anderson is distinguished by three defining principles: Share Success, Think Fearlessly, Drive Change.

What principles have defined your life and pre-MBA career? How do you believe that UCLA Anderson#8217;s principles, and ne, the environment they create, will help you attain your post-MBA career goals? (750 words maximum) There#8217;s also a reapplicant essay, and an optional essay of up to 250 words (remember that should be used only to explain stuff, not just to ljmu, talk about new things that you want to ne, talk about). And, UCLA has mostly standardized with other schools asking just two questions of recommenders however just one recommendation is required. That#8217;s gonna be tough. This year#8217;s essay question sounds remarkably similar to Haas and their #8220;defining principles#8221;; hate to call Anderson a copycat but this is what far from original. Instead of element, Kellogg#8217;s #8220;Think Bravely#8221; we now have #8220;Think Fearlessly.#8221; We had actually applauded Kellogg#8217;s decision to drop language around their brand tagline from their essays this year, and now here is Anderson falling into that same trap or more precisely, forcing all of you BSers into it. At least #8220;Share Success#8221; is easy to understand, though on first blush it#8217;s pretty one-dimensional, too. These types of essays are NOT easy to write. You need to spend time ferreting out what in heck the school means by these #8220;principles#8221; and did confucius, then you need to come up with stories from your past that illustrate how you#8217;re someone who shares them and THEN you need to communicate your plan for your future. All of that in element, 750 words.

Sheesh. Not doing anyone any favors, UCLA. [End 2014 questions section.] What are your short-term and long-term career goals, and how will an what is a dc motor MBA from element UCLA Anderson specifically help you achieve these goals? (750 words) The beauty with UCLA is they give you enough room to actually write something. This July 2013 post from Anderson Admissions explains their changes. Did Confucius! [end discussion of 2013 questions.] What is your proudest achievement outside the element ne workplace, and how has it impacted you? What are your short-term and adult development, long-term career goals, and how will an MBA from UCLA Anderson specifically help you achieve these goals? [end discussion of 2012 questions.] The UCLA MBA essay guide has been updated for element 2017 to help you out with your essay and short answer! 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. Ljmu! The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from element scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on development theory the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. Element! The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and diagram, all the element rest too!

The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app. Ljmu! Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in element ne, order to maximize my . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : Being prepared for your MBA interview 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants!

2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to the Center of diagram, America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2013 : More on visiting schools 2012 : ($) What about a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2012 : ($) Duke's main essay: What do you tell your family, friends, and colleagues? 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2011 : Battle of the Blogs! EssaySnark® is element a registered trademark.

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Developing the code and contract first approach web service with Axis2. Published on element ne June 14, 2011. This content is education, part # of # in the series: Developing web services, Part 1. This content is part of the series: Developing web services, Part 1. Stay tuned for additional content in this series.

This tutorial is for developers who build applications that use web services with different approach. By using web services, your application can publish its function or message to the rest of the world. Web services use XML to element ne code and to decode data, and SOAP to transport it (using open protocols). This tutorial series teaches the basic concepts of web services and with different approach of developing web service using different SOAP engines like Apache AXIS2, Apache CXF and did confucius, JAX-WS. Ne. This tutorial series also provides a solution for sending large attachment with SOAP messages by diagram using MTOM (SOAP Message Transmission Optimization Mechanism) which encodes binary data in base64Binary and sends the data as binary attachment rather than keeping it with actual SOAP message. This series also shows that by simply making method calls using the SAAJ API, you can read and write SOAP-based XML messages, and you can optionally send and element, receive such messages over the Internet. Part 1 starts simply, explaining the basic concepts behind web services and showing you how to waiting for superman documentary develop web service with Axis2 using Different Approach (Code First and Contract First). Part 2 starts simply by developing a Hello User web Service with JAX-WS and then takes things a step further by showing an example of File Download web service(where client can download file from web service and store in its location)using MTOM with JAX-WS. It also shows how to element ne invoke web service from SAAJ Client. Part 3 simply shows how to develop a File uploading web service(where client can Upload file/attachment to adult development theory Web service) using Apache CXF supports for MTOM with XOP implementation.

This Tutorial series will describes the way of element, developing web service with different Web Service Engine like (Axis2,JAX-WS and CXF). Web services can be implemented using different application protocols like SOAP, XML, JSON, RESTful HTTP, and support various transport protocols like HTTP or JMS (Java Message Service). In order to for superman documentary summary create a Web service, you will need some tools. At a minimum, you will need some type of SOAP processing engine to parse the messages that are received and to element call the non formal education, functions or methods that the message indicates. Many products are on the market that provides this processing. The goal of every Web services development tool is to build a bridge between the SOAP processor and the business logic that is running on the server. Ne. Normally, this business logic is kept separate from the SOAP processing logic. In this Part 1 of the tutorial series you will learn how to develop a Credit Card Validation web service with Code first (Bottom up) approach and followed by Product Catalog web service development with Contract First(Top Down) Approach using Axis2.

In this tutorial, you will learn how to: Download and install the web servers (Tomcat), if it is not already installed, and make minor additions to waiting for superman documentary summary it to successfully implement the element ne, given examples. Download and install Axis2 engine to generate the Stubs as well as Service skeleton. Download and install Axis2 runtime environment into Tomcat for developing and pig heart, deploying web service (Credit Card Validation and Product Catalog). Developing POJO Client for the web service (Credit Card Validation) using Eclipse IDE. This tutorial assumes familiarity with some basic concepts of the Eclipse IDE, and basic understanding of web service architecture.

A web service is a network accessible interface to application functionality, built using standard Internet technologies. The web services that we see deployed on element the Internet today are HTML web sites. In these, the application services—the mechanisms for publishing, managing, searching, and retrieving content—are accessed through the pig heart diagram, use of standard protocols and element, data formats: HTTP and HTML. Client applications (web browsers) that understand these standards can interact with the application services to perform tasks like ordering books, sending greeting cards, or reading news. Because of the abstraction provided by the standards-based interfaces, it does not matter whether the application services are written in when, Java and the browser written in C++, or the application services deployed on a Unix box while the browser is deployed on element Windows. Web services allow for cross-platform interoperability in a way that makes the platform irrelevant. Interoperability is one of the key benefits gained from implementing web services. Java and Microsoft Windows-based solutions have typically been difficult to integrate, but a web services layer between application and client can greatly remove friction.

The web service, a very well known open technology standard provides a number of benefits as listed below: Increase competition among vendors, resulting in lower product costs. Ease transition from one product to another, resulting in lower training costs. Documentary. Increase the ability for parties to interoperate, resulting in lower maintenance costs. Ensure a greater degree of adoption and ne, longevity for ljmu referencing a standard.

A large degree of usage from the vendors and element, the users leads to a higher degree of acceptance. How do organizations move into web service. There are three main ways in which an organization can move into Web Services. These are as follows: Creating a new web service from ljmu referencing scratch (Contract First): The developer creates the ne, functionalities of the services as well as preparing a document to describe those services.

Exposing an existing functionality through a web service (Code First): Here, the functionalities of the development, service already exist. Only the service description needs to be implemented. Integrating web services from other vendors or business partners (Meet in the Middle): There are instances where using a service implemented by element ne another is more feasible than building from scratch. On these occasions, the organization will be required to integrate others' or even business partners' Web Services. The real utility of the Web Service concept is ljmu, present in the second and the third methods, which leads to other Web Services and applications that can be used in element, existing applications. Code first approach versus contract first approach. Code first (Bottom Up) approach allows you to reuse your investment by waiting documentary exposing your existing application. Credit Card System is an existing Application with Proven business value. Ne. Competitive pressure is when did confucius, moving Credit Card System to expose some of this business functionality Like (Credit Card Number Validation) as web service. The implementation class already exists, all that is element ne, needed is to create a WSDL and expose the class as web service. Contract First (Top Down) often termed as “Pure Approach” is the correct way to build new web service from scratch.

This Approach starts with the WSDL (the contract) by defining operation message and so forth. Then you build the endpoint interface and adult, finally the implementation class. Axis2 is built upon a modular architecture that consists of core modules and non-core modules. Element. The core engine is did confucius, said to be a pure SOAP processing engine (there is not any JAX-PRC concept burnt into element, the core). Ljmu Referencing. Every message coming into the system has to be transformed into element ne, a SOAP message before it is non formal education, handed over to the core engine. An incoming message can either be a SOAP message or a non-SOAP message (REST JSON or JMX). But at the transport level, it will be converted into a SOAP message. Element Ne. When Axis2 was designed, the following key rules were incorporated into the architecture to achieve a highly flexible and extensible SOAP processing engine: Separation of logic and state to provide a stateless processing mechanism. (This is because web services are stateless.) A single information model in order to enable the ljmu referencing, system to ne suspend and resume. Ljmu Referencing. Ability to extend support to ne newer web service specifications with minimal changes made to the core architecture.

The Apache Axis2 architecture is built on the foundation of a SOAP engine. This engine accepts SOAP messages, parses them, and calls the appropriate methods and functions in ljmu, the web service. At this level of detail, Axis is just like every other web services engine. The uniqueness of this product, and every other product, lies in element, how a developer would go about organizing the processing so that the message can be responded to properly. Example I – Credit card validation web service using AXIS2. This is a simple Credit Card Validation web service with Code First Approach, where user will input the when live, 16 digit credit card number to ne validate it and also to what is a find out the credit card vendor. To setup and run this example one need to know few things given below: Eclipse IDE: An integrated development environment (IDE) is an all-in-one tool for writing, editing, compiling, and running computer programs.

And Eclipse provides an excellent integrated development environment. You can find the latest release of eclipse in www.eclipse.org. Tomcat web server 5.5 or above: The Tomcat servlet engine is an open-source package developed as part of the Apache Software Foundation's Jakarta project. It is the ne, official reference implementation for referencing both the servlet and JSP specifications. Tomcat can act as a stand-alone Web server and also as a servlet/JSP engine.

You can download the latest release of Tomcat from http://tomcat.apache.org/download-60.cgi. (Binary Distribution): An Axis2 binary distribution consists of all the relevant third-party libraries, a set of element ne, samples, and the Axis2 runtime. Installing a binary distribution involves extracting ZIP archive files into a desired location. Once we download and extract the binary distribution, then we will be able to see a set of subdirectories inside it (bin, lib, samples, repository, webapp). (War distribution): The Axis2 WAR distribution is useful for deploying Axis2 in application servers such as Tomcat, Jboss, Weblogic, and so on. Pig Heart Diagram. We can deploy the Axis2 WAR file into an application server, and check whether it works by typing the server address in element ne, a browser. For an example, if you deploy the Axis2 WAR file in Apache Tomcat, by typing http://localhost:8080/axis2, we can figure out whether Axis2 is up and running. We can download the ljmu, latest Axis2 release from http://ws.apache.org/axis2/download.cgi.

Each Axis2 release consists of four main release artifacts or distributions: Binary distribution WAR distribution Source distribution JAR distribution. Install JDK 1.5 or above in your system. After downloading Axis2 file (war version) extract the zip file to any local directory. After extracting you will find axis2.war file. Copy the file and paste it to the TOMCAT_HOMEwebapp| directory, then start Tomcat. As shown in Figure 1. Tomcat startup console.

After this go the ne, TOMCAT_HOMEwebapps| directory, inside this you will find a new directory named axis2, which indicates that the axis2.war file is deployed successfully. Download and extract Axis2 binary Distribution to a directory, which will be referred as AXIS2_HOME. Developing a CreditCardservice and Deploying in Tomcat. Create a directory structure Axis2Example for ljmu our Credit Card Validation Web Service as shown below in Figure 1. Figure 1. Axis2Example Project Directory Structure. Create a CheckSEI.java interface with within the package com.ibm.axis2.ccheck as shown below.

Create a CheckCard.java class inside com.ibm.axis2.ccheck package as shown in Listing 2. Now create a services.xml file inside META-INF directory as shown in Listing 3. Now open the element ne, command prompt by typing cmd in START Run. See figure 2. Move to the directory ccheck and type javac *.java as shown below (in order to run javac command from the project directory (Axis2Example, you need to set JAVA_HOMEbin| to the Path of the user variable). Figure 3. Compile the CreditCard interface and class.

Now move to pig heart diagram Code First Service directory and type jar cvf CreditCardService.aar * as shown below to generate the aar file. (See Figure 4) Figure 4. Generate CreditCardService.aar file. Start tomcat and open browser by typing http://localhost:8080/axis2 and click on Administration. You need to provide the ne, default username: admin and password: axis2 to login as shown below in Figure 6. Figure 6. Login in Axis2 Administrator.

After sucessfully logging, click on Upload web service and the browse the CreditCardService.aar file in the Axis2Example|Code First Service directory and finally click on Upload (to sucessfully deploy the web service) as shown below in Figure 7. Figure 7. CreditCardService Uploading. Now click on Available Service or paste this link http://localhost:8080/axis2/axis2-admin/listService in the browser to is a dc motor find out the element, deployed CreditCard web service as shown below in Figure 8. Figure 8. CreditCard Service Deployment. Clink on the service to check the WSDL of the CreditCardService at http://localhost:8080/axis2/services/CheckCardService?wsdl. Open command prompt and referencing, move to the AXIS2_HOMEbin| directory and type the following command as shown in Figure 9. wsdl2java.bat -uri http://localhost:8080/axis2/services/CheckCardService?wsdl -o client. Figure 9. Stub generation for credit Card Service.

(You will find the stubs name : CheckCardServiceCallbackHandler.java, CheckCardServiceStub.java and ExceptionException.java are generated inside AXIS2_HOME|bin|src|com|ibm|axis2|ccheck| directory). Developing POJO Client for the CreditCardService. Create File New Java Project name Axis2Client in ne, Eclipse as shown in Figure 10. Figure 10. Axis2Client Java project in Eclipse. Create a package com.ibm.axis2.ccheck inside Axis2Client|src folder as shown in Figure 11. Figure 11. Create a Package for Axis2Client. Now Select the Axis2Client Project and Configure the non formal education, build path as shown below in Figure 12.

Figure 12. Configure Build Path for Axis2Client. Click on Add External JARs and select all the jars from AXIS2_HOMElib| and element ne, then click OK. Now copy the Generated Stubs and paste it in diagram, the com.ibm.axis2.ccheck package of the Axis2Client project as shown in Figure 13. Figure 13. Copy and Paste the generated Stubs. Now create a TestClient.java class inside the com.ibm.axis2.ccheck package as shown below. Select TestClient.java and Run As Java Application (Make sure Tomcat is running). Element. After running the TestClient, you will be prompted to enter your Credit card Number in the console as shown below: Figure 14. Enter Valid input and vendor in Console.

(Type your Number for example 5111111111111111 and then Press ENTER to get invalid input and what is a, valid vendor). Figure 15. Element Ne. Enter invalid input and valid vendor. (Type your Number which is not a credit card number, for example 51470965 and then Press ENTER to get invalid input). Example II - Developing Product Catalog Service with Contract First Approach using Axis2. This is a very simple Product Catalog web service with Contract First Approach, where user will input the ProductId Number to what is a dc motor find out the ne, desired Product Name in the Catalog. To setup and run this example one need to know few things given below: Ant: Apache Ant is a Java library and command-line tool who's mission is to drive processes described in build files as targets and extension points dependent upon waiting each other. The main known usage of Ant is the build of Java applications.

Ant supplies a number of built-in tasks allowing to element compile, assemble, test and run Java applications. Ant can also be used effectively to build non Java applications, for instance C or C++ applications. More generally, Ant can be used to pilot any type of process which can be described in when did confucius live, terms of element ne, targets and tasks. Development. We can download the Latest relase of ANT from http://ant.apache.org/bindownload.cgi.. Set ANT_HOMEbin| to the path of the user variable. (All other Environment setup is similar to Example-I). Create a file name product.wsdl inside AXIS_HOMEbin|wsdl| directory as shown below. Using the ne, tool AXIS2_HOME|bin|wsdl2java.bat , we will create the Skeleton and other supported files for pig heart this service. Element Ne. Open command Prompt and move to AXIS2_HOME|bin| and education, execute the following command. wsdl2java.bat –uri AXIS2_HOMEbinwsdlproduct.wsdl -d adb -s -ss -sd -ssi -o buildservice This will create an output named service inside AXIS2_HOME|bin|build| directory as shown below in Figure 17. Figure 17.

Service skeleton directory structure for Product catalog. The contents of target_directory_name are: In the element ne, above list, the non formal education, Java file named src|com|ibm|axis2|contract|ProductSkeleton.java is the one which is used to place our custom Business logic code. AutoGenerated ProductSkeleton java code. Listing 6. Autogenerated ProductSkeleton.java. Let us add our Business logic in the above class to implement our functionality. Listing 7. Element. Business Logic added in the ProductSkeleton.java. Now, its time to adult development build and element ne, test our web service implementation. Open command promt and move to AXIS2_HOMEbin|build|service| and type the diagram, following command as shown below. Figure 18. Build and element ne, Test with ANT.

The Above ANT build will create Product.aar file inside AXIS2_HOMEbin|build|service|build|lib| as shown below. Figure 19. ANT build directory structure and Product.aar file. Deploying the pig heart, web service to element ne Tomcat. The Steps for Deploying the Product.aar file is similar to CreditCardService deployment on tomcat. Start tomcat and open browser by typing http://localhost:8080/axis2 and click on Administration. (You need to did confucius provide the default username: admin and password: axis2 to login). After sucessfully logging, click on Upload web service and element, the browse the Product.aar file in the AXIS2_HOMEbin|build|service|build|lib| directory and finally click on Upload(to sucessfully deploy the web service). Now click on Available Service or paste this link http://localhost:8080/axis2/axis2-admin/listService in the browser to adult find out the deployed Product Service as shown below. Figure 20.

Product Service Deployment. You can check the WSDL of this Product web service at http://localhost:8080/axis2/services/Product?wsdl. In this tutorial you just learn to develope Code First and Contract First Approach web service with Axis2 in very short interval of ne, time. In the Part2 of this Tutorial series,you will learn to develope File Download web service with JAX-WS and consuming it with SAAJ client. The Apache Axis2 User's Guide provides a starting place for dc motor users who are new to ne Apache Axis2 as well as some advance topic such as how to use Axis2 to create and deploy Web services. View the Eclipse WTP Tutorials, demonstrating a Bottom Up Web Service via Apache Axis2.

Service-Oriented Architecture and Web Services: Concepts, Technologies, and Tools, on the Sun Developer Network describes some tools and technologies for Web services and SOA. Sign in or register to pig heart add and subscribe to comments.